Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) online

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4
4l

4i






14





49


7





47


13


9


49


4


1 1



7 3



8 3

7 11

8 o



Y 3



326 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Average price of ^d. I per lb.

Tot. earn.



Places.




t3

2




d.


d.


No. 2

24
26


1


1\

8f

si


2S




I 1


7
8


Averages


i\


\h










d.
\\

4



/. x. </.

49 19 o

4 51 10 6

3I 4t 64 5 o

4§ ; 4 -53 ° 6

4 i 3i ! 47 9 °



4 '4 '53



Weekly

Pay.

s. d.
8 o

7 9
10 7
10 o

11

8 11



Average price of /\d. i per lb.



ZS


1*


9


4f


4l


62


2


6 |


10


13


27


1!


9


4i


. 1


61


8





9


7


es


!i


1


4f


4l


6,


15


3


10


2



Recapitulation.



No.



Averages



Aver, of ^ rt'.
Dit. of id. \
Dit. of 3 </. I
Dit. of 3^.-1
Dit. of 4^.
Dit. of 4 d. \
Dit. of 4 d. i



This account has not upon the whole near
lb many contradictions in it as the lafi
I drew up on a fimilar occafion ; but ftill
there are fo manv, that it will be difHcult
to attribute the variations to thofe of pro-
vifions. As to the laft article of 4*/. |, it
by no means carries with it the fame au-
thority



1 <v


_ I

5"5


*i


3i


1 4


fl


3


3




6


3!


3i


l|


61


3i


3 +


. I

1 +


7i


4i


4


»+ ' /4


4


4


I -


9


4;


4i



42


II


3


f 6


5


52


12


I


8


2


5'


5


3


6


9


49





9


7


3


49


4


1 1


8





53


4


8


8


1 1


01


*S


3


10


2






THROUGH ENGLAND; 327

thori . the reft ; it is drawn from only
-two places, one of them Pdterfl:am> 10 miles
from London, and in a diftrict where twenty
other caufes confpire to raife the rates of
labour. The other Fever/ham, a feaport
on the Thames, that lias fiich inceffant
communication with London, that the
prices of provifions are regulated by her
markets ; full of hop grounds, fifhermen and
fmugglers ; in fuch a fpot, labour being
high as well as provifions is not at all
. characteriftic of the union. The other
parts of the table are not at all in unifon.
The average price of 3 d. £ earns within 12 s.
as much as \d. |, though $d. f falls fhort of
it 40 J. The rife from 3 d. to 3 ii. | is io/.-
according to which there ought to be an-
other rife of 10/. from ^d.\ to 3<?.§ but
inftead of that it falls 1 /. js. and from %d.t
X.o^d.1 takes another fall of 45^. more,
which is fo contrary to all gradation, that
it is impcflible to fuppofe any can govern
it ; and when it begins to rife, as it does
from 3<r/. £ to 4*/., it is only 4 s. 2d. in 50/.
£rorh thence | 1 1, inftead of 41. it is 4/.
Every thing in the table- is by the rule of
contraries, except the Lweft, and the
Y 4 higl left



3^8 THE FARMER'S TOUR
higheft prices coinciding with thofc of prc-

The weekly pay is not of fo much con-
fequence, becaufe it is only one part of la-
bour in many: this is more regular than the
other, but is neverthdefs full of contra-
dictions. The rife from 3d. to 3d. | is
I j\ 9 d., whereas from 3 d. £ to 3 d. \ is a
fall of 1 s. $d. — 4</. earns lefs than 3 d.\\
with leveral other variations, directly
contrary to the rate of provifions.

The price of bread is fo even, that I
cannot compare labour with that alone,
in the fame comprehcnfive method; but
it is worthy of noting, that in general the
fame inconfiflencies would be found.
Earnings, at 1 d. - £. 51 5 3

Average ditto, at 1 d. f - 49 6 o
Which is directly oppofite to the price.

In a word, I muft be allowed to fuppofe,
that labour and provifions have no other
connection than in very great variations,
and not always in them ; but in the inter-
mediate fpaces, the whole depends on other
caufes, or on chance. It is not difficult to
fuppofe feveral that may have an in-
fluence.

The



THROUGH ENGLAND. 329

The great caufe is probably the pro_

portion there may be between the demand,

and the hands to fupply it ; for if many

men are wanted, and few to be had, prices

• will rife though the people lived upon

air. There are more variations in demand

than may be at firft thought of; all public!:

1 and parliamentary works affect a whole

1 neighbourhood : great private undertakings

; do the fame : improvements in hufbandry,

Ifuch inclofing, marling, claying, &c.

Another great fource of variation is, the

manner in which our poor-laws are

. executed ; if the poor are, through the

juftices biafs, favoured greatly to the encou-

| raging idlcnefs, it will have the fame

effedt in taking hands from the old quantum

of work, as a frelh demand, and prices

muft in confequence rife. Thcfe and feveral

other caufes it is very clear would operate,

without any dependance on the price of

provifions.

It is the manufacturing mtereft in this
kingdom, that has ufually complained of
the rates of provifions raifing the price
of their labour ; or perhaps more the
fentiments of various writers than of per-
fons really concerned in our fabrics. But

their



33o THE FARMERS TOUR

their complaints are certainly groundlefs i
fome of our man nfa ctures have funk, and
others have rifen. Has the former been
the effect of dearnefs cf provifions, or the
latter of cheapnefs ? Manufactures have
declined in Suffolk, and flouriihed in
Yorkjlrire and Somerfetjhire, and all the
weft; but Suffolk of all thole is the
chcapeft. They decline in Suffolk and rife
in Norfolk, though provifions be the fame
in both.

And let it be remembered, that while
provifions are at a regular price, labour is
irregular-, great orders for goods, from
abroad, raife the prices much, though pro-
vifions remain exactly the fame.

All thefe circumfcances would be dif-
ferent, if there were arbitrary laws of police-'
to force men to work at rates decided by
variations in the price of provifions. How
far this is the cafe in France I am not
clearly informed ; but how they can
now, and for fome time laft paft, be
rivalling us in manufactures from cheapnefs
of provifions, I cannot undcrftand, while
it is very well known, that we mould have
exported much corn to them without any
bounty, had the ports been open ; which

is



THROUGH ENGLAND.



oo



is a plain proof, that wheat has been
higher there than in England.

We are for ever prohibiting the expor-
tation of wheat, and at the fame time com-
plaining, that other countries underfel
our manufactures through cheapnefs of pro-
vijions. I fpeak not of the bounty, but
mere exportation, which would at this
day go on were it allowed ; and is I think
proof fufhcient, that the commodity is
much cheaper with us than in other coun-
tries, elfe moil affuredly they would not
pay freight, expences, and the merchants
profit, befides our market price.

But fuppofing this was not the cafe-i
yet are we not to affert, that nations are
on an equality, becaufea weaver in one
receives a (hilling, and in another has no
more. There are many circumftances,
which mould be taken to account. Will
a Frenchman work as much and as well,
in a given time for the fame pay as an
EngHJhman ? Is a Dutchman and an Evg-
lifiman exactly upon a par ? Surely thsfe
queftions are of eflential confequence ; but
who will anfwer them ? Is no account to
be taken of numerous holydays in one
country, few in another ?

i Are






332 THE FARMER'S TOUfc

Are not all necejpiries to be confidered ?
The French manufacturer pays perhaps left
for bread and drink than the Britifo one ;
but who pays moft in perfonal taxes, be*
iides numerous others f Which, under
the burthen of a numerous family, meets
with moft eafe and relief ? The French-*
jnan mud earn for all, and not keep from
ftarving perhaps at lafu, but not the Eng*
HJhman: a miferable oppreiTed life muft
have many days of neceffary relief from
work ; and much work badly done. Is
nothing to be allowed for thefe articles ?

But all that is French is to fill thia
country with terror. While the iiiperiof
power of that kingdom threatened the
liberties of Europe, fuch apprehenfions were
political, and kept up a conftant vigilance
to watch her motions. But as well might a
Greek dread the power of the great king
after Alexander's expedition, or an Englijk*
man under Cromwell tremble at that
of Spain, as any one in the prefent age
fear the fuperior genius of France.
Nations have their grandeur, but they
have alfo their declenfion ; and there is
not in the records of hiftory an inftance
4 of



I



THROUGH ENGLAND. 333

}f one rlourifhing to a moft formidable
height, and then finking regularly for near
fourfcore years, which has been the cafe
with France fince the peace of Nimeguen,
and afterwards enjoying a refurre&ion to
dreaded power.

Let us not therefore be filled with vain
fears and apprehenfions of every manu-
facture, every advantage, gained by France.
i We have nothing to dread from the power
of the houfe of Bourbon ; and thofe who
pretend that the manufactures and trade
of that kingdom are to deftroy ours, fpeak
like merchants that have not an idea beyond
their counting-houfe, inflead of taking
a view of the progrefs of human affairs,
and from the paft judging of the future.
The manufactures of France have declined
fince the laft century. Where are a fourth
of the forty thoufand looms at Lyons ', now
to be found ? Where are her twenty
millions of inhabitants ? Where is the
revenue of Lewis XIV. ? Where his four
hundred thoufand men in arms refifting
three fourths of Europe ? Where the navy
that rode triumphant in the Englifi chan-
nel ? Where is the man fo blind as not

to



334 THE FARMER'S TOUR

to fee, that the power of France is funk,
that fhe has but the remains of her former
fame to patch out a ragged reputation ?
Need I reverfe the medal ? Does this
nation want to have her ftate explained ?
Let her go to the croaking politicians, who
tell her of the " unprofperous fituation of
our publick afi'airs," and feaft on ridiculous
tales of her declenfion and ruin. *



* " To fo wretched a ftate have policy, principle/and even
nnderftanding, arrived in this country, that we eftimate the
degrees of our national wifdom and ftrength, by the com-
parative folly and debility of our neighbours, " fays the
author of the Conf. derations on the Policy, ZSc. of this King-
dom: the comparative eiiimaticn of the wifdom and folly,
is the creature of his own brain ; but as to the ftrength and
debility, the c.fe is very different, and nothing but the
darkeft ignorance can ever fix any but a comparative idea
to them. What is national ftrength ? Are riches, armies,
navies, people, to be fo coniii'ered . ? Iiy what meafure are
their power to be afcertained, if not by the ftrength of our
ufuai enemies ? For what purpofe have we armies, fleets,
debts, taxes, &c. but to defend onrfclves againji, that is,
compare -ivith our neighbours ? Of what ufe is that bound-
lefs trade and excefiive manufacturing, which thefe writers
are ever haranguing , on, if not to enable us to equal the
power of France and Spain ? National ftrength is not worth
a groat to Britain for any other ufe : It is the only rule
and meafure of our ftrength, and the only idea this nation
ever entertained of it. If our enemies fink into debility,
we have no longer a ufe for that enormous power which has
burthened us with debts ; provided other rivals do not
arife on their ruins, to continue the competition. The
interefts of foreign commerce are requifite, merely with a
view to ftrength ; the cafe and happinefs of the kingdom,
depend not on it.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 335



.



LETTER LIV.

HAVING made fuch deductions from
the prices of provifions and labour,
as their variations appeared to me to call
for, 1 fhall next compare both thefe objects
;iwith another which ought to be clofely
connected with them, the poor rates, that
we may be able to decide how far fuch
affiftance is proportioned to the neceflities
fhey were intended to relieve.



Places. \perf.' Prou.



Poor tAver

rates \ price Weekly, 'Total [Rife of



Hempflead,
I Win/low,
I Blifwortb,

Hazelbeecb,
Glendon,
Kettering,
'guenhy,



Tike



d.
4

si

3

3f
3l



pay. \earni72gs.\Labour.
' d.\ I. s. d,
3 50 14 o



7 1049

6 145

7 1 44
6 10 50



2 6
6 6
5 6



Rife of Rata.



Double in 10 years.



20 Years ago but
3</. : 15 years
ago only 9 /. now
140/. to 150/. j
not more poor
now than then ;
attributed to ex-
ceflive tea drink-
ing.

in 20 The rates rifendou-
ycars. J We in zo years.



336 THE FARMER'S TOUR



Places.

9. Melton and

Hinkley,
IO. Dijhlcy,



\P00r \Aver.

rates \ trice

L r 'I
P er L' prov.

s. d. d.
'4 6



1 1 .Scveraltowas 4

by ditto,

I 2 . jl'freton, j 1

1 3 . Radium, O

14. Tidd/vje/J, 1



15. Chejlcrfield, 2 o

16. Blytbe, 1 1 o



1 7 . Broad/kvorth, O

18. W<mkwell % 2

19. Boot ham, 5

20. Lincoln , 2
2 1. Can-Tu.c/c, t,



2 2. Summer o 7^

Caftle,
25. Zc/if Sutton, I 2



24. Leveringtcn, I o

25. Wifbeach, 3 o

26. Walpole, o ioj



27. Run-on, I 8j

28. MaJJingham, I 3 1

29. Snettijham, I o



30. War ham, O

31. Jyljkam, 2

32. Brammcrton, 2

33. Ear II am, I

34. Br aeon Jjh, 2

35. /7<?£g- Hun. 1

36. Hajhad, 3
3-. Colchefter, \C> 6

Ditto, 6 6



3f



3*
31



3t
3i



31

3i

3^
3i






earnings.^ Labour.

i. s. d!



45 8 6 y in 20
years



+9
5 3

54



Rife cf Rates.



Above half in
years.



50 9

59 18
48 o



2 o 5 in 20
4 3 f ^ 20

1 o (Doubled in 15 or

I years.

6 4 -J- i Q 20 Ditto.

20 Years ago 6
and 20 before tl
nothing.



7 657 7 6



of in 20
6,4 in 20



iNot 2.'. 20 ye
I ago-
y in IC lin 20 years



N. B. A corrnr
of 3500 acres
fait mar/h, wo
let at 24 J
acre.



8 8 co 11 o I in 10

8 2 59 6 S



In 1760,
1700,



20 Years ago,
30 years ago,

052 2 4'i in 2O20 Years ago,

746 15 6j| in 2 oi in2 °y ears -

(Doubled in 2oy<
II 51 16 o-|- in 20 Ditto.
Ditto.
20 Ye?.r3 330



THROUGH ENGLAND. 337



Poor \A-vcr>
rates price
P er £- prov.
d. d.



i 6
3

3

1



1
z
1
i
2
i
1
o 10



4 ©

5 °



*OL. IV,



4*
4i



SI
4l



/#y. learnings.
s. d.\l. s.d.

7 9 51 10 6



Rife of
^Labour.



7 64
7 61



5 °

8 O none



7 7



40 Yeats ago but 3 <?,

Totally owing to th«
great commons.

7 3 44 1 1 O Much owing to th»
commons in the
parifli.

8 3 47 9 O 2° Years ago 9 d.

I o 9 r in 2 ° 7°"° /. a year in the
ifland.

35 Years ago but
one pauper; now
the rates amount
to 80 /. a year.

35 Years ago, none,
6 8 38 15 O , 20 Years ago, 10 d.

6 Q 39 16 o'~6 ln 2 ° 20 Years ago, 6 d.



Rife of ratts.



to Years ago not
is. 6d.

Ware is juft by
TTouhgsbury ; rates
are there lb muck
lower on account
or" a workhoufe.

More than \ in 2a
years.



44 14 O



none



20 Years ago, 10 </.

20 Years ago, 5 d,
and 80 years no-
thing.

20 Years ago, 6d.

* Called 7 s. but
not to full of
rcai itiit.



338 THE FARMER'S TOUR





Poor


A<ver.












rates j price


Weekly


Total


Rife of




Place.


per£.frcv.


P a y>


earnings.


Labour.


Rife of rates.




s. d.


d.


s. d.


1. s. d.






64. Harieyford,


2 6








none


Were 4.5. yd. but
lowered by •
workhoufe.


65. BecoBi • field y


2 6


4


8


47 l 3 9






Averages,


2 8

— —


1 j| in 18


\ And 1-7 in 20
years.



N. B. There is fome rife of labour every where except in thofe places
againft whom the word " none " is put ; but thofe who gave me intel-
ligence knew not the proportion.

Here it appears, that on the average of
this Tour, poor rates are is. 8//. in the
pound rent. This enormous tax, which
amounts to near a feventh of the rental,
has, we find, confiderably more than dou-
bled its amount in 20 years ; at the fame
time that the prices of labour throughout
the fame tra<3: of country, are a fourth
higher than they were 18 years ago. It is
impoffible to account rationally for fuch an
increafe ; that it has kept pace only with
the neceffities of the poor, is impoffible, as
I (hall attempt to (hew clearly by comparing
thefe circumftances together.

But it will be neceflary to divide this
table according to rates, that we may fee
what connection there is between theitt and
the prices of labour and provifions.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 339

Rates under 1 s. m the pound.













f Rife of


Rife of






Prcvi-


Weekly


Total


labour in


rates m


Place.


Rates.


Jions.


labour.


earnings.


20 years
in the f.


20 years
in the £.




s. a".


d.


s. d.


1. s. d.


s. d.


s. d.


No. 13.


9


3f


8


53 4 3


IO




'7-


8


3i


0* 3


50 9 4






22.


7t








8


5 °


26.


10










6 8


§°"


8


3l


8


52 2 4


2 10


10


61.

1


10


3l


7 7


44 H




10


Average,


8|


3l


7 5i


50 2 5


6 11


7 "


1






1


1







Rates at is. in the found.



No.



4-
5-
8.

12.

16.

24.

29.

56.



Average,



I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I


3l

3

3f

3f

3l

3i

3


7 10

6 1

7 1

6 11

7 6

8 2
6 9


49 2 6
45 6 6
44 5 6

49 2

57 7 6
59 6 8
36 16


6 8
5 ©

3 4


I


3l


7 2


48 15 2


5













l S





10





10





10





10





11






Rates from is. to 2 j. /« /&■ pound.



No. 1.


1 3


4


8 3


50 14








14.


1 6


it


7


50 1






10


27.


1 8


3i


8 8


59 11 9


7


6*




33-


1 9


Ik


7 "


51 16


3


4


10


50.


1 6


4*


« 3


47 9






10


Average,


1 6


3l


8


51 18 4


5


S


10










1









* Doubled in 10.

Z z



340 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Kates from 2 s. to 3 s. in the pound.









Provi-


Weekly


Total


Rife of
labour in


£//* of
rates in


Place.


Rates.

s. d.


fions .
d.


labour.
s. d.


earnings.
1. s. d.


20 years
in the £.
s. d.


2 years
in the £,.

s. d.


No. 7.
10.


2
2
2


6





si

if

3i


6 10
6 4

.8


50 8 3
45 8 6

54 6 4


5 °

6 8
6 8


18 O
1 1
IO O


18.


2





3I


9 »


59 18


10




3 1 -
4*-


2

2
2
2



6
6
6


3^

41
3*

4


7 7
10 7

6 8

8


46 15 6
64 5
38 15

47 J 3 9


5 ©


5 ©

] 3 4
|


Average,


2


3


3*


8


50 18 9


6 8


11 5



Rates from %s. to 4 s. 6d. in the pound.



No. 19.

39-
42.

5 2 -
49.

Average,



Rates un-
der 1 s.
At 1 /.

1 s. to 2 s.

2 s. to 3 s.

3 /. to 4-r.

6</.



3





si


6





48 6,


6


8






3





4i


7


9


51 106






11





5


6


44


9


7


Ci 8






1 1


c


3





3*


8


8


51 09


2


10






f


b


Si


7


3


44 11 0!










-


4


3l


7


10


51 6 1
1-


4


9


11






Recapitulation.



8|


si


7 5


50 2 5


6 11


1


3l


7 2


48 15 2


5 °


1 6


31


8


51 18 4


5 5


2 3


3i


8


50 18 9


6 8 1


3 4


3i


7 10


51 6 1


4 9 j
1



7 »»



II





10





1 1


5


11






In remarking the variations of this table,
let us firft turn to the loweft earnings of
the labourer, for there we mould naturally
look for the higheft poor rates ; but inftead
of fo plain a connection, they are, except

one,



THROUGH ENGLAND. 341

one, the loweft in the table. On the con-
trary, the higheft earnings fhould be at-
tended by the lowefi rates, but fo far is this
from being the cafe, that there are two
complete divifions in the table lower, which
are as many as are above it.

Rates under 1 s. and from 2 /. to 3 s. are,
within a few millings, attended by the
fame earnings. It is the fame with 1 J", to
is. and 3/. to 4 s. 6 d.

The prices of provifions are fo regular,
that not many conclufions are to be drawn
from them ; however, one may fee that there
is no connection between them and rates,
or, at leaft, extremely trifling, for the loweft
price is attended by the loweft earnings ;
yet 3 I is the fame as 3 | ; and 3 | in one
column, varies half as much from 3 f in
another, as from the lowefi earnings to
the highefi.

If the labourer's weekly pay is taken for
the guide, yet greater contradictions will
be found.

The average total earnings at thofe
places where rates rife to 1 s. in the pound,
are 49/. 8/. gd.; whereas earnings
are 51/. 7 s. 8 d. where rates are from 1 s.
to 4 j. 6d. ; from whence one would fup-
pofe, that the more you raife the price of

Z 3 labour,



342 THE FARMER'S TOUR

labour, the higher will the poor's tax rife
■with it, which is contrary to all reaforu
In the weekly pay it is the fame ; the rates
to i s, have js, 3d. \ per week labour ; but
thofe from 1 s. to ^s. 6d. have 7 s. nd.

Further ; the rife of labour ought uni-
formly to mark the lownefs of rates, and in
this inftance here appears more connection
than in feveral of the other columns, for
the higheft rife of labour has been where
rates are loweft; and the fmalleft rife has
been where rates are higheft ; but then the
intermediate variations are quite wild : the
fecond greateft rife of labour correfponds
with the higheft rates, except one, which
is diametrically oppofite to what it ought
to be.

At 1 s. rates, the rife of labour is \ ;
whereas from is. to 3J. it is a third, which
is a great difference, and on the wrong
fide; with feveral other contradictions of
the fame kind*

Relative to provifions, the rife of labour
fhould correfpond with the increafe of their
prices, but no fuch dependance is found,
The loweft price of provifions fhould be
attended by the higheft rife of labour ; but
it is almoft directly contrary; and where

the






THROUGH ENGLAND. 343

the price of proA'ifions is equal, the varia-
tions in the rife of labour are great; the
rife of a third, a fourth, and a fifth, are
attended by the fame rates of provifions.

The rife of poor rates ought to have an
intimate connexion with the prices of pro-
vi lions ; but nothing that chance could caft,
can be further from the fad; the fowejt
price of provisions is attended hy nearly the
bigbefi rife in rates, and in one column of
the higheft price, fuperior. The average
price of 3^/. I per lb, is attended by 3/. in
the pound lefs rife of rates than 3 d. |. In
a word, the whole column little elfe but
contradictions.

Nor is there more reafbn in the variations
of the rife of rates and the earnings, for
the average total earnings of the three
higheft articles are 51 /. 71, $d. ; the attend-
ing rife in poor rates iox. qd.; the average
earnings of the low eft articles 49 /. 8 j. 9 d. ; the
correfponding rife of rates gr. 5 d. |. Thus,
by the poor's earning 1 /. i8x. 11 d. per amt>
more in one place than in another, their
tax increafei inftead of lowering*

It appears equally ftrong in the weekly
pay ; at the average earnings of

7 j. 1 1 d. the rife in rates is (in

the pound,} - - f.o 10 9



344 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Whereas, at 7 j. 3 d. \ per week,

the rife is only - £.0 9 5J

From all which it is fufficiently clear,
that the variations in thofe fums which the
poor receive either in pay or rates, do not,
in fcarcely any cafe, depend on their necef-
fities.. Increafe poor rates, you pay moft
to thofe who want the amftance leaft.
Raife the prices of labour, the effect is the
fame.

Has the rife in labour and poor rates
been proportioned to the rife in the prices
of provifions ? This is a very important
point, but would require more minute elu-
cidation than the prefent pages will allow.
The rife of rates in 20 years, -*- and \

That of labour in 1 8 years, - I
The nrft is, per cent, - 64

The fecond, 25

Relative to the progrefs of the prices of
provifions, not being the immediate fubject
of thefe papers, I can only give a flight
fketch from an author before me, who I
fhall truft to with the more readinefs, as his
profefled aim is to magnify the miferies of
the poor from high prices, fo that if he is
wrong, we may be tolerably fafe that it is
not in lefTening them. He gives, among
4 , others,



I



THROUGH ENGLAND. 345

Dthers, two periods from 1706 to 1730;
ind from 1730 to 1760; thefe will ferve
he purpofe nearly as well as if they came
3own later, becaufe that period was to
:he full as much complained of, as any
Dne fince ; and going fo far back will be
the more fatisfadtory, as it will give the
*eader an idea of prices, compared with the
*ife of poor rates in the period preceding
:he laft 20 years, often mentioned in the
foregoing tables. But, as I faid before, I


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) → online text (page 15 of 25)