Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) online

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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 6 of 19)
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never fold them.

Particulars of a farm,

3150 Acres in all 26 Acres Whea*

70 Arable 20 Oats
80 Grafs 5 Barley

£.100 Rent 5 Clover

8 Oxen 12 Fallow
4 Horfes 4 Hops

8 Cows 2 Men

a 00 Sheep 1 Boy

24 Young cattle 2 Labourers

6 Fatting beafts 1 Maid.

Vol. in. K Abca:



130 THE FARMERS TOUR

About BurwaJJj land lets at 10s. ; there
is much more grafs than arable, with which
they fatten bullocks and fheep ; the latter
chiefly the weft country breed. Their
courfe of crops ;

i. Fallow

2. Wheat

3. Oats

4. Clover, take one hay crop, then
fallow for

5. Wheat.

They have no turnips, and very little
barley. Wheat yields 3 quarters per acre ;
oats 4 ; and clover 1 \ load of hay. Some
farmers mow their clover for hay, and then
feed it ; fome leave the firft growth for feed,
but the fecond is reckoned the beft ; which
is remarkable. They ufe 8 oxen and a
hprfe in a plough, and do an acre a day ;
their oxen have all hay in the winter. To
50 acres of arable land, and grafs propor-
tioned, they reckon 4 horfes and 8 oxen
necefiary.

Farms rife from 40/. to 200/. a year.

From Burwajh to Lewis the country is
various : About Hejf'el much wafte land ;
black moors, whofc fpontaneous growth is

ling,



THROUGH ENGLAND. 131

ling, whins, and grafs. The two latter,
fure proofs that thefe foils are by no means
irreclaimable. In general the upper ftra-
tum is a black, fibrous peat, full of roots,
which is undoubtedly a rich foil ; it is in
fome places 18 inches deep, in others a
foot, and in fome 6 inches : under it the
foil varies ; it is a light loam, a fand, or
, a gravel, but not much of the laft. Some
farmers have taken in and cultivated fmall
parts of it : their method has been to pare
and burn it, which cofts 1 /. is. per acre ;
then they plough, and fow oats, of which
\ they get 5 quarters ; after the cats they
fallow for wheat, and get 2 or: f quar-
ters, fometimes 3 ; after the wheat, oats, 4
quarters an acre, and (o on — keeping it
conftantly in tillage ; very few of them
ever laying it down. They never fow tur-
nips on it.

The only manure they apply is lime, of
Which they lay a load or a load and half an
acre. A. kiln of lime cofts 12/. and con-
tains 6 loads : they feldom ufe it for lefs
than 40 j. or 3 /. per acre. — The improve-
ment is reckoned, on the whole, very
unprofitable work by molt of the farmers.
K 2 On



132 THE FARMERS TOUR

On this notion I muft beg leave to offer
a few remarks ; the truth of it does not
appear from the above crops : but fuppof-
ing the fact, can any perfon wonder at it,
while their management is fo very contrary
to the nature of the foil.

I. Oats; 2. Fallow; 3. Wheat; 4 Oats.
— What a courfe for land that requires foli-
dity, and does better in grafs than any
thing elfe ? Summer fallowing this porous,
fibrous, network of roots, is poifon to it ;
many ploughings mould not be given it,
even for turnips, if they were not neceflary
for the total deftru&ion of the ling and
whins. The paring and burning, and lim-
ing, are the only parts of their fyftem that
are fenfible.

After the paring and burning, turnips
mould be fown on one ploughing : the crop
fed on the land on every account. After
this, a fecond crop of turnips on one or two
ploughings ; fed alfo on the knd ; then
oats, and with them plenty of grafs feeds ;
none better than white clover or rib grafs,
but not ray,. It fhould then be kept under
grafs, and no doubt but it will annually
improve ; the more it is rolled the better.

In



THROUGH ENGLAND. 133

In cafe this courfe of tillage fhould be
found too fliort to deftroy the ling, &c.
then let the courfe be ; 1. Turnips; 2. Oats;
3. Turnips ; 4. Oats, with graiTes — which
will effectually do it on any foil.

As to lime, too much cannot be laid on
thefe virgin lands, which, though negle&ed,
are certainly as rich as any ; and were it
not for the conilant fpontaneous crop,
would be found abfolute dunghills ; which
is the cafe with thofe that yield no growth,
viz. the real black bogs. The fooner the
lime is laid on, the fooner the benefit is
reaped of diflblving the roots, and fitting
them for the purpofes of vegetation. In
the north of England they fpread it with
the aflies of the paring. I have feen vari-
ous foils of this nature highly improved by
following this method ; the undertaking
will not be found unprofitable.

I brought away a quarter of a peck of
the black foil to compare it with others,
and I find it is the fame that have been
thus improved.

About Framfeld their courfe is,

1 . Fallow

2. Wheat
K 3



134 THE FARMER'S TOUR

3. Oats

4. Clover, mown once, then fallowed for

5. Wheat.

They lime their fallows w r ith from 2 to
5 loads per acre, at 12 s. a load, each 32
bufhels. They have neither barley nor
beans, thinking their land too weak for
either. Wheat yields 2 quarters per acre ;
oats 4 1. They have much grafs land, and
apply it all to breeding.

I obferved here fome black faced little
Iheep with horns.

To Lewis the country is various ; the
foil not fo rich as in many parts of Sujfex.

Mr. Poole at Ilook^ in the way from
Lewis to Grinjieady has for many years
tried various experiments in hufbandry, and
particularly in drilling.

Between 30 and 40 years ago he began
the new hufbandry, in Mr. TulPs method,
from feeing it pra&ifed by the late earl of
Haliifax, he tried it feveral years with
much attention ; but it turned out uniformly
unprofitable. Twenty years ago, having
thus repeatedly found that wide intervals
were not to be depended upon for a crop,
he contracted them to equally diftant rows,

to



THROUGH ENGLAND. 135

to which he has adhered ever fince, and
found the method regularly profitable.

Wheat, barley, and oats he has conftantly
drilled, at 9 inches.

Peafe, double rows, at 9 inches, with
intervals of 2 feet ; fome equally diftant,
at 18 inches.

Turnips equally diftant, 20 inches.

A courfe of crops which he practifes
much, is the following.

1. Drilled turnips.

2. Drilled barley.

3. Clover and trefoil e mixed.

4. Wheat broad-caft.

5. Dilled peafe.

The clover mown once for hay and then
for feed ; fometimes winter tares inftead of
the peafe.

For turnips, he prefers foap afhes to all
other manures ; he ufes 4 loads an acre, 32
buinels each, at 3*/. a bufhel : but he has a
drill plough with a manure hopper ; if that
machine is ufed, 1 load an acre is fufficient.
He horfe-hoes them twice or thrice ; 2
horfes, 2 men, and 1 boy will horfe-hoe
6 or 7 acres a day, with his horfe-hoe,
which is a fyftem of 5 final 1 fhims moving
K 4 in



J36 THE FARMER'S TOUR

in one frame. He is not clear that the crops
are greater than the broad-caft ones, but
the expence of hoeing is much lefs, not
more than as 3/. to 10/. He has kept 30
beafts 3 months on 5 k acres drilled. — He
ufed to plough three times for turnips, but
has lately tried one earth, and finds it to
anfwer better on land that is folded, from
%he dung not being buried.

Of barley he drills 2 bufhels to an acre,
after the clover is fown, but no hoeing ; if
no feeds with it, then it is hoed by a light
{him drawn by a man ; the crops are from
5 to 7 quarters. The Kentifi way of hoe-
ing in the clover, after the barley is up ?
appears to be preferable. The following
experiment was tried by Mr. Poole to afcer-
tain the refpedtive merits of the drill and
bjoad-caft methods.

Experiment ', No. f.

Manured an acre of land with 40 loads
of home made dung ; and fowed it with 7
bufhels of barley : the product 5 quarters.
At the fame time manured another acre
with 4 loads of malt-duft, and drilled it with.
\ \ bufhel j the crop 6 quarters 7 bufhels,



THROUGH ENGLAND,


1


37


Broad-taji.








40 Loads dung,*


/>








Carriage,* f ., . , » ,





5





^ BufheU feed, at 2 j.





J 4







2


*9





5 Quarters, at 2 s.


4








Brllkd.








4 Loads malt duft, - •*


1


8





j f Bufhel feed, - *





3







1


1 1





6 Quarters 7 buftiels, at 2j,


5


10





Drilled crop, - -


6


7





Seed,





1


2


Clear crop,


6


5


2


Broad-cart crop, ^f-f-5









Seed, - - ° 7











4


1


u



Superiority of the drilled - 242

Expence of manure and feed

broad-cart, - - £. 2 19 o

Ditto drilled, - - 1 j I o

Superiority, - 1 8 o



Which at 2 j. a bufhel, is I quarter 6
bufhels more.



* Thefe are Mr. Peck's prices 3 b<?th appear remark-
ably low.



ijl THE FARMER'S TOUR

Total fuperiorky of the drilled, 4 quar-
ters, 2 bufhels, 2 pecks. It was drilled in
equally diftant rows, at 9 inches, and had
no hoeing, as clover was Town with it.

Mr. Poole cuts the firft crop of his clover
and trefoile for hay, and gets 1 I load per
acre ; the fecond crop for feed, of which he
has from 2 to 9 bufhels ; average 3.

He fows 2 I bufhels an acre of wheat,
broad-caft, and gains about 3 quarters •
drilled, with manure on it, he feldom fails
of 4. — The manures he drills are, foap-
afhes — malt-duft at 3^/. a bufhel— coal
afhes — foot — wood-afhes — He mixes them
altogether with lime and fine mould.

Experiment, No. 2.
Lucerne he tried for 5 years, the rows
1 feet afunder, and fome 20 inches ; he
kept it as clean as he could, but never was
able to prefer ve it free from weeds, though
he beflowed the expence of digging be-
tween the rows : he cut it feven times a
year. The borders of the field, being very
thick with grafs, were pared and burnt,
and the afhes fpread on the field ; this was
done to deflroy the lucerne ; but the year

following,



THROUGH ENGLAND. 139

following, notwithftanding the plants had
all been cut through under ground, the
lucerne fprung up with frefh vigor ; only
the grafs and weeds were deftroyed. Mr.
Pooh apprehends the beft method of ma-
naging lucerne, would be to fow it broad-
caft, and plough it with a broad fin.

Experiment, No. 3.

Sainfoine this gentleman tried on a very
deep loam ; it did excellently for 3 years ;
he then manured it, and that brought up
fuch quantities of grafs and weeds, as to
chcak it up : but is well convinced
that it would have done very well, not-
withftanding the depth of the foil and there
being no rock under it.

Experiment, No. 4.

Accident difcovered to Mr. Poole a new
turnip ; on cutting through fome, he ob-
ferved one that was quite yellow through
the root ; a peculiarity that made him exa-
mine the leaf, to difcover if any more were
in the field ; he found it rather a paler
green than the common turnips ; by this
mark he difcovered feveral mere of them,

by



149 THE FARMER'S TOUR

by which he gained a quantity of the feed,
and cultivated them with great fuccefs.
The excellency of them is the weight ; a
root weighs doubly heavier than any other
fort of the fame fize.

Experiment^ No. 5.

Potatoes Mr. Poole tried in 1769, in the
lazy-bed manner ; he ftruck an acre of
land into divifions, each of 40 feet wide ;
every other bed was dunged and earthed
from the intermediate one ; ia that only
half an acre was occupied by the potatoes.
They were planted 18 inches fquare; in
which manner 10 bufhels did the half acre;
they were hand-weeded ; and the product
was 475 bufhels. It may be remarked that
a whole acre was occupied ; but the inter-
vals of 40 feet were made fo- wide on ac-
count of the land being intended for an
orchard ; the potatoes by no means required
fuch a breadth, or half of it— however I
fhall fuppofe them to have taken up 3 roods
of land, the crop is then 633 bufhels per
acre— a very noble crop !

In the application of it, he tried an
experiment which is of decifive utility;
he fatted hogs with the crop in lots.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 141

No. 1. Lot, was fattened with i~3d of
barley meal mixed with 2~3ds of
potatoes boiled.

2. With barley meal.

3. With peafe.

The two latter equal ; but No. 1. beat
them both ; the hogs fattened better and
quicker.

Experiment, No. 6.

Mr. Poole tried burnet in fmall quan-
tities ; he gave it to all forts of cattle ; none
would eat it. But the growth through
winter was very luxuriant.

Hollow drains Mr. Poole tried many
years ago, and has continued the practice
ever fince with the utmoft fuccefs ; he was
for fome time much laughed at by the
neighbouring farmers, but they now follow
his example with equal fuccefs.

A circumftance he mentioned to me,
concerning this part of hufbandry being
formerly in practice, deferves recording.
Near an 100 years ago a very large oak,
200 years old, was cut down at Hook, In
digging a ditch through the fpot where the
old flump was, on taking up the remains

of



142 THE FARMER'S TOUR

of it, a drain was difcovered under it filled
with alder branches : and it is very remark-
able, that the alder was perfectly found ;
the greennefs of the bark was preferved,
and even fome leaves were found ; on tak-
ing them out they prefently dropped to
powder. It is from hence very evident,,
that under-ground draining was practifed
more than 300 years ago in this kingdom:
that the hufbandry was common among
the Roma?js appears from Columella — We
find alfo, from hence, that alder is, of all
other woods, the beft for filling drains
with ; probably no other wood, unlefs it
be aquatics, would endure near fo long :
bullies are generally ufed : but from this
inftance, if I could not get alder, I would
ufe fallow or willow.

This gentleman ufes a double plough to
one beam, with which he does double the
work of the common fort, with the fame
horfcs.

Plate XXIII. Fig. 3. reprefents the ma-
chine with which he earths up his peafe in
equally diflant rows.

From 1 to 2 2 feet.

2 to 3 3

1 Fro m



Tldte ZSXZZT. Tol . HL page J+3




THROUGH


ENGLAND. 143


From 3 to 4


1 foot 2 inches.


i to 5


2


5 to 6


10


7 to 8


1 6


The crois bars 3


inches wide. The



wings contract or widen by the pins 9.

This tool he finds of excellent ufe ; no
hand- work equals it in neatnels and accuracy.
Plate XXIII. Fig. 4. is the hoe drawn by
a man, inftead of a horfe-hoe.
From A to B. 2 feet.

B to C. 2 6 inches.

D to E. 1 8

E to F. 1 6

G to H. 1 o

I. The hook by which the man
draws.

The wings on each fide the wheel, 6
inches wide; diameter of the wheel 12
inches.

Mr. Holr yd of Sheffield Place, fince his
refidence in this neighbourhood, has given
a fpirited attention, as a jufiiceof the peace,
to the abufes among the parifh officers in
matters of poor and rates. The latter ran
up to a moft extravagant height, owing to
the farmers playing into each ethers hands.

They



144 THE FARMER'S TOUR

They paid weekly allowances, and houfe-
rent to labourers in full health and ftrength,,
and many children were left quite untaught
in any induftry till 15 or 16 years old.
They agreed among themfelves, that them-
felves mould have allowances from theparim,!
of 1 J. 6 J. or 2 x* a week per lad, for tak- 1
ing them as iervants, befides being partly,
cloathed at the parlfh expence a!fo ; while!
many of the lads were worth near as much;
wages, as they were paid for taking them 5 i
and maid-iervants were alfo taken in the
fame manner.

Mr. HofroyJ, difgufted at fuch knavery,']
made extracts from the poor laws, which: i
he gave the farmers ; and himfelf under-;
took the office of overfeer. He has appren-
ticed the fmalleft boys and girls to the richefi:
farmers ; and the ftouteli lads and girls to!
the poorer farmers, without any allowance,.
except 25 s. a head for cloathing. Many
of the farmers were much againit this plan j
fo that fix paid the penalty of 10/. each,
rather than agree to terms that fo fully
proved the tendency of their former tranf-
a&ions — and thefe forfeitures have cloathed
the children. Whoever ate relief of the
2 parifhes



THROUGH ENGLAND. 145

parifhes on account of large families, he
relieves, by apprenticing out the children
that are of a proper age ; fo that none are
otherwife relieved but the old and infirm.
He further allows of no parifh feafts,
the expence of which ufed all to be charged
to the parifh account, and was no trifling
article ; and he ftrikes from out their ac-
counts all iums, the particular difburfement
of which is not fpecified. Thefe rules of
conduct have been attended with fuch an
effect, that the rates, which ufed to run at
4 s. 6d. in the pound, he is clear of reduc-
ing, very foon, to is. 6d. at the fame
time that the old people are taken much
better care of: before, no attention was
given to any thing but great families,
which the officers made the fource of plun-
der ; and the farmers by having apprentices
depend on keeping them, and find it their
intereft. to make them induflrious. *

There

* Mr. Hciroyd's feat, Sheffield Place, is fituated
in the molt agreeable part of the neighbouring
country : the park is fine, forming varied lawns
well wooded, Shelving into winding vales, and
commanding very noble fvveeps of richly culti-
vated country. One vale takes an irregular

Vol. III. L courfe



146 THE FARMER'S TOUR

There is great public utility in a gentle-
man who undertakes the office of a juftice
of the peace, attending minutely to thefe
parts of the bufinefs. The abufes of the
parifh officers call out for a remedy as much
as any ether; and a neighbourhood is not a

little



courfe through the park and grounds ; the
bomraaries' of which are well contrafted. In
• places thick woods of oak hang to the bot-
tom ; in others copfes, inclofures, and lcattered
trees-, in one fpot the hills rife in a bold manner,
intermixed with rocks and pendent woods. A
imall river takes its courle through the vale,
which is formed into two Like;, one of them at
the foot of the romantic_ ground above-men-
tioned j the other partly environed by a large
wood, which on one fide is thick to the very
water's edge •, but on the other, the underwood
againfl the water is cleared away, and the land
converted to lawn, but the trees left in it, which
forms a moll agreeable retired fcene, backed by
the thick wood. The lawn breaks away among
the woods, and riles to the houfe, which Hands,
on higher ground. This winding vale, fo rich
in wood, water, and hanging fides of hills, is
ken to great advantage from a feat in the park,
from whence the view is truly picfurefque. Near '
the houfe is a wood of 60 acres, full of very fine
timber, and cut into agreeable walks, one
of which, that winds by the fide of the river in
a fequeftercd part of the valley," is beautiful.



THROUGH ENGLAND, i

little obliged to thofe fpirited, active gent ic-
;mcn, who will execute this office with vigour,
in remedying iuch real evils. ■

The following are the particulars 6i
HoIr:yd y $ farm.

836 Acres in all 500 Sheep

450 Grafs 12 Cows

66 Arable 48 Bcafts

306 Wood 6 Horfes

14 Water 8 Draught oxen.

Farms, through this country, about
•Sheffield Place i rife from 40 /. to 1 30 /. a year :
the foil is moftly heavy ; much of it ftiff
clay; lets at an average at ioj*. an acre
but woods not more than 5 or 6. Their
•courfe of crops ;

1. Fallow, limed or dunged

2. Wheat

3. Oats or barley

4. Clover and ray-grafs 1 year

5. Wheat

Very few turnips.

They plough four times for wheat ; fow
3 bufhels, and get 3 quarters per acre;
but 7 have been gained. For barley
they plough three times ; fow from 4 to 6
bufhels per acre, fometimes 7 ; and on the
L 2 ibuth



148 THE FARMER'S TOUR

fouth downs even to 8. The crop in the
wild is 4 quarters, but on the hills 6 or 7.
They ftir but once for oats ; fow 5 or 6
bufhels an acre ; the crop to 6 quarters ; 3
{- the average. For peafe they ftir three
times ; fow 4 bufhels an acre broad-caft ;
fometimes in every other furrow : the crop

3 quarters an acre : they have fcarce any
beans.

The few turnips they have, they plough
three or four times for ; hand-hoe them
twice, and eat them on the land with fheep;
fome of them feed beafts with them.

They have both winter and fummer tares?,
but moft of the latter : fow them on a
wheat ftubble for foiling horfes in the flable;
1 acre will keep 6 horfes 5 weeks, if the
crop is good.

They have a little buck-wheat, whichi
they alfo fow after wheat ; the crops about;

4 quarters an acre; life it for fattening
hogs, for pigeons, poultry, &c.

There have been fome improvements oi
wafte land in this country. Some fmall
tracts from Chelwood common and AfrdoiLK
foreft have been converted to profit. Tl
foil a black moory fand upon loam ; the

fpon-



THROUGH ENGLAND. * 49

fpontaneous growth ling (here called heath)
and wild grafs. Their method has been
to pare and burn it in May, and then
plough three or four times for wheat; of
which they get as good crops as on the befl
land. After wheat they fow oats, and get

4 or 5 quarters an acre ; with the oats
clover, which they mow for hay ; and fuc-
ceed that by wheat again. Sometimes
they fow turnips on the paring and burn-
ing. The rent, even inclofed, is very low ;
much at zs. an acre; fome is. 6 a 1 .

Refpe&ing manures, few farmers in this
part of the wild have fheep enough to fold ;
but on the hills they all fold from May to
Michaelmas.

Paring and burning is ck>ne at the ex-
pence of i /. is. per acre.

They lime all forts of foils ; lay on 4 or

5 loads an acre; 30 bufhels each, at iox.
a load, befides carriage; it lafts 3 crops,
the wheat, oats, and clover.

Marie is not much ufed, though more at
prefent than formerly : but there are abun-
dance of old marie pits about the country,
with trees an hundred years old in them ;
which ihews that marling was once prac-
h 3 tifed



?50 THE FARMER'S TOUR

tiled more in this country than itis atprefent.
They lay on 300 loads an acre ; each lo.
bufhcls ; but it does not laft above 7 or 8-
years.

They chop their ftubbles, and cart them
to the farm yard for litter ; and alfo fern
for the fame ufe ; but their hay they ftack
about the fields ; and their barns are all
fcattered about the farms.

Pigeons dung they fow on their mea-
\'3, and find great ufe in it.
Moft of their good grafs is mown ; they
have but little dairying ; they fatten a few
beafts and fheep. The breed of cattle is
their own Sn/Jcx mort-homed ; feldcm rife
to more than 120 ftdne (8 lb.) In rearing
calves, they have the peculiar method of
letting them run with the cows 9 or 10
weeks ; thus facrificing the whole milk of
a cow to rearing one calf; whereas in the
north they rear oxen that come to 100 ftone
(14/^.) with flet or blue milk only. Four
gallons of milk is about the quantity given
by a good cow ; the winter food ftraw and
hay.

Their fwine fatten to 60 ftone (8 #.)
Mr. Daws, one of Mr. Holroyd^ tenants,
fatted one to 86 ftone, clear weight.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 151

The chief fheep management here, L
wintering flocks for the down farmers, .for
which they receive zs. 6d, a head. Thofc
who purchale any for themfclvcs, buy in
wether lambs about jfa/jfo at 51. 6d. to
6d. a head ; keep them a year and quarter;
and fell them fat at 16/. or 17 s. and get 2-f*
more by the wool. In hammer they fold
them a little. Some farmers buy Do;ja
ewes in October, at 20 s. which lamb before
Chrijlmas - y they fell the lambs fat in Jufy>
at 20 s. and then fatten the ewe, which
they fell at iSs. to 20/. They give their
own flocks a few turnips, but the wintered
ones have only the ftubbles. The fouth
down fheep clip about 2 or 3 lb. a aeece.

In their tillage they reckon 4 horfes and
10 oxen neceflary for 150 acres of arable
jand ; they ufe 8 oxen in a team or 4 horfes.

No real neceffity is implied in fuch drafts,
when in the hands of farmers who, in thefe
matters, are fo extremely ignorant. They
have here a great antipathy to turnpikes.
One of them who lives where there are none,
allured Mr. Holroyd, that they deftroyed
the cart tackle, and fhook the carriages to
pieces ; expreffing his fatisfaction at living
L 4 where



i 5 2 THE FARMER'S TOUR

where there are none, but in fuch roads
that the bed of the waggon drags on the
ground ; obferving that did not wear either I
the wheels or the carriage.

I was informed, that oxen have been
ufed here, one before another, in harnefs.

A team does an acre a day, fometimes
one and a quarter ; the depth from three
to five inches, and the price from 6 s. to
$s.

In the winter feeding their teams, they
reckon that a horfe eats more hay than an
ox, if conftantly worked ; but they keep
the latter on ftraw, when not worked.
Horfes they think mofl profitable on wet
land, becaule they go in a row ; but oxen


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 6 of 19)