Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) online

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he calls the Lombardy cabbage^ in his garden ♦
1 8 of them were weighed againft 1 8 bufhels
of wheat, of more than 60 lb. ; they were
fown the beginning of Augufi, and trans-
planted in Ofiober, 4 feet fquare, and there
remained : it is a flat headed cabbage.

The Jerufakm turnip he has cut twenty
times in one fpring : no froft hurts them;
the more you cut them the more they fprouL

Some cedars of Lebanon fown in 1741,

and in 1770 they meafured 7 feet circum-

E 2 ference*


ference, 40 high, and the branches extend
a circle of 40 feet diameter.

Several experiments of importance have
been tried by the Rev. Mr. Taylor of Bif-
ronsy of which he was fo obliging as to
give me the following account.

His general courfe of crops is ;

I. Fallow; dunged with 20 loads per

1. Wheat drilled

3. Beans drilled, with cabbages in the
intervals; manured after the wheat
with 20 loads an acre.

4. Barley

5. Clover, one year

6. Wheat

7. Beans and cabbages as before, and no
more fallow.

All the wheat is drilled in equally diftant
rows, 1 o inches afunder : it is horfe-hoed
with a narrow ihim once, and hand-weeded
once ; the produce 4 quarters per acre.
The beans are in double rows, at 16 inches,
on 4 feet ridges ; confequently the intervals
are 32 inches wide. They are cleaned by
horfe-hoeing, &c. The crop 4 quarters*


Experiment, No. I.

Drilled a field in the above manner with
beans. The end of February turned a fur-
row from the rows, throwing up a ridge
in the middle of each interval. The begin-
ning of March harrowed the whole field
acrofs ; and again the end of the month.
In April horfe-hoed them with a plough
with a broad fhare and no wreft. May 7th,
fhimmed the fpaces between the rows.
The 14th, harrowed the intervals with a
nidget. See Plate X. Fig. 2. Vol. II. June 8th,
ufed the broad fhare in the intervals. The
1 2 th, harrowed them again with the nidget.
The 15th, hand-hoed the rows. The 19th,
planted cabbages, one row in the middle of
each interval, 2 feet from plant to plant.
The beginning of Augujl, hand-hoed and
hand-weeded them. The 27th, cut and
coat the beans ; that is, fhock four {heaves
together, the points of them fattened with
a weed. As foon as they were got off the
ridges whereon the beans grew, were
ploughed, and became the intervals of the
cabbages. The crop 4 quarters an acre;
and was offered 3/. an acre for the cabba-
ges. The fort of cabbage, Mr. Taylor calls
E 3 the


the Aberdeen. They promife to come to
10 lb, or 12 lb. each.


This thought of planting cabbages in the
intervals of beans, is a very good one, and
efpecially as it is fo clearly proved to be
advantageous to drill the beans in double
rows, on 4 feet ridges. 4 Quarters per
acre in that method, fhew this t<* be the
cafe very clearly. The cabbages come to a
confiderable value ;— fuppofing them never
to exceed 3/. they form with the beans, a
product of 9 /. an acre. Barley follows to
much advantage, and confequently the
wheat on a clover lay, which is better than
fowing it on a bean flubble.

Experiment, No. 2,

Gave a field a complete fallow ; plough-
ing it four times. The 8th of November
drilled it with wheat, in equally diftant
rows, 1 o inches afunder ; 2 § bufhels of
feed an acre. The 27th and 28th of
March y fhimmed it. The 9th of April
harrowed it acrofs and rolled it. The
17th harrowed it again: this was on ac-


count of heavy rains beating down the
Jand. The 23d of May, hand-hoed it.
The crop 4 quarters per acre.

Experiment, No. 3.

The 2d of April, drilled a field with
oats, in equally diflant rows, 1 1 inchfc s
afunder, 3 bufhels of feed per acre. Shim-
med it the 2 1 ft of May, the 23d, fowed
clover over it; the 29th harrowed it, and
rolled it acrofs. The 15th of July, hand-
weeded ; the crop 4 £ quarters per acre »
and the clover the cleaneft in the country,


It is of particular confluence to know*
that the drill husbandry of lpring corn. does
not exclude the culture of clover ; on the
contrary, it improves it ; for in the method
here purfued by Mr. Taylor, the barley is
up before the clover is fown ; confequenjtjy
the evil of the grafs growing too faft for the
corn, is totally prevented \ and the ground
having fome horfe-hoeing, is cleaner than
if the feed was harrowed in with the barley,

E 4


Experiment, No. 4.

Ploughed an acre of light rich fandy
land twice, in May 1770; rolled and har-
rowed it, and manured it with 20 loads of
dung per acre. The middle of May, (truck
the furrows 2 and 3 feet afunder, and dropt
kidney beans in them. They were hand-
hoed thrice, and weeded once. Crop 20
bufhels per acre.


Two ploughings, - £.0110

Rolling and harrowing, - 060

20 Loads dung, at 2 J. 6d. 2 10 o

Striking furrows, - - 020

Dropping beans, - - 020

Seed, - - - o 15 o

Harrowing, - - 006

Hoeing and weeding, - 100

Gathering, &c. fuppofe - o 15 o

Rent, &c. - - 1 5 o


20 Bufhels, atioj. - 10 o o

Expences, - - 766

Profit, - - - 2 13 6


Experiment^ No. 5.
Planted the Jerufalem turnip, and the
green and brown cole ; all for fheep feed
in the fpring. The firft fprouts very often
in the fpring ; and fheep are extremely fond
of it. Both the green and brown cole are
excellent for fheep ; but the former moots
the ftrongeft.

Experiment^ No. 6.

In March 1769, ploughed one acre of
land twice, a foot deep ; and the end of
that month fowed it with carrots. They
were twice hand-hoed. The beginning of
October they were dug up with prongs ;
the crop 8 tons. Mr. Taylor ufed them
for feeding his horfes, and attended very
accurately to the expenditure ; he found they
faved him juft 8/. in hay and corn ; which
determines the value to be 2.0s. a ton;
which is about 8</. per bufhel.

Experiment^ No. 7.

Two acres of a rich fandy foil, was in
November 1769 ploughed on to the ridge,
double trenched. January 15, 1770, har-
rowed it. The 1 8th, ridged back again.



March 12, harrowed it ; after this ploughed
and harrowed it again. April 7th, ploughed
and harrowed it again. The 10th, fur-
rowed it with the drill fhares, and fown
with §lb. of carrot feed, which was covered
by the harrows. June 6th, weeded. The
1 6th, hand-hoed. July 30th, hand-hoed

Taken up in November \ the produce 16
tons per acre.


Experiment) No. 8.

Planted 2 acres with potatoes, in rows
equally diflant, 2 feet; kept clean by
horfe and hand-hoeing. Produce 400
bunSels per acre ; fold at 9*/.; or 15/.

Plate XXI. Fig. 1. reprefents Mr. Tay-
lor* % broad fhared horfe-hoe, to which
wrefts are added at plealure.

I tO 2

6 feet.

2 tO 3


3 to 4


7 to 8

2 6

5 to 6


9 to 10

4 6

10 to II

1 6

II tO 12

: \ ■

1 2

6 inches.


From 12 to 13 1 7 inches.

14 to 15 1 2

It fhould be particularly obferved, that
the handles reft on the center of the plough
at bottom, not in the common method on
the tail of the beam.

Plate XXI. Fig. 2. is Mr. Taylor's
nidget horfe-hoe, for equally diftant rows %

From 1 to 2



3 to 4

4 to 5


8 inches.

9 to 3
7 to 8

10 to 12





13 to 14
11 to 12



8 and one
foot broad.

ic to 16



Diameter of the wheels, 9 inches.
Plate XXI. Fig. 3. is a drill plough, in-
vented by this gentleman *.


* Mr. Taylor has a very good collection of
pictures, fome of them by the greateft mailers.
Sahator Iiofa. Two landfcapes. The tree to
the right, and that oppofite the moun-
tains, good : and thf group of figures



From Bifrons I went to Addifham^ in
order to view the hufbandry of Mr. Rey-
nolds, the well known introducer of the
cabbage turnip. He has made many trials


pi&urefque : Neither of them quite fo
wild as common with this painter.

Poujfin. Large landfcape. Very fine : the
figures well done.

Ditto. A imaller ditto. Excellent! The har-
mony of this piece ftriking. The
keeping uncommonly fine. And the
figures have an elegance and a chaftity
not often feen.

Ditto. Its companion. Fine.

Vanderveld. Shipping. Very fine.

Old Palma. The Maries in the fepnlchre with
the dead body. Exceedingly fine. —
The group — the exprefiion of the
countenances — and the variety of the
colours without any glare; highly
pleafing. There is an harmony in it
that ftrikes.

Unknown, Medea with the infignia of enchant-
ment; a large dog, and fome cattle.
An odd wild piece, but very fine.
There is an exprefiion in it, that fhews
the hand of a mafter. Her figure is in
ftrong relief, though a moft unmeaning
attitude. The dog is very well done.

Ditto. Holy family. Fine.

Rubens. A large piece of leveral figures. Ditto,

Mr. Bamfield. A landfcape. Very pleafing.


in hufbandry, befides practifing it in gene-
ral in a very complete manner.


Mr. Reynolds began this article of culture
from feeing Lord Halifax's, in 1731, at
Hampton-court ; , who fed oxen on them
with great fuccefs. This is an anecdote
unknown before ; for it mews that this
vegetable was many years ago known to
poffefs a quality, which many deny it to
have at prefent.

Experiment, No. 1.
Planted four acres, in 1732, of the great
white cabbage : they were fed off with
fheep. No minutes taken of the particular
amount ; but the fhepherds declared every
acre of them to be worth two of turnips.

Experiment, No. 2.

In 1733 fourteen acres were planted in
rows 2 \ feet fquare ; the winter was very
fevere with a deep mow ; 300 fheep were
chiefly wintered on them, befides many
cart loads taken for the cows, &c. They
weighed 6 lb. each.

In 1734, a plantation; but all deftroyed
by the caterpillar.


Experiment ; No. 3.

In 1735, twenty-fix acres of the fame
fort were planted in the manner above
mentioned, and kept quite clean by horfe
and hand-hoeing. The caterpillars eat
many, and the f roft deftroyed moll of the

Since thefe trials Mr. Reynolds planted
but an acre or two now and then, for
comparing them with turnips. Sometimes
one was fuperior, fometimes the other ; but
on the whole, the cabbages befl.

Experiment, No. 4.

In 1767 was the firfl difcovery of the
new cabbage turnip.

Sixteen perches of a hazel mould were
ploughed four times for a feed nurfery.
The feed was fown the middle of April,
and planted into five acres of various foils*
the end of June and the beginning of July,
in rows two feet afunder. They were
kept clean by horfe and hand-hoeing.

The 1 5th of February, one perch weighed
254 lb. or per acre 18 tons 2 C. wt.

Another, the 26th of March, 393 lb.
or per acre 28 tons 1 C, ivt*



Another, the 27th of April* 476 lb. of
per acre 34 tons. This product was from
68 plants, which is 7 lb. each.

They lafted good, and were fed with
meep to the 13 th of May.*

Experiment* No. 5..

In 1768, feven acres of the cabbage tur-
nip were planted, and confumed by varioup
forts of cattle, particularly meep* The
crop 37 tons an acre, and the fuccefs in
ufing them very great.

Experiment, No. 6.

In 1769, feven acres more were planted :
the fuccefs equally good : the crop 38 tons
an acre.

Experiment* No. 7.

In 1769 fowed one acre, the 10th of
May, in drills, the rows equally diftant,
1 8 inches afunder ; cut them out in the
rows with a nine-inch hoe, and gave them
two horfe-hoeings befides. The product
fpent in March* 23 tons 6 C. wt. per acre.
The foil a thin loam on chalk.

■ > • 1 1 , > , 1 , 1 . .

* Further particulars of this trial may be feen in
Mr. Dojfus Memoirs of Agriculture, Vol. I.


Experiment, No. 8.

In order to fee the difference between
fowing and planting, Mr. Rey?iolds caufed
half an acre on each fide the fown to be
planted ; the rows 2 feet by 20 inches in
both. They were fown the 26th of April,
and planted in June. The difference was
above 8 tons per acre fuperiority on the
fide of the planted, being both fpent the
end of March following.

Experiment, No. 9.

In 1770, the crop is three acres; but
not equal to the preceding ones. It was
however tried in flips with Jerufalem tur-
nip, boorcole and common turnips, and
found fuperior to all of them. The pro-
duel this year only 36 tons an acre.

On thefe roots Mr. Reynolds obferves in
general, that his method of expending
them is to eat off the leaves and branches
with milch cows, and then to dig up the
roots for fheep, who are exceedingly fond
of them, and require no fodder whatfoever.
From all the experience he has had of
thefe crops, he judges them to pay him
2 at


at the rate of 4s. 6 J. a. ton. His products
have been, 34 tons.



Average, 33 tons, at 4/. bd. or
7/. 8/. 6d. per acre. Hogs are extremely
fond of them; One C. wt, he reckons
better than two C. ivt. of common tur-
nips ; and, refpecting their ameliorating
quality, he had, in 1769, fix quarters
per acre of both barley and oats after them.


Mr. Reynolds entered into bufinefs in
the year 1726: turnips were then com-
monly cultivated in Norfolk, Suffolk, and
Effex, where he had viewed them with at-
tention : he introduced them into Eaji
Kent immediately, where none had been
known ; and he cultivated them with
great fuccefs ten years, before his neigh-
bours had ten acres.

In this culture, after preparing the land
Vol. IIL F well


well on the level, equi-diftant furrows arc
ftruck with a light double drill plough ;
in which manner it does an acre in an
hour. Theie furrows are drawn from 18
to 24 inches afunder, according to the
nature of the foil. On thin, light and dry
lands, they are made clofer and deeper,
than on thofe that are ftronger and better.
In pretty good foils, the rows are about
two feet, and the furrows about five inches
deep. The feeds are fown in the broad-
call: way, immediately after the plough,
one quart to an acre, including a little
long-topped raddiih feed, 1 lb, to 1 1 lb. of
turnip feed ; all fown by hand. The
harrows follow the fower directly, and the
roller them, and when done, it is har-
rowed twice more in a place acrofs ; but
no more rolling. They are cleaned and
thinned with a hand-hoe, and horfe-hoed
with the fnim, letting them out twelve
inches from plant to plant. The crops
are found to be much fuperior to the
common ones ; for the turnips grow as
large a& a peck.


Experiment, No. 10.
Since I had the pleafure of feeing Mr.
Reynolds, I defired him to fend me the
■freight of a crop of turnips I viewed on
his farm in a rich foil. The 23d of No-
vember, a fquare perch of the red or purple
top turnip weighed 532 lb. and a perch of
the large cream-coloured top 540 lb. They
are both in drills, 20 inches aiunder, and a
foot in the rows.

r. c. ^ ib.

The red or purple top^ 38 o o o

The cream, - 38 n 1 22

Neither of them nearly arrived at the
full growth. Thefe are very great products.
Experiment, No. 1 1 .

Mr. Rsymldsi on the average of many
years culture of hops, has found the ex-
pellees, Szd to be as under;

Rent* - » - jT. 1 o o

Tythe, - - o 10 o

Town charges, - -040

All other articles, including a
manuring every third or
fourth year of 35 loads, (36
bufhels) - - iS 6 o

Total, - 20 o o



8 C. <wt. at 4/. the average price, 32 o o
Expences, - - 20 o o

Profit, - - - 12 o o

Experiment, No. 12.

Ploughed a pea Hubble that was quite
clean ; the foil a poor thin land, and
drilled it with wheat, in rows equally di-
ftant, one foot afunder ; the quantity of
feed fix pecks per acre; hand-hoed it
once, fhimmed it twice, and hand-weeded
once : produce 20 bufhels per acre. At
the fame time ploughed and fowed a part
adjoining, broad-caft, and fowed two
bufhels per acre. The crop 14 bufhels.

Account of the drilled.

Expences per acre.

Ploughing, jT.




Seed, -


Drilling, - - .





Carry over, 126


6 9

Brought over,

£-i ^


Horfe ditto,




o o


Reaping and harvefting,

O 10



° 5


Carrying out,



Rent, tythe, &c<




2 IO



20 Bufhels, at 6 J.

6 o



2 IO



3 9


Account of the broad-




o 7





Seed, - -.

G 12





Weeding, - -



Reaping and harvefting,




o 3





Rent, &c.




2 6


I 17


3 9
1 *7


1 1 1



i4Bufhel$, at 6 j. T £. 4 4 q

Expences, - - 266

Profit, -

Profit by the drilled,
Ditto by the broad-caft,

Superiority, - r

Straw equal.

This trial is the average of Mr. Rey-
nolds's experiments on this companion :
his drilled crops have arifcn to five quar-
ters per acre. This husbandry he has
praclifed with regular fuccefs. fince the
year 1730.

Experiment^ No. 13.

In 1767, trench-ploughed four acres of
a rich foil, twelve inches deep, after beans ;
harrowed and rolled it very fine ; laid it
into beds three feet wide, and planted them
with madder, five rows on each bed, nine
inches from plant to plant, leaving intervals
two feet fix inches wide between the beds
of three feet. Thofe horfe-hoeings were



given each twice in a place, and alfo three

The fecond year, two thirds of the field
were planted again, the plants having
failed ; the rows were again horfe-hocd
thrice, and hand-hoed as often.

The third year, the appearance of the
whole was (0 poor, that Mr. Reynolds took
up all the plants, and they were juft
enough for one rood of land.

Trench-ploughing, - £.280

Harrowing and rolling, - 280

Laying out the beds and planting, 617 6
42,000 fetsper acre, at ioj. 84 o o

Three horfe-hoeings, - 140

Three hand ditto, at 5 s. - 300
1 12,000 fets, at 10 j. - 56 o o

Planting, - - 400

Three horfe-hoeings, - 140

Three hand-hoeings, - 300

Three years rent, &c. - 1600

Total, - 180 1 6

F 4











Brought over, £.180 1 6

By 10,500 plants, at 10/. 5 5°

Lofs on four acres,

Or per acre,

Per acre ^?r ###. m

Experiment^ No. 14.

Sowed fix acres with lucerne in the
year 1763, part in the broad-caft way,
and part drilled at 18 inches. Mr. Rey-
nolds has not kept any particular account
of all the circumftances relating to this
experiment ; but he prefers, on the whole,
the broad-caft method, from his finding it
irnpoflible (as he confiders it) to keep th e
drills free from weeds. The broad-caft
has kept him four horfes per acre from the
beginning of May to the middle of OSlober y
or 23 weeks, which, at is. 6d. per horfe
per week, is 1 1 /. 1 o s. per acre,

Chalking has long been praclifed in this

part of Kent ; and an obfervation I made

\n a field of this very ingenious farmer, on

i the


the fubfidence of that body, when fpread
on the land as manure, deferves to be
mentioned. Near his houfe is a large pit
from whence he has dug loam to lay in
his yard. The upper ftratum is a dark-
coloured mould, about four inches thick,
and then a good brick-earth loam many
feet deep. About forty years ago, it was
chalked, and the manure is now feen along
the fide of the pit, which is regularly cut,
at the depth of from 7 to 12 inches ; but
what is extraordinary, the chalk is in
pieces, many of them as large as a wal-
nut, and fome twice as big. Perhaps this
fhews that the common fuppoijtion, that
the fubfidence is owing to a perpetual
warning off of fmall particles from the
larger ones, either to be falfe, or confined
to peculiar foils.

I obferved one piece of hufbanury in
Mr. Reynolds's farm yard, which he told
me was common among the beft farmers
in Eafi Kent: it was a ftratum of loam
brought in and fpread againft the ftable,
&c. doors, to lay the dung on : it is
Certainly a molt excellent practice. He



aflured me, that conftant experience had
proved the benefit of it ; the manure lafls
much longer than if laid on alone, though
the quantities of mere dung are in both
cafes equal.

Since I minuted the above, I have been
favoured with a letter from Mr. Reynolds,
the fubftance of which will bell appear
in his own words. It explains feveral
points of c on ieque rice.

« Adijham, Ocl.zS, 1770.

According to promife, I have taken
from my journal-book of experiments,
made from the year 1730 to 1740, feve-
ral minutes, together with fome others
of later date : fuch as I deem the very bell:
methods to be pradtifed now in hufbandry,
and fuch as I have long adopted, are as

Fallows : Wheat in drills.

Equidiftant rows, one foot each ; fow
from 1 4 to 16 gallons ; depth between
two and three inches, according to the
texture of foil : early fowing is beft ; laft
week in September^ and firft of OBober, is
the bell feafon for produce. Old wheat,



■well preferred, is free from fmut* in the
next generation ; but this I have fpoken.
to at large elfewhere.

Clover and trefoil-lays and bean-Jlubbles.
Sow in the broad-cajl ivay two bufhels
and a half per acre, or eight bufhels for three
acres : fame time, or the beginning of
Oflober. Experience fhews early f fow-
ings produce the bell corn and greater!
product, and, what is ftill more advan-
tageous, ripens fooner.

Barley and fine oats.
On fallows : in drills ten inches apart ;
depth from three to four inches, having a
regard to the foil. Seed from 20 to 24gallons
per acre ; fow in March or the beginning
of April ; and this is fuitable for oats.

For fowing on Rubbles, viz. beans, pcafe
and wheat, broad-call fowings feem equi-
valent to drilling, provided the land be in
good tilth: fow about three bufhels and a


* About the year 1740, I difcoverei infecls to be
the caufe of fmut, concerning which a deal has been
laid, to no purpole, by many writers on hufbandrv. R.

f Earlv lowhigs are not practicable on lar^e farms
for the -.-.-hole : bean crops l'eldom admit the doinij
this fo early, R.


half per acre about the midfl of AprtU
Likes to go in dry.

Beansy two methods.

Firft, Where nothing more is intended :
Strike furrows fix or feven inches deep j
rows two feet apart, equidiftant ; feed may-
be dropped in by hand, cr put in by a
drill plough : no quantity can be afcer-
tained ; that depends on the iue of the

Second, Beans and turnips, cabbages,
&c. intermixed.

Double rows* 18 inches apart, leaving
a fpace of three feet or forty inches be-
tween them, for turnips or cabbages ; if
the latter plant one row, if turnips drill two*
Sow early in February for the dwarf kinds >
horfe-beans about the middle of March.
This mixture is a great improvement.
Turnips feldom fail, and the bean crop is
not fo much lefs as might be expected;
often equal to the common plantings,


* Double rows arc very eafily made by my drill-
plough, by letting out only one wheel the defigned
diftance. The fame may be done by any other wheel-
plough. Drilling is moft complete for peafe and
horfe-beans. R,


where rows are clofe ; and I find cabbages
do very well at two feet fix inches apart,
fet between the beans. Dwarfs I prefer,
becaufe they come off much fooner than
horfe kinds do. Dung all we can here ;
fifty loads per acre.

March, for peafe and tares, feems the
beft feafon.

Succeed beft on lays and frefh ground,
whether fown or drilled : I prefer the latter>
and drill double rows 20 inches apart, leav-
ing a fpace of 30 inches between them, the
better to deftroy weeds by hand and horfe-
hoeing ; fhould go in dry and warm as
foon as weather permits, efpecially the
white early kind ; feed about three bumels
in drills ; depth about five inches on gentle,
dry land. Experience (hews they often
fail by lying fhallow in dry feafons \ either

1 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

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