Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) online

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enlarged particularly on this point in my
Northern T'our (from the minutes of which
the fame obfervations were deduced) it is
the lefs necefTary to be particular here.






THROUGH ENGLAND. 243



LETTER XLVI.



TH E quantities of Seed ufed for the
production of both corn and pulfe,
are an effential article in their culture.
This is an object very important in two
refpects ; firft, the general application cf
the whole crop ; and fecondly, to difcover,
if we can, the portions that are moft advan-
tageous. There is no point in agriculture
about which opinions vary more, nor any
in which a greater difference is found in
practice : when this is the cafe, it is always
ufeful to difcufs the variations — *to attempt
to difcover their reafon — and the quantities
moft beneficial, either abfolutely in them-
felves, or relatively to foil ; this I mah
attempt in the following tables.

Wheat. Rye. Bar I. Oats. ] Peafe.*Beans.



Place.

1 . Hsmpjlead,

2. Tring,

3. Bit/worth,

4. Haxelbeech,



Rent.

I. s.d.y
o 10 o'3
o 10 o'z\

O 12 02j

o 6 ozi



S'S






4 4°

4 24

24 5 -28

l6>2 24.



9 &

4^4

22



?v.





28



244 THE FARMERS TOUR



Place.

<j. Glendon,
6. Mr. Booth,
Jt Quenby,

8. Dijhley,

9. Radburn,

10. Tiddfivell,

11. Chejl^rfield,

12. La-iuton,

13. Gateford,

14. Blytbe,

1 5 . Wo?nbn.<:ell,

16. Bootbarn,

1 7. Can-wick,

1 3. Lever ington,

1 9. Runclon,

20. Snettijbam,

21. War bam,

22. Ayljham,

23. Earl bant,

24. Br aeon Ajh,

25. /?%■,

26. Bramford,

27. Haftead,

28. C.olche/ler,

29. Your.gs berry,

30. Mr. Arbuth-
not,

3 1 . Beaksburn,
31.* Thanet,

32. HaivkburJ},
'33. S/^/i

Place,

34. Walherton,

35. Mr. Turner

36. ///<? 8P}"gv&/,

37. Ditto,

38. Aire .ford,

39. Gilbury,

40. Cr it chill,

4. 1 . Moreton,

4.2. C<?w,



7-TW.



#*«/.



J. //.

IO o

o
10

16



IO
IO

16



IO o

7 6
18 o
14 o

12

8



4

16



o
6
o
o
15 6

15 o
12 6
14 6

16 o
12 o
12 o^



3 14 O

D 17 O

3 12 O

D IO O



O O
IO O

O O



IO



10 b
IO o
12 O

5 °



6a

on

2

2
2
2

3

If

3

H

A
2

3

3

a I

J +

*i

3

*I

3

2

■i

3iP

2*-'

* ■>!

3
3

3

2



ity



I

is

*7

24

28
23

*S

26

1

22
24
24

2 3
2

20
24
24
26
20
28
28
26
20
28
20
* 2 3

28

20|
24

3
28

33

20
16

20
22
18

1:



12



5ar/. .Oa/.r. \Peafe.






4

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

3

3f

3

4

3

3

2 !

3

4

3

3

3

3

4

4



n g?i



2 4
36

3 2 4i

284

3 2 4
32

3 2 4



24 ! 6

2 4J4
20I5



5 3 2



16

7 2
64

48

48

56

5

3 2

40


40
36
26

40
3 2

3

4 6 4
3 2 '4
4°3

P

36

28'2
642*

3 2 4



3 2 3
564*

3 2 ;
284



f3



3 2 3i
324

324

32
244

24I



!

3*

40

*4



i'j



2)



i
24 ' i



if,

2:



THROUGH ENGLAND. 245



J tnton
■knnington



Rent.

I. s.d.
1 o o



Wheat. I Rye. , Bar/, pais. Pea/e. Beans



20



wrleyford, o 1 1 oj 3 \z\
monsjield, jo ■ 9 oj 2|ti6



/erages,



o 13 o 25:23



£> O £o

3*
3

3f
3l



324
36'+

2 4 3



40

38
24



zl'21 si l 32 | 4 | 38



r*i32

jib

im






The numbers marked * are drilled.



41
J*

4

3l



20
36

20
31



■laving thus drawn the general averages,

all in the next place compare the pro-

ts with the refpective quantities of feed,

inning with

WHEAT.

Products from two bufiels of feed.



ce.
6. „

7-
8. -





Crop.

*7

- 24

28

- 23



Place.

No. 1 8.
26.
27,
35-



Crop,
28
26
20
28



iverage product 24 bufhels.
From 2 f and 2 | bufiels of feed.



:e.

2.
3.
5-
1.

2.

3.

7-
2.

4-



Crop.

25
20

15

26

x8

22

23
26
28



Place.

No. 28.

29.

36.

37-
43-
44.
46.



Crop,
28
20
28

o -»

O-

20

20

24
l6



Average product 23 bufhels.



246 THE FARMER'S TOUR

From 2 | and 3 biifhels of feed.

Place. Crop. ! Place. Crop,

No. 1. - 25 No. 31. - 28

4. -t 12 32. - 20

10. - 25 33. - 24

14- - 2 4 34- - 32

15. - 24 39. - 20

19. - 20 41. - 18

20. 24 42. - 17
23. r 26 45. ^ 24
25. - 28

Average product 22 bufhels.

From 3 £ tfW 3 \ bufhels of feed.



Crop,
16



Place. Crop. Place.

No. 21. - 24 No. 38.

30. r 23 40. - 22

Average product 2 1 bufhels.

From 2, - 24

2 I and 2 f , - 23

2 i and 3, - 22

3 * and 3 f, - 21

A more unbroken degradation could not
have* happened ; and though there is not a
proof, that the caufe is the quantity of
feed, yet there is much reafon to fuppofe
fmall portions a part of good husbandry,
and attendant on rich foils. When the
Jand is rich, and the hufbandry good, it is
evidently proved, that two bufhels of
2 wheat



THROUGH ENGLAND. 247

wheat feed are preferable to any larger
quantity, and of courfe that there is a
great wafte when more is ufed.
BARLEY.

From 2 to 3 bufiels of feed.



Place

No. 4

6

12

13

14
16

18

10

20



Crop.

2 4

56
24
36
32
24

44
28

24



Place.


Crop.


No. 21.


- 36


23.


28


24.


- 32


25.


32


26.


- 32


3i.


28


Si*.


40


44.


32



Average product 32 bufhels.
From 31 to 4, both inchfive.
Place.
No. 1.

2. ■•

5-

7- "
8.

9- -

10.

11.

15-
17. -

22.



Average product 3



Crop.


Place.


40


No. 27.


24


28.


32


29.


34


3^.


36


36.


44


37-


44


39-


36


41.


4 S


43.


28


45.


32


1 46.


duct 3'


5 bufhels.



Crop*

24
28

30
36

44
32

23

24

25

36

-24



R 4



248 THE FARMER'S TOUR

From 4 f and 5 bufiels.



Place.
No. 3.



Crop.
28



5<f



Place.
No. 38.

40.

42.
xiihels.



Crop,

24
20



Average product 27

From 2 to 3 32

3 I t0 4 " 33

4 I and 5 27

From hence it appears, that from 3 £ to
4 bufliels, are attended with the greater!:
products. This is very confiftent with the
common ideas of improved husbandry.

OATS.

From 2 § tq % \ bufiels of feed.



Place.
No. 2.
6.


Crop.

- 48

7 2


Place.
No. 31.*
46.


Crop,
24


14.

Averagi


- 40
z product 48 b


uihels.






From 4 and 4 \ bujloels of feed.


Place.
No. 1.
9-


Crop. | Place.
48 | No. 19.
48 J 20.


Crop.

- 40

32


12.


32 | 23.


32


13-
16.


5 4° | 24.
36 | 26.


40

- 36


*/•


26 J


27.


- 28



Ik



THROUGH


ENGLAND. 249


Place. Crop.


Place.


Crop.


No. 29. - 32


No. 39.


- 32


31. - 32


41.


- 24


35- - 48


44.


- 40


37- - 32


45-


" 38


Average product 35 bufhels.




From 41 to 5, both mclufive.


Place. Crop.


Place.


Crop.


No. 5. - 16 |


No. 22.


- 46


8. - 48


28.


64


11. - 52


32.


- 32


15. - 40


42.


24


1 Average product 40 bufhels.




Upwards of 5 bufoels.




Place. Crop.


Place.


Crop.


iNo. 3. - 40


No. 33.


28


4. - 22


38.


- 32


7. T 64


40,


- 32


10. - 56






Average product 39 bufhels.




From 2 f to 3 I - 48




4 and 4-35




4 1 to 5 - 40




above 5 - 39




This table is fo full of contradictions,


that no conclufions t<


3 be relied


upon, are


to be drawn from it.




It may indeed be divided,




From 2 { to 4 \


4i


above 4 \


»


39



250 THE FARMER'S TOUR

From which fomething may be flightly
conjectured.

Let me here remark on the quantities of
wheat, barley, and oat feed, that the
fmalleft portions appearing the moft advan-
tageous, is partly owing to feveral places
being included where the corn is drilled and
hoed ; in which mode, lefs feed will un-
doubtedly do, than broadcaft.





PEASE.






From 2 I to 3 bufhels.




Place,
No. i.


Crop.
- 25


Place.
No. 24.


Crop.
24


12.


22


25-


20


13.


22


27.


20


15- 24

16. - 24

17. - 14
21. - 20

Average product 23 b


28.
3i.
45.

ufhels.


32
28
28




From ^to\t


wjhels of feed.




Place.

No. 2.


Crop.
20


Place.

No. 31.* -


Crop.
32


11.

19.
22.


20
20
28


33-

37-

38. -


24
28
16


23.
29.


24
16


39-
41.


20
16



it



THROUGH ENGLAND.


251


lace. Crop. \ Place.


Crop.


o. 43. - 20 | No. 46.


20


44- " 32 |




verage product 22 bufhels.




Above 4 bufiels of feed.




lace. Crop. \ Place.


Crop.


0. 4. - 12 | No. 5.


32


verage, - 22 bufhels.




From 2 \ to 3 » 23




3 to 4 - 22




above 4 - 22




BEANS.




prom 2 to 3 bufiels of feed.




lace. Crop.


Place.


Crop.


0. 2. - 30


N0.31.* -


36


28, - 52


36.





30. - 27


44.


36


.verage produd 37 bufhels.




Prom 3 to 4 bufieh of feed.




Mace. Crop. | P/#ft\


Crop.


0. 6. - 40


No. 18.


24


12. - 21


35-


40


15- - 32


46.


2Q


Lverage product 29 bufhels.




Above 4 biijhels of feed.




Mace. Crop.


Place.


Crop,


lo. 3. - 28


No. 7.


24


5- " 32


43.


20



average product 26 bufhels,



*J2 THE FARMER'S TOUR

From 2 to 3, - 37

3 to 4, - 29

above 4, - 26

With both peafe and beans, fmall quan^
titles of feed muft, beyond a doubt, be the
molt beneficial. Where the crops are fown
thin, they generally hand-hoe, which very
thick fowing excludes ; befides, the bean is
fo ftrong and branching a plant, that a few
of them well cultivated, will cover much
ground : which is not the cafe with white
corn.

Recapitulation.

The moft advantageous portions of fee4
appear to be,

Wheat, 2 bufhels.
Barley, 3 I to 4 ditto.
Oats, 2 I to 3 I ditto.
Peafe, 2 \ to 3 ditto.
Jkans, 2 to 3 ditto.






THROUGH ENGLAND. 253



LETTER XLVIL

THE article of tillage is worthy
of the utmoft attention, that it may
be known what is the average draught of
the kingdom, the expence and other cir»
cumftances, alfo the comparative ftrength
applied to different foils. Therefultofa
fimilar enquiry in my Northern Touf
fhewed, that this comparifon turned out
merely a matter of chance; probably it will
do the fame now ; but it is always of con-*
fequence, to know the degree, as well as
the certainty of the fact : I fhall at the
fame time include the expence of keeping
horfes, which is an object ftrartgely neg-
lected by the writers of hufbandry, though
a very material part of rural oeconomics*
The foil I fhall characterife under the three
diftindtions of fand, loam, and clay }
oxen mull be reckoned as horfes.



254 THE FARMERS TOUR



Place.



I

2

3
4'
5-
6

7

8.

9-

30.
II.

12.

*3'

14.

'5-
16.

*7-

j8.
19.

20,
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27,

28.
29.

30.

»»■

32.
33-
34-
35-
36.
37-
38.

39-
40.
41.
42.

43-
44.

45-
46.

47-
48.
49.
50.
5i-
52-
53-



Hempjlead

Tr'wg

Ayljhury

Hockjlon

Blifrvortb

Hafclbeecb

Clendon

^uenby

Dijhley

Mr. Bakevoell

Alfreton

Radburn

Ttddf-aiell

Cbejlerfeld

hanuton

Gateford

Blytbe

Doncajler

Broadhvortb

Wombnuell

Bootbam

Caniv'ic

Summer-tafih

Sivinebead

Lcverington .Clay



Soil. O %S3\PriceProp.
I B i>l per



Loam 4

Ditto 4

day (4

Loam 1 47

Clay

Clay

Loan

Clay

Loam

Loam

Loam

Clay

Loan-.

Loan;

Loam

Sand

Sand

Sand

Loam

Loam

Loam

Loam

Loam

Clay



Runtlon

Majfingbam

Snettljbam

Warbam

Ayljham

Earlbam

Bracon-Ajh

Flegg

Woodbr'idgc

Hadleigb

Haftead

Colcbefier

Youngsberry

Morden

Cbeam

Carjhalton

Feverjham

Beakjburn

Haiukburfl

Sheffield-place

Walberton



?',*• d.

5 7°

6 Is o

3 I



3 5

4 I

3



2 2

2 12



Sand
Sand
Sand
Sand
Sand
Sand
Loam
Sand k
Sand U
Loam 1 *
Clay y.
Loam 2

cl? b

Loam 47
Loam si
Loam '4
Loam 4
Clay J4
Clay '4
Clay I*



3

2 I* 47<4



Ifle of Wight^zm A
Loam 4 J
Loam 5
Loam 4 J
Clay 4 '
Loam 4
Loam^



Ditto

Ditto

Alresford

Gilbury

CritcbUl

Morcton



si

4 2

5 a

3 2
f4 2

6 I
47 4

i5*4

4 |6

5

5



7
*5 7

5 7
4i8
4 7

4i6
6

J S

T4 7

4 8

4 6

4 6

4 5



100
5



9i
7

10



10 o
8 6



S



Expence j Time of breaking
keeping. Stubbles.

s. d.\
15 o o After Cbr iftmat,
Cbrijlmas,



April.
After Cbrijh
Ditto.

Ditto.
March.

Cbrijlmas.
April.

February.
April.
<y,January.
December.
November.



6 o

6 10

7 °



November.
Lady-Day,
Ditto.



Felt



uary.



500 November.
660 February.
510 o After Cbr'tfk

Autumn.

Ditto.

Cbrijlmas.

Michaelmas.

Autumn.

April. j ffl ■■

Autumn.
10 10 o. After Cbrijlmts -„,.,



15 o o'



15 O 0*



Autumn.



Autumn.
Autumn.

Autumn.
Autumn.
Cbrijlmas.
Cbrijlmas.



ever

M to

•ope,



* Including decline of value.






THROUGH ENGLAND. 255



1



Piatt.



•,•4. Came

Milton Abbey

Mapptrton

Leigb

3. Taunton

Wdh XoBath

O. Rundivay
Over ton
Donnington
Reading
Harleyford
Becomjuld






Averages,



Soil.


<?l


5


fc


Price]


P/-5/).!


Exptnce 1










/*r | *«/.i«g-. 1









si


j.


J.


IOO. /. j. ^.J


Loam


4


1


4


5





4




Ditto


4


1


5


7


6


6




Ditto


4


1








3




Clay


4


i3i


5





6




Clay


5




44


4


6


16


7 10


Loam


6














Loam


4














Ditto


4














Clay


4


1


5


G





5




Loam 4














Ditto


4


1


^


9





6




Ditto


s *


5


7


6 | 6




Mi


5


6 t 6£


940




_


■ —


'-


,-




,


1



Time of breaking
Stubbles.



Nvutmlir,

November,
CLriJlmas.



It Is remarkable, that the average draft
)f this Tour fhould be exactly the fame
is in the Northern one : three and one
:hird are a much greater ftrength than ne-
:effary, efpecially as a very confiderable
part of the journey is through fandy coun-
tries.

The depth of four and a half inches on
in average appears to be very little, if
onfidered with the leaft attention to the
length of the roots of all crops. We do not
poffels clear and decifive experiments (and
[ much queftion whether the points will
sver be precifely known) that w T ill enable
as to pronounce, what is in general the
proper depth on all foils. Thofe who
urge the propriety of deep tillage, quote

inftancesj






2jb THE FARMER'S TOUR

inftances, in which it is fuccefsful. In
this Tour the experiments of Mr. Arbuth-
not, Mr. Burke, and Mr. Ducket, are as
fatisfa&ory as poflible, in proving that ;■:
deep ploughing is excellent ; but then on &
the other hand, what is to be faid to places, ■'
where very mallow ploughing is attended ;
with equal, and perhaps much fuperior
fuccefs ?

Thefe are not matters, in which reafon
fhould decide, though it may fometim
interfere : experiments moft carefully ma
(which by the way would be infinite!
difficult) can alone fpeak it authoritatively,
But let us for a. moment endeavour



n



to
reconcile the apparent contradictions, be-
tween the trials of particular gentlemen,
and the general refult of various tillage.

I conceive, that deep ploughing demands \
better hufbandry, particularly refpecting
manures, than mallow ploughing; and ;::
that depth, which with certain excellent :
farmers is advantageous, would with :
inferior managers be pernicious. fa.

Let it in the firft place be confidered,
that in manuring a field, you mix the '
manure with the upper ftratum of the earth
5 ufually






THROUGH ENGLAND. 257

ufually moved in tillage ; fuppofe you
plough four inches deep, and lay on 20
loads of dung, you confequently mix that
portion of manure with the loofe earth
of four inches. But fuppofe 20 loads are
fpread on eight inches of depth, will the
Jcrops be the fame ? I apprehend not.
;rhat there is a certain advantageous pro-
portion between given quantities of manure,
land given quantities of earth ftirred by the
•plough, on which they are fpread, cannot
:be doubted ; for all the earth that is moved
ought to be mixed or impregnated with the
manure ; but this cannot be, if by plough-
ling deeper you raife more loofe earth, with-
out increafing your dung.

Manures will foon be mixed with the
Earth, as deep as you plough, and if they
■ire not proportioned to the mould, the
plants growing in it will thrive only in
proportion to the richncfs of that comport,
which fupports them. This will appear
very clear, if we fuppofe a greater depth
than common; for inftance, two feet: ir in-
stead of ploughing, as formerly, fix
inches, you ftir two feet, but manure the
•fame as before, 20 loads an acre. Now



Vol. IV. S is






258 THE FARMER'S TOUR

is it not very plain, that this manure*
which was proportioned to the body of
earth moved in fix inches, muft be almoft
loft in that of two feet ? and the effect
would be (without recurring to fowernefs
of foil, &c.) a bad crop.

If the depth of ploughing mould depend
on that, to which the roots of field vege-
tables run, two feet may as well be named
as one ; for it is well known they will,
in a fine bed of mould, be two feet long.

This reafoning induces me to think, that
the quantities of manures ought to be pro-
portioned to the depth of tillage. If 20
loads were a good drefling, when the
land was ploughed four inches deep, moll M
afluredly it will not when it is ftirred m
twelve. ffcre

But it may further be confidered, that H
in proportion as the loofe foil is diftant frorii |s 2
the air, or rather from its beneficial in- fed
fluence, in fuch proportion will it require
another fuperiority of manuring, and aUljnr
other efforts of good hufbandry, to correct fa
that fowernefs, which it will undoubtedly m
have. The fyftcm of deep ploughing is
very incomplete, and indeed means little, i

if



I



::;;;;






c



THROUGH ENGLAND. 259

f the loofe earth is not one uniform mafs,
he fame as it always is in common ma-
agement ; to have it in that itate, it mud
e equally manured, and equally turned
,) the fun with the fhallower foils.

Thole who laugh at the mention of the
)wernefs of the under flrata, talk equally

ainft reafon and experience. Thofe who
;ally underftand this point rationally,
r 'll you, that an unuiual depth mould be
ained in the beginning of a fallow, and
jiat the firft crop ought not to be wheat
barley, but hardier plants. Does not
lis fhew the real ftate of the cafe ? And
this fowernefs is once admitted, the pre-
ding reaibning is furely juft, that propor-
Dnate means muft be ufed, not only to
ire it at rirft, but to prevent its return.

Hence therefore we rind, that both par-
es are confident : farmers, who change
.te depth alone, fay ploughing deep is
^rnicious ; and they are certainly right :
mtlemen, who are more fnirited in thei r
meral management, apply manures with
'.more liberal hand, and give more plenti-
,1 and better tillage, lay it is excellent,
'id therein fpeak equal truth ; but keep
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2 6o THE FARMERS TOUR

the points feparate ; and do not in the lump
recommend very deep tillage, as common
in convention, and the pages of moft
writers, without attendant explanations.

That the average of this Tour, four and
a half inches, is too fhallow, I am clear in
my own mind ; though there is no proof
of it ; the greater depths of five, and up-
wards, are in thofe parts, where there is t
belt hufbandry. Befides, 6 or 8 inches
turned over by the lighted: ploughs with
pair of horfes, with near as much eafe as
and a half, and confequently would be ke
in as good order in every refpedt of ex
fition ; fix or eight inches, according
foil, may be found deep enough for any
common crop under common management \
but when trench-ploughing, or any great(
depth, that requires really more than two
horfes, then great expences are the con
quences of that depth, and much larg<
quantities of manure requifite to gain,
may venture to fay, the fame produces

The proportion of fix and a half horfe
to too acres arable is, upon the whole,
obje&able : it is much more modcrat

tha



THROUGH ENGLAND. 261

than nine and a third, the average of the
: Northern Tour.

Nine pounds four fhillings, the average
expence of horfes (but including only two
places, where decline of value is reckoned)
makes this part of the expence of tillage 59/.
. 1 6 s. per 1 00 acres of arable, or very near
L12 s. per acre : an enormous article, which
jfhews in the ftrongeft manner, how much
it behoves every man to keep no more
horfes than abfolutely necefl'ary.

As to the time of breaking the fallows,
it is an object of much more importance
than commonly imagined among farmers.
I will not pretend to aifert, which feafon
is heft, but undoubtedly one mull be fupe-
irior to the reft on certain foils. The modern
writers of hufbandry fpeak in this refpect
.as in all others ; generally they raife a
feurly burly : oh ! you are all mad for
not ploughing them at Michaelmas. Why ?
fays the farmer. But thefe gentlemen
mere beg to be excufed ; for as to an
xpsriment, that clearly proves this point,
[ aver there is not a fingle one. It is true,
you have an hundred rcafons ; but this
dependance on reafon is the curfe of agri-

S 3 culture :



s



262 THE FARMER'S TOUR

culture : it has peftered the world long
enough, and ought at laft to give way to
experiment. If I am afked, what is the
proper feafon, I can only confefs my igno-
rance, and offer like my brethren fome
reafoning.

From the obfervations I have made, I
am clear, that it is in certain cafes ivrong
to break a Hubble in autumn. On a wet
foil, in proportion as an early fpringfowing
is important, directly in that proportion
is this autumnal ploughing wrong. Sup-
pofe I have a corn ftubble, which I intend
fowing in fpring with beans or hardy peafe ;
and fuppofe further, what no man can
contradict, that it is of particular moment
to get fuch feed into the ground in Febru-
ary ^ if the weather will permit ; in this
cafe, the ftubble muft not be touched ; for
if it is, the proportion of time will be the
end of March , on an average, inftead of the
middle of February ; for that land, which
will break up from ftubble quite in molds,
will not allow a horfe to tread it, if ploughed
the autumn before. Two circumftances
unite here to recommend fowiqg on one
earth; firft, getting the feed early into |
5 the



THROUGH ENGLAND. 263

the ground; and fecondly, on fine tilth,
if I may fo call it ; for let him who ploughed
in autumn, fow at the fame time with
another who did not plough then, and the
former fhall fow in garden moulds, the
latter in mortar.

The arguments in favour of autumnal
ploughing turn much on the benefits of a
winter expofition to the atmofphere ; that
the fine nitrous affairs may come in full
play. All this founds extreamly well;
but plough half a wheat ftubble in O5tober %
and leave the other half till the fpring to
fow on one earth : all other circumfb.nces
equal, which will be the beft crop ? This
is a plain queftion : where is the man that
can anfwer it ? Here again we have reafon
and chemiftry, but not farming experiment.
On many foils, your tillage land is in
winter a mafs of mud, from the eafy
admiffion of rain, owing to the tillage, but
if left unploughed, it fhoots off the water,
and remains dry ; why fhould not this be
an advantage?

But to reverfe the medal, a cafe is to
be ftated, wherein the autumnal tillage
appears to be of particular importance. If

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264 THE FARMER'S TOUR

the land is not to be fown till Midfummer,
or dimmer fallow for wheat at Michaelmas \
the preceding reafoning will not be juft.
You then do not want to get on early in
the fpring, and of courfe can leave the
land till it is perfectly dry, fuppofe till the
middle or end of April, then an earth will
make it as fine as any garden, at the fame
time that it deftroys all thofe weeds, which
have vegetated fince the autumnal fowing ;
and the finenefs you then gain is a great
preparation for having a full crop to kill
by the end of May : thus, when a fallow
has for its object the killing feed weeds,
the land ought certainly to be ploughed
in October. But Mr. Arbuthnofs experi-
ments prove very clearly, that this finenefs
in fpring rauft never be an object, if there
is much couch in the land, as the very
contrary fyftem of expofing the foil in
huge clods to a whole fummer's fun is then
moft effectual.

The great error of the generality of
common farmers is not diftinguifhing be<-
tween thefe cafes, but ufing that method,
which is prefcribed by the cuftom of the
neighbourhood, indifcriminately for all forts


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) → online text (page 11 of 25)