Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) online

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1. Beans 2. Wheat.

Mr. Hilton, of the y^/V^j/ farm, has, for
many years, had a confiant fuccefiion in
this courfe : the foil a fine, rich, deep
loam : the beans drilled in equally-diftant
rows, 1 8 inches afunder : the crops all
very great; but the land is richly ma-

They plough but once for wheat, after
either clover or beans ; fow two and a half
or three bufhels an acre, and reckon the
average produce at four quarters per acre;
they rife to five. Mr. Smith, of Fever-
foam, had, in 1739, fix quarters and two
bufhels per acre, over fixty acres of land.
For barley they plough thrice, fow three
bufhels in April ; the mean crop five quar-
ters, from four to fix : they ftir two or



three times for oats ; fow 3 or 3 § bufhels ;
the average crop 6 quarters; 10 are often
gained. For peafe they plough but once ;
drill 4 bufhels an acre, in rows equally
diftant, 18 inches afunder; hand-hoe
thern once or twice at 3 s. each time ;
the crop 2 to 5 quarters ; 3 {- the average.
For beans they ftir but once ; drill 3 \
bufhels an acre ; the rows 1 8 inches afunder ;
hand-hoe them once or twice ; and horfe-
hoe them with a fhim two or three times— -
this to both peafe and beans ; and after all
thefe operations, they earth up the rows
with a round iron fixed on the fhim. See
the Six Months Tour, Vol. I. The average
product is 5 I quarters per acre ; the crops
rife from 5 to 7.

They plough thrice for turnips ; hand-
hoe them once ; and feed all off with fheep ;
the value per acre, from 20/. to 3/. Their
clover they mow twice for hay ; and get 3 \
loads at the two cuttings.

At fome diftance from the town much
fainfoine is fown ; it does not laft above 7
or 8 years, and they get from 1 to 2 loads
of hay an acre, and an after-grafs of 5/.
*-»-the hay 241. a load out of the field.



Lucerne has been tried here ; three acres
were fown broad-caft alone in the fprin£
of 1766, on an old hop ground at 50 s, an
acre; it was mown in Augnjl, when the
produce was but fmall ; the after-grafs was
fed with cows ; the product of the whole
year not worth more than 1 5 s. an acre.

This year it was mown twice for hay,
and yielded at both, about 2 loads ; calcu-
lated at 2 1 .f . ; after which it was cut once
for foiling cows ; the value of which ioj,
an acre.


Cut thrice this year alfo ; the firft cutting
3 loads of hay an acre ; the fecond 2 loads ;
and the third for foiling cows, worth 15 s,
an acre.

1769, 70.

The fame as in 1768. No cleaning in
all this time, nor wanted any.
In 1768, 9, and 70, the crop

5 loads hay, - - £,550
Cdw feeding, - - o 1 5 Q

Total per acre, * 600



But this valuation of the hay appears to
be prepofterous ; the price at which it fells
at Chalk, mentioned above, of 3/. a load,
feems much nearer the mark; at that rate
it would ■ .-,

$ Loads, - - £. 15 o o
After- grais, - - o 15 o

*5 *5 °

Carrots have been cultivated with fuccefs
by Mr. Hilton above-mentioned. In 1768
he prepared an acre of rich deep land for
madder, but fowed it with carrots ; he kept
them clean by hand-hoeing; the crop
turned out 17 waggon loads an acre, as
much as 4 horfes would draw, tops excluded :
I enquired particularly into the meaiure of
the waggons ; but they could not tell me the
number of bufhels ; but 4 horfes will with
eafe draw 80 bufhels ; fuppofe however only
/So bufhels; the crop then is 1020 bufhels
per acre.
Say 1000 bufhels at 1 s. ,-Co° ° o

Rent, (iippofe - - £.4. o o

Ploughing, - - - 100

Carry over, - 500


Bron glit ever, - £.$ o o
Harrowing, {eed and fowing, o 10 o
Hoeing, fuppofe - 20


Taking up, - - ? 1 io o


1000 Bufhels, - 50 o o

Expences, - - 900

Profit,, - *• 41 o o

And I know from experience that they
are worth this price in feeding any cattle :
but fuppofe they pay but (yd. a bufTiel;
what a prodigious acquisition is 25/. an
acre from an ameliorating crop that pre-
pares fo well for any thing elfe ? Mr. Hil-
ton applied them to feeding all his horfes
inftead of oats ; and met with the utmoft
fuccefs in that ufc of them.

In refpect to manuring about Fcverfhamy
fome fheep are folded ; and lime is pretty
much ufed; they lay 160 bufhels per acre,
at $d. a hufhel ; it lafls two or three years,
and is attended with great advantage, both
on wet foils, and alio fands : They alio find
3 a very


a very great improvement from mixing
chalk with dung and earth. They do not
chop their (nibbles ; but they aim at the
lame effect by horie-raking them, and cart-
ing home to the farm-yard for dung. Their
hay is all {lacked at home.

In draining they have made fome profi-
ciency : covered drains are well known
about Luddenham ; they fill them up wich
bufhes, and find the improvement uncom-
monly profitable, though executed at the
expence of 4/. an acre.

The new white-thorn hedges they plafh
in a very neat and ftrong manner ; but it
is not fo general as it ought to be.

Grafs land lets at 20/. an acre; it is
chiefly ufed for iheep ; they flock at the
rate of 3 or 4 to the acre ; the fort, Rtm-
ney-tnarjh ones without horns, about 28/f.
a quarter. Cows give 5 gallons of milk a
day, or 1 o or 11 lb. of butter a week ; the
total product per cow, 7 J. Mr. Crowe of
Feverfiam has made 10/. a cow; not by
felling milk, but from butter and calves.
They keep 2 hogs to a cow. A dairy-maid
will manage 12 cows. Their winter food
is hay, while milked ; flraw when dry.



Many fheep are fattened here; chiefly
the Romney breed without horns. Thefe
give 6 to 8$. of wool per fleece; but the
Wiltfoire ones not more than 3 lb. ; and the
price of both forts the fame.

In their tillage they reckon 6 horfes ne-
ceffary to 100 acres of ploughed ground ;
they ufe 4 in a plough ; and do from an
acre to 1 I per day ; go 5 inches deep ; the
price js. The keeping a horfe they efti-
mate at 8 /. a year ; but the total expencc,
decline of value included, at 15/. a year.

They do not cut ftraw into chaff. "

They break up their flubbles as foon as
wheat fowing is over. Only turnwreft
ploughs uied.

In hiring farms they reckon three rents
neceffary to flock.

Land fells at 25 years purchafe. Tythe*
are chiefly gathered. Poor rates from 3^
to 4J. in the pound. Twenty years ago
they were not half fo much.


In harveit, 2 s. 6d.

In hay time and winter, 1 s, 6 J.

Reaping, £s. 6d. to ioj.



Mowing corn., 2 s.

—* grafs, 2 s. 6 d. to 3 s.

— making and cocking, 6 x.

Hoeing turnips, 6j". to js.

beans and peafe, 2 J. 6//. to 3j\.

Plaining a hedge, 3^.
Thrafhing wheat, 1 s. 8 </. to 2 j.

• ■ » barley, oats, peafe, and beans, 1 /.

Head-man's Wages, 10/. to 12/.

Next ditto, 9/.

Lad's, 6/.

Maid's, 3/.

Women per day in harveft and hay-time, I J*

In winter, 8 d.

At hops, by the great, Sd. to is. bd.

£rice of labour not raifed.


All exactly regulated by the London mar-
Houfe^rent, 5 ox. to 3/.

The following are the particulars of
farms here.

180 Acres in all 84 Wheat

£. 200 Rent 84 Beans

8 Acres Hops 5 Men

4 Meadow 1 Boy


2 Maids 4 Cows

4 Labourers 4 Young cattle '

12 Horfes 25 Swine,

Another :

160 Acres in all 10 Horfes

£. 100 Rent 4 Cows

4 Acres Mead 3 Young cattle

50 Wheat 20 Swine

50 Barley 5 Men

50 Beans 1 Boy

2 Clover 2 Maids

4 Hops 4 Labourers.

Mr. "Jacob of Feverfiam has formed feve-
ral very fine plantations of cheftnuts. He
began in 1766 with planting 6 acres; the
foil a light gravelly loam ; poor ; not worth
more than 4/. an acre ; it was an old broom
cover : he firft grubbed and then fallowed
it a year, and planted at Chriflmas.
Grubbing the broom, - £.900
Digging, planting, and plough-
ing, - - - 28 16 o

37 l6 °

The cheftnut plants $s.per 100, and 65a
to an acre.



It was fet with rows of red willow for
hop poles, 8 feet fquare, and between
every willow in the rows, a Spamfi cheftnut.
Nuts were firft fet, but they being deftroyed
by mice, the land was replanted with fets
of 1 and 2 years old. The whole planta-
tion was kept quite clean from weeds, with
a four pronged hand-hoe, at a confiderable
expence. The appearance of the whole
very favourable : The cheftnuts are 4 feet
high ; the willows have been cut down,
and are now growing for poles, for which
they will be ready to cut in 10 years growth.

In 1769, fourteen acres more were
planted with willows and cheftnuts in the
*ame manner.

In 1766, twelve acres of ftiff ftoney land
were planted with young am, 6 feet fquare,
at 3 feet high : cut them down in four
years ; the product a few faggots. They
are now growing for hop poles ; they are
in two years growth from 5 to 1 2 feet high.

For hop poles the cheftnut is moft pre-
ferred j they are better than aih ; will
yield 40^. per hundred.

Next are the afh and red willow, which
are equal : the price of thefe 3 o s. an hundred*

Vol. III. D Th e


The alder is not worth more than 15J.
the beech is alfo bad, though rather pre-
ferable to the alder. 3000 poles will grow
on an acre. That number, at 40 s. comes
to 60/. an acre.

Planted woods for poles, of afh or red
willow, will yield 30/. an acre, on an ave-
rage, in ten years.

Mr. Jacob tried hops alfo for fourteen
years ; and, on an average of thofe years,
found his accounts to run as follows.

Rent, - - JT. 3 10 o

Digging, - 1 o o

Poling, '- - o 10 o

Poles, - 600

Tying, - • o 10 o

Hoeing twice or thrice, 010 o

Hilling, - - 050

Picking, - -300

Drying, at 6 j. a C wt. - 300
Duty, - - 4 10 o

Bags,, four, - - 100

Total, - 23 15 o



to C.wt. at 3/. - £. 30 o o

Expences, - * 23 15 o

Profit, - * 650

The products varied from nothing to

18 C. wt. : he once had 18 C. wt. at 5/.

per C. wt. or 90/. an acre. Mr. Jacob's

planting is a public fpirited undertaking

that does him real honour.

Mr. Crowe of Fever/ham has made feve-
ral very fuccefsful experiments in madder.
The following is in general his method of

The foil he chufes is a rich, deep, black
mould : a rich fand excellent ; but the true
hop-foil the right fort. His rent 4/. an

He begins the tillage at Michaehnas^
ploughing it till quite clean at the common
depth. The beginning of May he trench-
ploughs it 9 inches deep, harrows it fine,
and plants the end of May, or the begin-
ning of June^ chufing dry weather. He
throws the land into fpaces of 5 £ feet
over ; half of which is a bed, and half an
alley : on each bed he fets four rows of
madder, the plants one foot afunder. In
D 2 this


this manner 30,000 plant an acre ; tht

price 10 s. per thoufand. No manure


If the weather is quite dry, he always

dips the plants in mud that flicks to them ;

two boys will dip for ten or twelve men ;

the mud flicks to the fibres, and he has

found it to anfwer greatly in a dry feafon.

After planting, he hand-hoes the rows

thrice, and keeps the intervals clean with

the (him.

As foon as the ftalks are withered, he

digs the alleys two fpits wide, and raifmg

the earth, fpreads it on the beds, burying

the madder haulm.

In the fpring following the beds are
raked, and all the lumps of earth levelled ;
after which the rows are cleaned by hoeing
and hand-picking. In autumn, one fpi t
is dug at bottom of the alleys, with which
the ftalks when withered are buried as
before ; and in the fpring following raked
again. In the fummer, kept clean by
weeding and hoeing.

At Michaelmas the crop is dug up, to the
depth of two fpits ; the firft with a pronged
fpade, and the fecond with the common



fpade. The firft fet of diggers pick their
own earth ; but children follow the fecond,
fet and pick after them. His crops have
rifen to 18 C. wt. per acre. Mr. Hilton
alfo had 18 C. wt. laft year, for which Mr.
Crow paid him 70 guineas an acre, and
was himfelf at the expence of manufac-

The drying cofts 6/. a C. wt. It re-
quires more time than hops ; but a larger
quantity can be laid on the kiln at once.

In refpecT: to drawing the plants, Mr.
Crowe drew 50,000 from one acre the
fecond fpring, and 120,000 from the fame
acre the third fpring, which he fold at
10 j. per thoufand ; and this acre is planted
on the fide of another, from which none
have been drawn, that the difference of
the crop may be {een. But, as he appre-
hends the damage by drawing to be con-
fiderable, he has planted feveral acres at
Michaelmas from the crop taken up. In
this method, he finds they take much furer,
not failing through drynefs of the feafon .
and that he might know how much he
diminifhed his crop by this way, he dried
D 3 a thou-



a thoufand plants, and the weight waa
only 2 lb. confequently an acre takes but
60 lb. which is only half a C. wt. or
il. $s. at 4/. jo j. per C. wt. whereas,
if they are drawn in the fpring from
another crop, the damage he apprehends
to be much more confiderable.

He has tried dung on a part of an acre,
and it has given the plants a very luxuriant

For the manufacturing the crop, he has
invented a horfe-mill for grinding, which
has anfwered fo well, that he has large
quantities fent from London to grind : he
laft year ground three thoufand pounds
worth from thence.

Mr. Crowe does not think it impoffible
to raife 30 C. wt. on an acre ; but is very
clear that he {hall get to 25 C, ivt. His
plantations have been,

In 1766 — one acre.

In 1767 — two acres.

In 1768 — three.

In 1769-^three,

In 1770^— ten.

And intends in 1 771 —forty,

z The

4 !



The expenccs per acre he

: has


as u. ier,

- >,ji j...,-.

Three ploughings,




Trench ditto, -








Mudding and planting,




Plants, fuppofe




Three hand-hoeings,




Horfe-hoeing alleys,




Digging the alleys and raking i






Rent and tythe,




Second year.

Three hand-hoeings,




Digging and raking,




Rent, &c.




Third year.




Digging up,




Rent, &c.




Drying 18 C.wt. at 6 s.








D 4 Produce.



1 8 C. wt. at 4/. 10 j. - £.81 o o

Expences, - - 39 13 6

Profit, - - 41 6 6

Or per acre per ann. - 13 15 6

Another crop.


As above, - - 39 13 6

Drawing plants, - I 10 q

Total, - - 41 3 6

16 C. wt. at 4/. ioj-. - 72 o

170,000 plants, at ioj. 85 o o


per ann.

157 °
4 1 3



115 16


Or per acre

38 12













Plants deducted it will be,
Produd, - - £. 72 o o



Or per acre per ann.

All thefe accounts carry the profit of
madder much higher than that of hops :
the laft of 72 /. produd is not a fair one,
as the crop fuftained the damage of draw-
ing 1 70,000 plants from it ; the amount
of which damage, were it known, fhould
be added to the produd:.

It is extremely evident from thefe trials,
that whoever poflefTes fuch a rich, deep
foil, may apply it to a much greater profit
by madder than by hops, and infinitely to
more benefit than is poflible by common

Carrots however exceed it. The above
inferted trial yielded a profit of 41/. per
acre in one year.

This in three years is, - 123 o ©
Whereas the madder is only, 41 6 6

Superiority, - - 81 13 6


And that carrots may be raifed with
encreafing fuccefs three years running on
the fame land, I have had particular ex-

Mr. Crowe having entered into this cul-
ture with fpirit and fuccefs, it is to be
hoped that he will continue in it :— the
progrefs he makes, will certainly be of very
great public fervice.

You mult here allow me to conclude

Your's, &c.



PASSING through Canterbury I en-
tered with much eagernefs a country
which I had long heard was famous for its
husbandry, viz. eaft Kent and the ifle of
c Thanet. The route I took was to go to
Beak/bourne — Addijham — Wingham— St,
Nicholas in the ifland — Margate — Minjier
<— and then to Sandwich, &c. which I was
informed would be the tour of the beft cul-
tivated part of all Kent.

From Canterbury to Beak/bourne and
Houlets, the feat of Sir Thomas Hales, Bart.
the foil is in general good, with fome
hop grounds. In that neighbourhood, the
land in the low grounds is a deep rich
loam ; but on the hills it is light on chalk :
the former let at 20 s. an acre; the latter
from 2s.6d, to 8j, ; average 6 s. Farms
rife from 20/. a year to 200 j in general
from 70/. to 100/.

The courfe of crops moft common is,
j . Beans drilled ; and manured for with
50 or 60 loads an acre as far as the



yard dung, and mixed with mould,
will go.

2. Wheat

3. Barley.

If clover is introduced, it then continues

4. Summer fallow 7. Clover

5. Wheat 8. Wheat.

6. Barley

They plough but once for wheat ; fow
2. \ or 3 bufhels an acre; the crop 3 to
5 quarters ; average 3 \ . Their tillage
for barley is to baulk the land in au-
tumn ; which is an half ploughing, about
4 inches deep. In fpring they ftir it a
little below the former depth, by which
means the land breaks up whole furrow ;
after this they plough again, if they have
time, and then plough and fow. — That
autumnal half earth, of 4 inches, is vile
hufbandry. In all tillage the firft ploughing
ought to be the deepefl.

The quantity of barley feed three bufhels ;
and the crop about 3 § quarters.

For oats they plough but once ; never
more than twice when fown inflead of bar-
ley; fow 4 bufhels an acre, and gain 4



quarters. They alfo plough but once for
peafe ; drill them all ; 3 bufhels an acre,
in rows equally diftant, 20 inches ; they
hand-hoe them once, and horfe-hoe with
the fhim twice. The crop 3 \ quarters per
acre. For beans they plough but once ;
and either drop the feed by hand, or drill
it in rows equally diftant, 20 inches ; they
hand-hoe once, and fhim twice. The crop
from 3 to 7 quarters ; average 5. All the
peafe and beans have been regularly drilled
thefe fifty years.

In fome vale farms, where the foil varies
and no flocks are kept, another method is
purfued. In thefe, as in the ftrong land
farms, though fome attention is paid to
preparing a certain quantity of land for
wheat tilth, this is arranged as follows.
On the ftronger land beans ; the remainder
either peafe, clover of one year's growth, or
fallow; on this foil of ioj. or \zs. rent,
the beans yield 3 or 4 quarters ; the wheat
from 2 to 3 quarters ; and the barley and
oats from 3 to 4 quarters.

They fow fome colefeed for food ; they
cat it from Chrijlmas till the beginning of



Turnips they cultivate only on the lighter
■ands ; they ftir four or five times for them;
hand-hoe once; fometimes twice, and eat
them all on the land with fheep. The
average value 3 /. an acre.

Very little clover is mown for hay ; they
either feed it or foil their horfes with it.
Summer tares they ufe for the fame purpofe.

Sainfoine they cultivate in large quanti-
ties on the chalky downs; fow 4 bufhels
an acre : it lafts from 5 to 1 6 years ; in
general 10; mow it once every year for
hay, and get from 1 to 2 f tons per acre ;
the value directly out of the field, 20 j. to
30 j. a load. Many of their crops are da-
maged greatly by faving the firft growth for
feed. They manure it with foot, 30
bufhels an acre, at 6 d. : this they find
much better than allies.

In regard to manuring; they fold their
fheep all the year round ; that is wethers ;
which flock they reckon fo much better
than ewes, that they never fold the latter.

Chalk they lay on their land in fmall
quantities ; it does beft on the heavy wet



Lime is much ufed about Witjlubblc 9
&c. on wet ftrong foils 160 bufliels an acre,
and it is found a great improvement : but
it does little or no good on the loams at

They rake their wheat flubbles, cart them
home, and form flacks around the farm-
yard, which the cattle make all into dung.
—They fell moll of their hay.

Plafhing quick hedges is very well under-
flood : fome are excellently done.

Good meadow land lets at 40 j; an acre ;
they are always mown ; the crop 2 loads of
hay an acre.

Flocks of fheep on the down farms, from
100 to 300 ; all wethers ; the profit is the
wool and the fold. — If a fold is hired,
the price is 40 s. an acre. In 9 or 10 fcore
the wool pays the fhepherd from buying in
lambs to the felling out, after working
them in the fold 2 years ; then the advance
is 10 j. a head. In a flock of 9 fcore they
buy in 60 lambs, at 10/. and fell the fold
iheep out at 20s.

In their tillage they reckon 5 horfes ne^
ceflary for ico acres of arable land : ufe 4
iaa plough, and do generally 1 acre a day;



fometimes i | or I f. They ftir from 4
to 6 inches deep. The price per acre js.
None but turnwreft ploughs ufed here.

In hiring farms they reckon 6 or 700/.
necefTary for 200/. a year.

Land fells from 30 to 32 years purchafe.

Tythes are chiefly gathered.

Poor rates from is. bd. to As. in the
pound. They have no manufacture for the
women and children ; picking hops the
only employment, except drinking tea and
brandy very plentifully.

Sir Thomas Hales has cultivated hops on
a large fcale for feveral years ; he favoured
me with the following account of the aver-
age of the expences and produce per acre of
20 acres.


Stripping the poles and flacking, £.0 5 o
Dunging the hills once in four

years of home made dung, 20

loads an acre : this is per ann. o 10 o

Digging, - - - o 16 o

Cutting, - - 050

Poling, - - - c 12 o

Carry over, - 2 08 o


Brought over, - £.280
Poles, 350 per acre on an average,

at 28 j-. - - - 4180

Digging around the hills, -026
Tying, - - - o n o

Hoeing, - - - 050

Summer digging a fourth of the

land, - - - 026

Second hoeing, - - 050

Giving frefh earth, - 016

Third hoeing, - - 050

Hilling, - - - 050

Picking, 8 d. 1 to is. a bafket,

which is on an average, 6 s. per

C. wt. - - - 2 1 1 o

Drying, at 3/. - - 156

Bagging, - - 030

Bags, - - - - o 18 6
Duty, at 8 s. - - 380

Carriage of poles, - - 1 10 o
Sharping, - - - 026

Shaving, - - 086

Rent, - £.3 o o

Tythe, - - o 10 o
Town charges, - 090

Vol. III. £

• 3 19 o
23 9 6


Produce. I. s. //*

In 1762. C W/.13 \)2£perC. wt.$ 5 o


8 15 o

3 o °

2 14 o

9 5

3 10 o


*7 6 3<




I 7 6 5-



12 f




10 1







8 i, at 5/.

4 j. i</.


44 4 8
23. 9 6

Profit, - - 20 15 2

' ■ •

And on the 20 acres, - 415 3 4

It is evident from this account, which
Sir Thomas has kept with great accuracy,
that the hop culture is here particularly
profitable : the foil is, probably, very fa-
vourable, though not near fo black as that
of the hop grounds at Fever/ham: it is a
fine mellow, deep, fandy loam, of a reddifh
colour. For 20 acres of land to be an
eftate of 400/. a year, is making a fmaH
4 breadth


Weadth of land yield at a great rate.'

Thefe 9 years I apprehend to yield a fair
average, for one is uncommonly bad — fo
low in produce that the high price is no
compenfation ; not one year rifes higher
than 1 3 I C. wt. though a ton is fometimes

Sir Thomases planted woods are cut once
in from 12 to 16 years, and yield in hop
poles from 20/. to 60/. an acre : 6d. per afh
pole has been given at Walderfhare, 12
miles from Canterbury. In planting them,
they are fet in rows at 4 or 5 feet fquare ;
and they generally yield 3 or 4 poles per

Sir Thomas has cultivated a cabbage which

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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 2 of 19)