Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) online

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leaves, Mr. Pett fays, will all drop off in
the froft, which gives an opportunity of
fhimming them again ; he intends to feed
them through April after the turnips are
all done.

They plough four times for turnips.

lund-rhoe them once, and fometimes twice ;

H 4 the


the value 3 /. an acre ; but the quantity in-
confiderable ; they feed them in general on
the land ; but Mr. Jefirt has flail fed fome
bullocks en them.

Their clover and trefoile they feed with
fheep, 4 to an acre ; reckon the wheat
better after trefoile than after clover ; which
furprized me.

On the hill land they have fome fainfoine,
but it lafts only from 6 to 10 years; they
generally fummer fallow after it for wheat ;
but Mr. Pett fows peafe firft to rot the turf.
Mr. Jejjart once tried colefeed hand-hoed
after it. The crops of hay are from 1 f to
2 loads an acre, at 30 C. wt. the load.

Summer tares they fow in fmall quan-
tities for foiling horfes.

Carrots have been tried on rich, deep foils
and, it is /aid, will not do : but this I do
not underftand.

The fouth of the ifland contains a great
deal of rich marfh land, which alio extends
beyond Sandwich ; the rent of it 20 s.; it
is ufed in fattening bullocks and Romncy
fheep ; a bullock to an acre in fummer, and a
few fheep are kept in winter.



Large quantities of canary feed are railed
m the iiland ; there are generally about
150 acres in the pariih of Minjier. It is
reckoned much more profitable than wheat;
fome is broad-carl, and fome drilled 10
inches, equally diftant rows, and hand-
hoed twice. Mr. Pett has found great ad-
vantage in harrowing it as foon as up. The
crops 2 or 3 quarters per acre, and the
price from 2/. to 10/. a quarter; but gene-
rally 40 J. or 5 ox.

In refpect of manuring, they fold their
fheep all the year ; in fummer on the graf-
fes, and in winter on turnips, Szc. 8 to a
fquare perch.

Sea weed they reckon very rich ; they
mix it with dung and earth, and turn it
over till rotten ; lay 50 loads of the com.
poft per acre, and find it of excellent fer-
vice : never ufe it alone.

Mr. Pett flrowed fait on barley and
clover ; 1 bufhel to 1 perches ; alio coal
allies, 40 buihels an acre ; the allies beat
the fait greatly, which did however fome
good to the barley, but killed the clover.

At another time he allied 1 o acres of bar-


ley ; he thinks it paid him, hut returned
no profit.

Their farm-yard dung they lay on
the fummer fallows, or elfe on the wheat
ftubbles for barley : fome is fpread for

Plate XXIII. Fig. 2. is a nidget, the
ftru&ure improved by Mr. Pett.

7 rom a to b



feet 6 inches.

b to c




c to d




d to e




/to g



The mares one foot from each other ;
the bottom of each is a triangle of fix
inches. Each mare is mouldered in the
frame, which renders the whole machine
much ftronger. a refts on a carriage.

In harveft, 2/. 6d. a day; but commonly

3/. ioj-. or 3/. for five weeks.
In hay-time, is. 6d. and 2 s.
In winter, is. 4 d. to is. 8d.
Reaping, 6 s. to 12 s.
Mowing and binding barley or oats, 4«r.

mowing, 2 s.
Hoeing turnips, 51. to 7/,

l Thrafn-


Thrafhing wheat, is. 6d. to 3.C per

Barley and oats, 1 s. 2 d. to 1 s. /\.d.

■ Peafe, 1 s.

Head-man's wages, 11/. and n /. 11 x.
Next man, 10/.
Lad's, 3/. to 61.

Labour in general much dearer than for-
Poor-rates, 2 /. to 3 s. 6 d. in the pound.

Particulars of a farm.
440 Acres in all 20 Turnips

100 Wheat 16 Horfes

40 Sainfoine 200 Sheep in fumm,

100 Barley 4 Cows

50 Clover and tref. 6 Men

50 Peafe and beans 4 Boys

80 Fallow 8 Labourers.

Pairing from Sandwich to Deal, I re-
marked, that the flubbles were not fo
clean as in the ifland. Land lets from 14/.
to 20/. an acre. Their courfe the round
tilth : they dung for beans 50 loads an
acre of compoft earth and dung : they drill
all the beans in rows, equally diftant, 20
inches afunder, and clean with the fhim
and hand-hoeing : their peafe alfo were



drilled. Some barley and wheat the fame;
but not fo much as in the ifland ; they
£him and hand-hoe it. Their crops of
wheat are three quarters and a half per
acre ; their barley four quarters.


This tract of country has long been
reckoned the beft cultivated in England,
and it has no flight pretentions to that
character. Their drill hufbandry is moft
peculiar : it muft aftonifh ftrangers to find
fuch numbers of common farmers, that
have more drilled crops than broad-call:
ones, and to fee them fo familiar with
drill-ploughs and horfe-hoes.

The drill culture carried on in fo com-
plete a manner, is the great peculiarity of
this country ; their repeated horfe and
hand-hoeings keep the crops quite clean,
and make them produce in an ample man-
ner. The crops throughout this whole
country are confiderable, though fo large a
part of it is occupied by the round tilth,
which is certainly difadvantageous.



Their cleaning the pea ftubbles for wheat
in the ifland with the great mim is a
practice, in praife of which too much
cannot be faid.

The culture of hops throughout Eaji
Kent is a very important branch of hus-
bandry ; they are extremely well culti-
vated, and would alone conduce, in no
trifling manner, to raife an idea of general
good management.

Madder alfo is here cultivated by farmers
more than in any other part of the king-
dom. This has been in a good meafure
owing to the culture of hops giving them
notions of fpirited management, unknown
to the flovens in other counties. Canary
feed is another inftance, that they move
out of the ufual fphere of common huf-

Mr. Reynolds's turnip advancing in cul-
ture among his neighbours, is a circum-
ftance that would not happen in many

It is alfo very obfervable, that all this
good hufbandry is practifed on land, let
(moft of it) at 20s. an acre, with many
tithes gathered, and compofitions very

5 hi gh>


high, with extravagant poor rates. Such
a total of rent could not be fupported by
bad or indifferent hufbandry: it has forced
the attention of accuracy, expenfive ma-
nagement, and unremitted induftry. Thefe
excellent farmers make a greater profit for
themfelves, after paying fuch high rents,
from one acre, than the flovens in nine
tenths of the kingdom do from five : a
facl, which I muft be allowed to think
confirms the fentiments I have often ex-
preffed concerning low rents.

It is a pity, that fuch enlightened huf-
bandmen will not difcard the abfurd prac-
tice of ploughing with four horfes and a
driver on land, which two, without a
driver, would be highly fufficient for. It
is likewife to be regretted, that they will
perfift in the round tilth, when the barley
and wheat are not drilled and well hoed.
It U a bad courfe, and unworthv of them.



FROM Deal to Dover, the hufhandry
declines much: it is chiefly open
corn-fields, but no drilling, and all the
management feems much inferior to what
I have juft left.

Dover is one of the prettied feaports I
have feen : the fituation is very romantic,
at the foot of feveral bold hills, and the
harbour in the center of the town, quite
built round, is furrounded by quays, that
are more agreeable to the view than any j
know ; and, though not fo extenfive as
that of Tar mouth, yet much exceeds it in

From the caflle, and the hills near the
town on the road to Hythe, are noble
views down on the town, the harbour, the
fhipping ; and over the channel, the
high lands in France are diilincTily feen.
About thefe hills the hufbandry is good ;
the rents are about 15 s. an acre. Their
courfe of crops is the round tilth ; the



beans drilled in rows, equally diftant, 18
inches afunder, and are both fhimmed and
hand-hoed : the crop four quarters per
acre. The wheat is fown broad-caft, and
yields three quarters an acre ; the barley
four. They have fome colefeed for feed-
ing fheep, and alfo fome clover, which
comes in with the bean flubbles for


* : From Dover to Folkftone are fix or fcveji
very romantic miles : the road runs along the
edge of vaft precipices, the fhore very high and
bold, and nobly varied. From the hill, going
down into the latter town, the view is glorious :
you look clown on a fine fweep of inclofures,
many of them grafs, of the moil pleaung ver-
dure. The town, with its church on a point
of land cloie to the fea. The edge of the lower
grounds deicribe as beautiful an outline as can
be imagined : the union or" lea and land com-
plete. We were fortunate in an azure iky and
clear fun : lb that the ocean pre fen ted a vaft
expanfe of burnifhed filver. The hills of France
fave the eye the fatigue of an unbounded range
of iky and water.

As you defcend the hill, the profpect extends
to the right ; the vale opens, and fpreads to
the view a line rano-e of inclofures, bounded to
the land by many hills, rifing in a great variety
of forms : the whole fcer.ery magnificent.


About Sandgdte caftle, the round tilth
continues; beans drilled, fhimmed, and
hand-hoed ; the produce four quarters ;
wheat three quarters, barley four. They
have alfo fome fine turnips, with which
they feed bullocks in flails, and in fum-
mer keep them in Romney inarm, as all
the farmers here have firms in the marfh.
They are in general from 80/. to 100/. a
year here, befides from 50/. to 100/. in
the marin.

About Hythe, the hill farms let at Ss.
or 9 J - , an acre, on an average, though
they include much good flrong land.
The low grounds are marfh land, at 20s.
an acre, fome of which is arable, and
great crops are often gained from it. Five
quarters per acre of wheat, and 1 1 quar-
ters of oats, are not uncommon. Upon
the beft land, on the hills, the round tilth
is practifed. Wheat yields three quarters
and a half, barley four quarters, and beans
five. Theie are good foils ; but the
rough parts of the farms reduce the rents.

The marines are very good : they
reckon them more than to fatten one
Welch beaft per acre, befides an allotment

Vol. III. I of


of fheep : the winter provifion is grafs,
with fome hay ; their fheep is the Romney
breed ; they fat to 45 lb. a quarter. Every
marfh farmer has both grazing and breeding
land for fheep ; he breeds enough for his
own fatting, and fells the proportion of
one hundred in a thoufand.

Trevilltan, a butcher at Hythe, hires 7
or 800/. a year in the marines, and has
above 3000 fheep.

The country, from Hythe to Romney, is
remarkable : the road runs through vaft
tracks of old ftoney beach, a ftratum of
mere ftones, with here and there a def-
picable vegetation ; but it is very ob*
iervable, that the road itfelf, with a nar-
r ow flip on each fide, is covered with a
fine thick turf, of a good verdure. Now
this can be owing to nothing but treading,
and the rolling of the wheels : the clearefl
proof, that heavy rolling would reclaim
thefe waftes, which feem not to be worth
6d. an acre, and make them profitable
fheep paftures.

The fheep through this country are the
Romney marfh fort, without horns. I
obferved great numbers admirably-made;



fliort legs, true round barrels, of a
line fize, and their fleeces remarkably-

Romney mar£h is the richeft tract of
grazing land in this part of the kingdom :
it reaches from half way between Hythe
and Romney, to Rye, and quite down to the
fea beyond Lid. It is here faid to confifl
of about 50,000 acres; and 20,000 more,
equally rich, are contiguous to it. The
whole lets, on an average, at about 10s.
an acre. It is fecured from the fea by a
bank, the repairs of which are done at
the expence of the tenant, and the amount
raifed by is. 6d. per acre fcot over the
50,000 acres ; but, if it amounts to more,
it is borne by the landlord. The reafon of
the reparations being fo high, is the abfurd
manner in which the bank is made : the
Hope of it againft the fea is very fhort ; fo
that, in many places, it is almoft per-
pendicular ; and, to remedy fo great an
error, the whole is thickly covered with
faggot wood, kept down by fmall piles
driven through it, with bars from pile to
pile, rnor tiled in them : all this requires
perpetual repairs. Whereas, if the bank
I 2 had


had been raifed in the manner practifed in
the north-eaftern fhores of the kingdom,
of giving it a vaft bafe, and confequently
a gentle but extended Hope, and all of
earth turfed, the repairs would in many
years be very trifling. Such banks, well
conftructed, ftand the utmoft fury of the
north-eaft winds, united with fpring tides ;
but when the flope is fhort, the imme-
diate weight of water is irrefiftable without
iuch enormoufly expenfive works, as thefe
of ~Romney marfh.

This vaft tract of land is applied chiefly
to breeding and fattening fheep ; the num-
ber of beafts is very inconfiderable.

As I enter SuJJ'ex to-morrow, you muft
allow me here to conclude myelf,

Your's, &c.



ARMS about Rye rife from 40/. to
400/. a year, but in general from
60/. to 100/. a year. Marlh land lets
from 20/. to 25 j - . an acre ; the arable at
1 5 s. There are many hops in the neigh-
bourhood ; but the grounds not at dif-
tinct rents : the farmers have their hops
on the beft foils of the farm.
Their courfes are j

1. Fallow 5. Beans

2. Wheat 6. Oats

3. Beans 7. Clover and ray-

4. Wheat grafs.


1. Fallow 4. Clover

2. Wheat 5. Wheat or peafe,

3. Oats

Their beans are all broad-caft, but
hand-hoed twice, at the expence of 10;.
an acre ; the product from four quarters
to eight ; average five.

Peafe, broad-caft, without hand-hoeing ;
crop three quarters and a half.

I 3 Wheat,


Wheat, three quarters.

Barley, four to eight; average, five.

Oats, five and a half.

Many oxen are ufed here for draft : a
farm of 200/. a year has 16 draft oxen,
and three horfes on it : they reckon them
excellent, if the land is dry ; but if wet,
they poach, not from their weight more
than horfes, but from going double. They
encreafe here every year, contrary to every
other county I know. I enquired par-
ticularly into the reafon of this, and they
afferted, that it was owing merely to their
finding them more advantageous than
horfes. The oeconomy of their beafts is
as follows.

A farmer, who keeps fix cows, will
rear all their calves ; confequently he will
have 18 young cattle in three years. At
that age he puts the oxen from them to
work, and works them till five years old,
fome farmers till feven, and then fat and
fell them. When the ox is put to work,
at three years old, he is worth, as prices
go now, 6/. but after working him two
years, he would fell lean for 10/. Here,
fay they, lies the great advantage of oxen :
4 his.


Ills growth pays a confiderable part of his
keeping, and his work much more than does
the reft : fo that great part of his labour is
gained for nothing. But, left it mould
be thought, that the keeping fo many
cattle more than is worked might run up
the expences higher than with horles, it
will not be improper to calculate that
point. His ftock is always,

6 Calves, one year old.

6 Ditto, two years old.

6 Young cattle, three years old.

6 Oxen at work, four years old.

6 Ditto, five years old.
This is his conftant ftock : his expences
are as follow.
Suppofe the calves purchafed at

10 j. - - - £.300

Keeping fix calves a year, at 6d. 7 16 o
Ditto fix ditto, at 1 j. - 15 12 o

Ditto fix young, at is. 6 J. 23 8 o
Ditto twelve working, at 2 s.

Product per atin. fix oxen fold,
Remains, the expence of twelve

working oxen,
Which is per ox,











This account feems to decide, that this
breeding and keeping one ftock under an-
other is highly advantageous ; for if the
working bealts alone are kept, their an-
nual expence is 62/. Ss. whereas in the
m.thod here itated, it comes to 10/. lefs.
Another circumftance to be confidered is
the profit made by the farmer, at the
above prices of keeping ; for if his expences
only be reckoned, the account muft be
drawn up differently, and this will bring
it nearer the truth.

For 12 oxen worked, it will be an

ample allowance to affign them

three acres a head of grafs, at 2 ox.

an acre, for the whole year, 36

Six cattle three years old, - ■«■ 12
Six ditto two years old, and fix one

year old, 9

Total, - - ~ 57

This allowance fuppofes them to eat
hay only in the winter ; but thefe fanners
keep them mod of the winter on flraw, at
a much cheaper rate.


57 Acres rent, - £. 57 o o


Tythe, fuppofe - 80

Rates, - - 800

Total, - - 73 o o

Making, &c. hay, fuppofe 10 o o

Six calves, - -300

Total, - 86 o o

Product of fix oxen fold, - 60 o o

Expences of 12 working oxen, 26 o o

Or per ox, - - - 234

Suppofe fhoeing - - 050


Decline of value and farrier have no
place in this account. Now let us turn
to the horfe.

Allow him three acres, like the ox;

rent, - - 300

Tythe and town charges, - 0180
Making hay, - - o 10 o

One buQSel of oats per week,

for 30 weeks, at zs. ?,d. 3 7 6

Carry over, ~ 7 15 6


Brought over, - JT. 7 15 6

Chaff, - - - 050
Farrier, fuppofe - ■ o 10 o

Decline of value, fuppofe - 200

Shoeing, - o 5 o

Total, - io 15 6

The ox, - - 284

Superiority, - - 872

Suppofe one horfe, according to
the common vulgar idea, equal
to two oxen, then we muft
deduct again, - 284

Vet there remains a fuperiority

of - - 5 18 10

One horfe cofts as much as four oxen
and a half.

It is from hence fufficiently evident,
that thefe farmers are quite right in giving
the preference to oxen. In the ufe ■ of
them however they are as evidently wrong :
they draw a plough with fix or eight for
one acre a day, and eight oxen are ufed
for carrying 60 bufhels of wheat, but do
not carry fo much on bad road.



tn fummer they feed them in paftures
and on clover ; in the winter, they give them
hay in the morning, and ftraw at night,
and on this food they plough an acre a day;
and on ftraw alone they will do fix hours
work. Many farmers do all their winter
ploughing on wheat ftraw alone ; but it is
not reckoned good management.

An acre of marfh land will fatten an ox
of 60 or 80 ftone, (14/^.) and fome of it
a fheep befides. The latter are 24 or
25 lb. a quarter; a fat wether fells in ge^
neral at 25^. fome 3 5 J.


In harveft, is, 6d. to $s.

In hay-time, 2 /.

In winter, is. 6d.

Reaping, ioj-.

Mowing corn, is. 6d. to is. 8*/.

Thrafhing wheat, is. bd. a quarter,

-?-■ ■ oats, 1 s.

•■ 1 beans, I J. 6d.

Head-man's wages, 10/. ioj.
Next ditto, 7 /. 7 s.
Lad's, 3/.
Maid's, 3/,

P R O-



Bread, id. I per lb.

Butter, yd.

Cheefe, 4^. £

Beef, 4</.

Mutton, 4</,

Veal, 4^/.

Pork, 4</.

Bacon, 6</.

Potatoes, $(t.

Milk />*r pint, 1 ct.

Labourer's houfe-rent, 3/.

firing, ll

Particulars of a farm.
400 Acres in all 20 Swine

100 Arable 40 Acres wheat

300 Grafs 40 Clover

300/. Rent 10 Oats

1 6 Draft oxen io Peafe and beans

3 Horfes 2 Men

12 Cows 1 Boy

200 Sheep I Maid

36 Young cattle 3 Labourers.

Swing ploughs chiefly ufed here.
The fifteen miles from Rye to Hawk-
hurfi are very agreeable to travel : the
country is all hill and dale ; the profpecT:



ex ten five over a rich varied woodland ; the
road is good, and leads through many
fcattered villages, with numerous Tingle
cottages remarkably neat, well built, clean
and fnug ; little gardens well kept, the
hedges regular, and all dipt ; many of
the walls white-waihed, the paling whole
and in order, and even the pigfties tiled,
and quite neat and ftrong ; the whole
uniting to raife the moft pleafing idea of
warm comfortable inhabitants : one's hu-
manity is touched with pleafure, to fee
cottages the refidence of chearfulnefs and
content. Happy people! humble Plea-
fure fparkles in their eye, and Health her-
felf fits enthroned in their cheek — a fub-
jecl: for

The pleas' d hiftorian of the chearful plain;
But nothing either fad or penfive in it.

A country Jo decorated is beautiful in-
deed, and more entertaining to travel
through, than if fplendid temples and
proud turrets arofe on every hill. Such
ornaments are in the power of every coun-
try gentleman : pity they do not oftener
ufe them.

5 Induftrious


Induftrious Britons ought all to live
thus ; and did our laws co-operate with
the bleffings providence has fhowered on
this happy kingdom, all might live fo.

There arc many iron furnaces in this
country, which is the market for the large
quantity of wood feen here.

Rents run at 12 s. on an average to
Battle 16 s. The courfe of crops,

1. Fallow 3. Oats, or peafe, or

2. Wheat beans.

The produces, wheat 3 quarters, oats
4 f , beans 4 f , and peafe 3. Not many
turnips fown ; but when they do, it is re-
markable that they fallow after them for
wheat, under the idea that their land will
not do for wheat. They ufe a plough
here on purpofe for ftriking the water-
furrows in land fown with wheat : it is
fmall and light, with a double mould-board.
This implement is a fign of good huf-

About Hawkburjl the foil is various :
there are both fandy fields and clay ones.
A courfe of crops common here is,



1. Turnips; but on 4. Oats

land rather too 5. Clover and ray-
ftiff grafs

2. Fallow 6. Fallow.

3. Wheat

Of all the execrable fyftems, fure none
can beat fuch capital ftrokes of barbarifm,
as cultivating turnips without barley, and
clover without wheat !

Another courfe is,

1. Fallow 4. Turnips

2. Wheat 5. Fallow

3. Peafe or beans 6. Wheat.
They plough three times for wheat, fow

iree bufhels per acre, and gain upon an
average two quarters and a half. They
2;ive two or three earths for barley, fow
ibur bufhels an acre, the crop three and a
lalf or four quarters. For oats they plough
mt once, fow five bufhels, the crop four
quarters. They never hoe either their
Deafe or beans.

For turnips they give three ploughings,
hand-hoe once or twice, and ufe them for
feeding fheep and beafls ; but their land
too heavy to feed off. There are many
hops; the labour attending them is 3/.



the poles are 8 s. per thoufand, and 3000
to an acre, which laft fix years ; drying 6s.
per C. wt, average product 7 C. wt. and
the price 3/. There are many hops
grown in the 18 miles to Maidjione. Marie
is a principal manure with them ; they
have it red, grey, blue and yellow ; blue
they reckon the heft, dig it in pits on the
fides of hills, and lay 250 or 300 loads
an acre, at 8 bufhels each; the digging
cofls 5 J", per hundred load ; four pair of
oxen and a horfe, and two or three boys
for drivers ; four carts, each two oxen and
one horfe, carry 100 loads a day. It lafts
good from five to eight years ; on light
fandy foils it brings great crops, but not
on wet ones : they affert, that it binds
fuch fo clofe, that the water cannot get

Lime they lay on their fallows for wheat,
a carriage an acre ; that is, a waggon load,
at 1 /. 1 s. at the kiln : it lafts but two

The beft farmers hollow-drain their

Their tillage is chiefly performed with
oxen, which they prefer greatly to horfes.



at breaking up the fallows in fpring they
life (to their fliame be it fpoken) 8 or 10 in
a plough ; but after that 6 : foot ploughs
are generally ufed. If horfes are worked j
4 in a plough. They always plough an
acre a day ; but the depth not more than 4
or 5 inches. The price of ploughing 6s,
to ioj-. an acre. 12 Oxen and 6 horfes
they reckon necefiary for 1 00 acres of ara-
ble land ; but they will earn fome money
by carting.

Good grafs land lets at 20/. an acre;
they graze it with fheep and beafts.

A cow gives 3 or 4 gallons of milk per

Their flocks of iheep are final! j they

1 2 3 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 5 of 19)