Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) online

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Expence, - 1217 1 1

Profit, - - 664 18 11

It is here necefTary to be obferved, that
nothing in this calculation is overftretched.
The profit of the fheep is not near fo high
as what is made in many parts of the king-


tfom. The product of wheat, 3 quarters
fcr acre, is by no means high, for it is to
be coniidered, that it fucceeds very quickly ;
the turnips which are manured for, very
greatly ; and that it has all the fold of 800
fheep. I am confident no practical good
hufbandman will think me extravagant in
this product ; and the fame mull: be remarked
on the barley. The whole arable in this
courfe is fo much favoured, that the crops
cannot fail of being great : no two o£ com
come together ; and all the clover is not
fown with wheat ; only 60 acres out of 100,
fo that 40 are fown with turnips after the
clover. This, with the whole turnip land
being manured, 30 loads an acre, and the
fold of 800 fheep on the wheat, all together
unite to conftitute a farm much fuperior to
any management now (cen in Dorfetjl/ire.
If all thefe points are well confidered, it
will certainly be allowed that the whole
muft be in a conftant ftate of improvement ;
and the crops of all kinds foon become
much greater than I have fuppofed.
Profit of this management, £.664 *$ i : i
Ditto byflieep, including the fold, 228 if 11

■■I i. «

Superiority, - 436 7 o


From this comparifon it appears how
vaftly more profitable the management here
propofed is to that of this country ; the
fupcrioriiy, iti'clf, is near double the whole'
amount of the other : and I am very clear
that I have, upon the whole, much under-
laid the profit of the propofed improvements.

I mail in the next place calculate this
farm under the idea of improving, merely,
the general practice of this country, in
keeping as many fheep as pofTible on a
given fpace of land ; for which end, I am
confident, they cannot go the right way to
work in keeping fo much in grafs, and
growing fo few turnips.

Suppofe the farm divided thus.

Tons hay.

26 Acres water meadow, ? ,

f c - c • c mown,5>4

1 6 iaintoine, S T


80 Upland meadow, 1

65 Ditto,
330 Clover,
475 Pafture for 2375 fheep,

148 Turnips for ditto.
Here the whole 660 acres are applied to
raifing flieep feed, in the fame proportion



as in the calculation before given. This can-
not be effected without the arable being
alternately in turnips and clover ; the crops
rf both, in this way, cannot fail of being
yery great, from no exhaufting ones being
:>n the land. The axpences will be as fol-

VIowing, &c. &c. 42 acres of

hay, at 12/. - - £. 25 4 o

148 Acres of turnips,
J earths, at $s. JT. 1 1 1 o o
:>eed, fowing, and

harrowing, -440

rland-hoeing, 21 00

136 4 o

1 48 Clover feed, &c. &c. 7 s. 51 16 o

Irwo fhepherds, - 31 4 o

lent, &c. - - 402 17 1

Total expences, - 647 5 1


.375, at ioj. - - 1 187 10 o
Expences, - 647 5 1

Profit, - - 540 4 ir

)kto in the method now pur-
sued, - - 228 11 11

Superiority, ~ 311 13 o

Vol. III. A a I think


I think this account is fufficient to prove
that, upon the Dorfetjhire principle of
keeping as many fheep as poffible, they do
not take the proper means to attain the end
in view — they might evidently keep half as
many fheep again as they . do now, and
with greater profit, from the ample fupply
of winter food.

Thefe fheep I have fuppofed not to pay
fo much by 2 J 1 , a head as the others ; this
difference I make becaufe their after-grafs
feed is inferior. Refpecting the variations
in the profit, per head, I am certainly very

At prefent it is, - £.086

Improved fyftem, all fheep, 010

In a tillage courfe, - 012

This rife is very moderate.

I muft here obferve that the Dorfttjhirk
management of fheep is, in other refpects. rfr j
inferior to that of feveral parts of E?igland.
where they keep as many, or more than
have here fuppofed to a given quantity
land, and yet made from 12 s. to 20 s. ;
head. I do not think it by any mean
difficult to flate fuch a cafe: i$s. a hea
might certainly be made. Here they fel

2 thei






tlieir old ewes big, within a month or 6
rks of their lambing, at about 20s. fup-
This feems to be felling them at the
very time when they are coming into profit.
At S her born fair, in July, the wether
lambs, k year old, of this country, are fold
at about 10;. each. Suppofe them kept
hardly through the winter and fpring and
following fummer, folding them the whole
time, and then fattening the following
autumn and winter on the aftergrafs, tur-
nips and hay ; by this method they would
come to, at lcaft, 2JJ-. each; their wool to
3 .r. and a whole years folding : this is 1 8 s.
a head, profit, befides the fold ; and being
wethers, might be kept more in number
than the ewes. It is very evident that thi s
fyftem would prove much more profitable
than that at prefent followed here. I con-
verfed with feveral very fenfible people, on
J that point, and they allowed (winter fold
confidered) that fuch a conduct would prove
much more profitable.

Thus much on the fheep hufbandry of
thefe farmers. I may not be minutely ac-
curate in the preceding calculations; but I
am confident that I am not far from the
A a 2 truth ;


truth ; and it appears very clearly that their
management is extremely bad ; either with
a view to general improvements, which are
moft adviiable, or to the keeping as many
fheep as poflible on a given quantity of
land ; they are equally wide of both marks ;
nor would I have thefe remarks thought
the mere ideas of one individual ; this is
not the cafe ; what I propofe is the real
practice of the beft farmers of the kingdom ;
I therefore only recommend to Dorfetjhire^
what is practifed with fo great fuccefs in
other counties, where the idea of keeping
great flocks of fheep, without turnips,
would appear to the full as abfurd as I can
polTibly have expreffed.

Mr. Darner has executed fome improve-
ments of a very important kind ; he has
inclofed, grubbed, cultivated, and manured
78 acres of wade furze land, 1 8 of which
are laid down to lainfoine, and 60 thrown
into the common courle of hufbandry.
This improvement he has found very profit-
able, infomuch that he intends annually to
extend it until the whole 450 acres arc
brought into regular cultivation.



The introduction of fainfoine will, un-
doubtedly, be of admirable life ; thefe light
loamy hills on chalk, are perfectly adapted
to that grafs, and will yield fuch crops,
that no management of them can pay-
equally well.

In the culture of turnips alfo, Mr. Darner
is quickly advancing beyond the common
Dorfctfiire cufloms. He has 40 acres, and
fome of them hoed, and intends increafmg
the quantity, and to hoe his whole crop.
And for making the full advantage of his
turnip crops, he is now erecting a very
fpacious farm-yard, with a long range of
flails for fattening oxen on turnips ; and
for the purpofe of raifing the more dung,
he defigns chopping all his wheat ftubbles,
and carting them to the yard for littering
his ftalls, which practice he has begun this

Hollow draining in a piece of low
fpringy land of 40 acres, he has lately
practifed with very great fuccefs — Thefe
are all objects of importance, and can-
not fail of having that effect which their
worthy executor moft wifhes — improving
A a 3 the


the agriculture of an extenfive neighbour-,
hood. *

About Milbourn St. Andrew's, the feat
of Edmund Moret 'on Pleydell, Efq. the huf-
bandry is not very materially different
from the nearer neighbourhood of Dor-

chejier ;

* Mr. "Darner has erected at Came one of the
bell houfes in It is from his own plan,
and is equally convenient and agreeable, fiate
XXVI. fig. 3. reprefents the principal floor, from
which it appears that the apartments are perfectly
well connected, and that the rooms are of a good

The hall is handfomely fitted up in plain
ftucco. In it is a picture of Prometheus, by
Michael Angela Caravaggio, in which the expref-
fion is very great but horrible.

The faloon is elegantly fitted up ; the
door cafes, window frames, pannels, cornice,
&c. carved and gilt ornaments on a light le -.d
colour. The door cafe into the hall is extremely
light; the cornice is fupported by Corinthian
fluted pillars : the whole very neatly executed.
The deling a gilt trailing on a light lead colour.
An eagle in the center darts lightening of gold
from behind a blaze of white inclofed in an or-
namented ob'ong, and within as light and
elegant a fcroll as I have feen. The room is
hung with very handfome tapeftry, reprefenting
the hiftory of Diogenes, in four pieces : the co-
lourins; ftrong and lively. The chimney piece



chefter\ they are chiefly fheep farms; in
general about 150/. to 250/. a year; and
the average rent ioj. From hence to
Blandford 8 s.
The courfe of crops,

1. Wheat 4. Ray and hop-

2. Barley clover, fed three

3. Oats years.

A a 4 And

of llatuary marble ; the cornice fupported by-
terms : in the center of the frieze a tablet, Alex-
ander crowning Roxava ; a has relievo, very well
executed •, and on each fide a wreath of flowers.
TheglafTes, flabs, fofa's, &c. are richly executed.

The drawing room is hung with crirnfon da-
mafk : the cieling ornamented in the fame ilile
as the other. The chimney piece extremely
elegant; white marble ornaments on a ground
of Siena : over it a picture of dancing beys, by
Rubens, incomparably fine : the brilliancy and
delicacy of the colouring, winch is harmony
itfelf — the relief of the figures, and their moft
agreeable exprefilon, render the whole piece
quite captivating. I never faw a more pleafing
picture by this mailer.

Over the chimney in the dining-rcom is a very
fine Morellio : it is a lad fearful of lofing his
cake by a negro, who is advancing to him. The
unaffected nature and fimpliciry of the figures
are great — their attitudes eafy ; and the colours

In the attick {lory are nine bedchambers and


And fome few fow wheat on a broad clover
lay only one year old. Wheat produces
2 quarters, barley 3 quarters, oats 3 quar-
ters. Their clover wheat they find much
better after mowing twice, once for hay,
and once for feed, than after feeding through
the year.

About Mdcomb) fome wheat is fown on
fummcr fallow, on four-feet ridges, and
they have a management that does them
honour : it is (hovelling all the furrows,
and throwing the earth on the ridges,
which is to deepen the furrows, to make
them the better drains, and at the fame
time to raife the ridges. The fields thus
finiflied have a moft neat appearance, that
muft pleafe every fpeclator.

The farm-yard management of manure
is equally bad with the neighbourhood of
Came. Chalk they ufe in large quantities,
lay So loads an acre, a ton each, on new
broken-up land; it lafts 20 years; they
reckon it kills the roots of the furz, and
that it would yield fcarcely any .crops if not
chalked : the foil is a light loam on chalk.

The following are the particulars of
3 the


flie farm Mr. P ley dell keeps in his own


500/. Rent 80 Ray-grafs, &c.

902 Acres

15 Sainfoine

467 Grafs

40 Clover

255 Arable 1

340 Sheep

160 Down

20 Cows

70 Meadow

25 Young cattle

174 Ewe leafe

25 Swine

63 Cow leafe

1 Hories *

20 Plantations ••

3 Men

40 Wheat

1 Boy

40 Barley

8 Labourers.

40 Oats

I again made en qui

.ries into the profit


/heep: Mr. Pleydell\

flock, as above,


j 340, confifting of,

900 Ewes,

40 Rams,

320 Hogs,

80 Pur-hogs



His annual fale is,

300 Old rwes,

XT- 315 °

390 Lambs, at \os.

J 95 °

Carry over,


* And eighty deer.


Brought over, JT. 510 o 9

Ewes wool, 130 weight, each

31 lb. at 20s. - - 130 o o

Lamb's wool, 30 weight, at 10s. 30 o o

Total, -> 670 o o

Exactly 10 s. a head.

As the deer, cows, horfes, and hogs,
have the fame pafture as the fheep, it is
requifite to value the whole. The follow-
ing is Mr. Pleydell's account.

Sheep, - - L- b l°

Cows, - 70

Swine, - 15

Deer, equal to 160 fheep, 80

Horfes, 40

Total receipt, - §75

Which fum is the product of,


Ewe leafe,


Cow ditto,



Ray, clover, and fainfoine,






Six hundred and feventy-five acres yield-
ing a product of 670/. is at the rate of



1 9 j\ iO(/, per acre. The account per

acre will therefore ltand thus.

Sheep, product, - >C*^7° ° °

Fold; they go once over 30

acres, worth they lay, 30 o o

Total, - 700 o o

N. B. They efteem the fummer fold of
but little confequence ; much of this 30
acres not worth 20/. but the Michaelmas
part of it being more, raifes the average to
the fum.
700/. from 675 acres, is per

acre, - - £. 1 o 9

Deduct expences.
Rent is - 0126

Sundries, fuch as

fhepherd, tillage,

feed, hay-making,

fences, &c. 026

Tythe and rates, 026

o 17 6

Profit, - o 3 3

Such is the profit here made by fheep!
Can it be neceflary to make a counter
eftimate of what this land would produce,
if it was thrown into an advantageous



courfe of crops ? There can be no occafion ;
it muft ftrike every reader, the leaft con,
verfant in thefe matters, that the advantage
would be infinitely fuperior. I minuted
down the expences and produce of Mr.
YleydelVs arable land, under its prefent
courfe, and the clear profit per acre per
■annum is I2.r. 3^/.; very bad hufbandry
therefore is four times over more beneficial,
than that worft management of all, their

The reafon the profit by fheep is here
fo very low is, the want of turnips. I am
furprifed they can make any profit at all
by that animal without green winter food.

The following is the account of another
Hock at Milbourn : it confifts of,
720 Ewes,
250 Hogs,
30 Rams.


The annual fale,

240 Old ewes, at 1 5 j - . £. 180 o o

300 Lambs, at js.6d. - 112 10 o

750 Wool, at 20</. - 62 o o

250 Hogs, ditto, at is. $d, 18 15 o

Carry over, - 373 5 °


Brought over, £. 373 5 o

With them run
.10 Cows, - - 50 o o

20 Heifers, - - 1000

N. B. There is not the more
land allowed on account of thefe.

















If all the flocks of the county were taken,
the refult would be various ; but all tending
to prove, that vaft fums of money are
annually loft here by fheep. The Norfolk
farmers would in this country make ten
times the profit that its own inhabitants


* Mr. Pkydell has ornamented Milbourn with
tafle : the lawns about the houfe. wave over the



From Milbourn to Milton abbey ', . the
country is all inclofed, and the foil pretty
good : for the following account of the
hufbandry about the latter place, I am
indebted to the very obliging attention of
Lord Milton.

Farms vary from 150/. to 700/. a year.

The average rent is 8 s. bd. an acre.
The courfe of crops is the common Dorfet
round of,

1. Wheat 4. Ray-grafs and

2. Barley hop-clover, three

3. Oats years.

Wheat yields on an average 2 quarters
per acre, barley 3, and oats 3 quarters 3
bufhels: they have fcarcely any turnips.

In their manuring, the fheep fold is the
principal dependance : they chop no bub-
bles ; but flack fome of the hay at home :
chalk they lay on new land, 60 loads an

o acre ;

hills very agreeably, and they are prettily fpotted
with clumps and icattered trees. On the top of
the higheft hill is a Roman camp very entire ; x.\\e.
area is filled with a plantation of firs, and in the
centre is a handfome obeliik, which has a very
good effect when viewed from the houfe, and
the other parts of the grounds. The country
around is fine.


acre; 5 horfes and 3 men will carry 10
loads a day half a mile, which comes to
I s. 4-d. a load.

Their frocks of fheep rife from 400 to
1700: the Dorfeijhire fyftem continues >
of courfe the profit is contemptible: they
do not allot more than 2 fheep to an acre
of all forts of grafs, which is upon the
whole fuch a poor flock, that it muff be
owing to the want of turnips ; they are
obliged to let the flocks eat down the young
fpring moot as faff as it rifes, which utterly
deftroys the product of the enfuing crop.
They ftate the average circumflances of a
flock of 1000 ew r es in the following man-

320 Old ewes, fold at 16 s. £. 256 o o
500 Lambs, at 6s. - 150 o o

Ewes wool 100 weight, at 19 s. 95 o o
Lamb's ditto, at 19/. - 35 12 6

Folding 30 acres, - 30 o o

Grofs product, 566 12 6

From which is to be deducted all ex-
pences of rent, tillage for grafs, feeds, hay-
making, fhepherd, ccc.

They fold them during fummcr for

wheat ;


wheat ; and the wethers in winter for

Throughout this country they have as
vile a management of the dung they make
in their yards, as can be conceived. They
carry it on to the land for wheat, in 'June
or July-, and let it lie on the furface till
wheat fowing, fpread to every beam of
the whole fummer's fun ; and moft excellent
dung it mufh certainly be by that time
they plough it in. This is to the full as
barbarous as the wild Irijh burning their
dunghills, in order to come at their virtue.

The dairies here are all let at about 4 /.
a cow, for which the dairy-man has not
only the cows, but alfo the farm yard
for his fwine, and likewife the keeping of
a mare and colt.

In their tillage they reckon 6 horfes
necefiaryfor 100 acres of arable land; ufe
4 in a plough, and do an acre a day, 5
inches deep ; the price js. 6d.

There are many large copfes here, which
are reckoned to pay from 8 /. to 12/. per
acre, at 14 years growth.

Land tax at 4-r. is fc'jii and poor rates 2 f.


Particulars rf a farm.

1800 Acres in all 30 Wheat

180 Arable 30 Barley

1620 Grafs 30 Oats

700/. Rent 90 Ray-grafs

1700 Sheep 2 Men

8 Horfes 2 Boys

8 Draft oxen 2 Maids »

30 Cows 10 Labourers.

60 Young cattle

Lord Milton keeps a very large farm in

his own hands : the particulars of it will

mew that he is one of the moft considerable

farmers in this country.

3000 Acres in all.

1000 Wood.

500 New plantations.

1380 Grafs and fainfoine.

120 Arable.

800 Ewes, ")

300 Wethers, (

TT I T 43°«

300 Hogs, I ^ J

30 Rams, -*

6 Horfes.
23 Cows.
His lordfhip being very juftly ftruck
with the trifling advantage reaped from th e
tommon methods purfued in this country,
Vol. III. B b has

n —


has aimed at two points in particular: firft,
to introduce fainfoine for the chalk hills
under the perfuafior of its yielding a much
greater profit than the prefent application .
and fecondly, to bring in the practice of hoe
ing turnips. Theie two points he has con.
dueled in a very judicious manner : he
has fown a large field with fainfoine, and
prepared the land fo thoroughly well by
repeated ploughing and harrowing, that he
got it perfectly free from weeds, that a
failure might not be attributed by the fafJ
mers to a fault in the grafs itfelf, which
would have been their idea, had the error
been fowing it on foul land. It has fuc-
ceeded {o well as to yield above half a ton
of hay per acre the very firft year, which
is fufficient to fhew that full fuccefs will
attend the experiment, and the ftrongeft
proof in a few years gained, that this ex-
cellent grafs would pay ten times more
profit, than the farmers make from their
ufual management, which is to leave their
hills in fheep-walks, and flock them with
two fheep/>6T acre.

In the introduction of turnip hoeing,
even on his own farm, fomc difficulties



were found : his men, unufed to the cul-
ture, did not approve a refinement on it.
This patted for fome time ; but this year
his lordfhip ordered half a field to be hoed,
and the other half left to grow in the Dor-
fetjhire manner : the bailiff is converted,
and now owns that fome good may be had
by turnip hoeing. A continuation of this
conduct can fcarcely fail of rendering the
practice common.

As lord Milton is defirous of keeping
a large flock of £heep, not fo much with a
view to profit as the beauty of his lawns.
which are very extenfive, he defigns a flock
of wethers only, for the fake of a conftant
fold on his new-laid grounds ; and as his
arable is difproportioned to the quantity
of his grafs, he propofes trying turnips
•every year on it: 120 acres of that root
will be of noble utility, and, with fuch an
extent of paflure, will prove much more
profitable than any corn crops. But here
I cannot help recommending to his lordfhip
the culture of the great Scotch cabbage,
which will yield much more food than
turnips, and of a more valuable kind; par-
ticularly for fheep, as it will laft fo late
B b 2 in


in the fpring, as to carry them on till the
grafs has a full bite for them, or the ioth
or 1 2 th oiMay.

The public is not a little indebted to
this nobleman for attending with fo much
propriety to the improvement of the hus-
bandry of DorfetJJjire ; and the method he
has taken for effecting fo patriotic a view,
deferves the fincere applaufe of its welL
wifhers. *

I returned

* Lord Milton is making many improve-
ments at Milton-abbey, of the moll ftriking kind,
which will fo happily unite with the natural
beauty of the grounds, as to render the whole
uncommonly fine.

The great peculiarity of the place is a remark-
able winding valley, three miles long, fur-
rounded on every fide by hills, whofe variety is
very great. It is all lawn ; and, as the furface
has many fine fvvells, and other gentle inequa-
lities, the effect is every where beautiful.
The hills, on one fide, are thickly covered with
wood, from the edging cf the vale itfelf, quite
fpreading over the tops of the hills : thefe con-
tinued fweeps of hanging woods are very noble.
In fome places they form bold projections, that
break forward in a great ftile : in others, they
withdraw, and open fine bofoms of wood,
which arc as picturefque as can eafily be ima-


I returned weftward from Dorchejicr
towards Bridport, pafling through the very
remarkable farm of Mr. Hardy, a few miles
from Dorchejler : it is the largeft in Dorfet-
fizrc, and confifts of the following par-

1 1000 Acres in all 60 Horfes

1600 Arable 16 Draft oxen

9400 Grafs and 200 Cows

down 300 Young cattle

3000/. Rent 13000 fheep

50 Watered 100 Swine

meadows 40 Fat beads

200 Wheat 1 Man

400 Barley 1 Boy

300 Oats 2 Maids

300 Turnips 200 Labourers.

400 Broad clover

gined. Throughout the whole, the union of
lawn and wood is admirable.

On the other fide the vale, the hills are partly
bare; but are clumped with new plantations,
and {battered with iingle trees and thorns, con-
trafting the continued woods on the oppofne
hills, in the boldeft manner. The riding that
furrounds the amphitheatre rifes the hill on this
fide, and, fkirting the edge of it in the way to
the houie, looks down on the vale, and K^s a
full command of the vaft range of wood, which
B b 3 han^


The flock of 13000 fheep confifts of,

5000 Ewes 2 ceo Wethers

4000 Lambs 2000 Hogs.

And the annual produce is,

20CO Lambs, at 10 s. bd. £. 1050 o 2

2500 Old ewes, at2iJ. 2625 o o

1200 Wethers, at2n. 1260 o o

Wool, - - 1520 o o

Total - - 6455 o o

hang on the other fides of the other hills. One
of the views is uncommonly fine : it is a pro-
jection of the oppofite hill ; the Hoping bend
fringe' with a filleting of wood, and the crown
of the hill a lawn icattered with fingle trees
gently hanging to the eye : a landfcape truly

In other places, you look down fteep wind-
ing hollows, in which romantic clumps of wood

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 17 18 19

Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 15 of 19)