Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) online

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lowered ; for no country can poflefs flou-
rifhing manufactures, or commerce, or
agriculture, whofe rates of labour are very
low ; but I would have induftry enforced
among the poor ; and the ufe of tea re*
{trained. Nothing has fuch good effects as
workhoufes ; of which there are numerou s
inftances in this Tour; but the great obj eel:
is the erection of Hundred Houfes of in-
duftry, which have now been long tried
in Suffolk and Norfolk with the greatefl
fuccefs ; and of which I have in the proper
place given a full account.

But under the fuppofition, that diftrefTes
among them became fo great (no matter
from what caufe) that labour and rates
mult be rifen, and provifions be funk, ftil-I
the relief will go, as I before mewed,

%o



366 THE FARMER'S TOUR

to thofe who want it leaft in nine cafes out
of ten : if ever therefore fuch ideas become
active, they muft be prepared for with
a complete deftrudiion of all former rates,
prices, and variations, and an univerfal
law take place to proportion labour every
where to the average price of provifions,
and keep it fluctuating with them ; all other
meafures would be but palliatives, and do
mifchief rather than good.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 367



LETTER LV.

I Am now come to a part of my under-
taking, which I efteem of greater
national importance than any other ; it Is
the particulars of farms. From the average
of a great number we may certainly be able
to calculate with much truth the general
ftate of the whole kingdom ; refpecting
the application, product and value, of the
foil ; the live flock it carries, and the people
it maintains ; I have in another work been
particular on this fubject, and faid what
I thought was neceffary to explain my
idea of the matter ; the lefs is therefore
neceffary to be urged here ; but I mall
obferve, that this method of coming at

(the real ftate of the nation, refpecting its
agriculture, is the only one tolerably fure>
and that is not open to an infinity of ob-
jections and errors. A book containing
Ihefe particulars of all the farms in the
kingdom, I mould efteem the pocket book
of a Britijh minifter ; it would be as ufeful
as it would be tedious to read.



368 THE FARMER'S TOUR



i.

2.

3-
4-
5-
6.

7-
8.

9-
io.
ii.

12.

»3-
H-
*5-

16.

*7-
18.

19.
20.
20.
21.
22.

23-
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31-
32-
33-
34-
35-
36.

37-
33.
39-
40.

41.

42.

43-
44.



Places.


Rent I
acre.


er\




1. s.


d.\


Hempfiead


10





Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Trirtg


10





Ditto






Blifwortb


12





Glendcn


10





Ditto






Mr. Booth


1





Qucnby


10


O


Ditto






Ditto






Alfreton


I


O


Ditto






Ditto






Kendal






Radburn


14





Ditto






Blythe

*


10





Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Mr. Mellijb






Mr. Wharton






Broad/worth


6





Womb-xvell


16





Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Sir C. Wray


7





Le r veringto:i


18





Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Ditto






Runilon


14





Mr. Carr


8





Snettijham


12


0'


Burnham


10






Total


Grafs.


Arab.


Wood


Rent.


acres.








c


600


60


540




250


200


20


180




IOO


I 20


20


100




80


l6o


IO


150




70


60


IO







40


600


IOO


500




300


IOO


30


70
7 1




60

5o


IOO


20


«o




40


35°


274


/6




350


150


"5


35




102


600


594


\




400


55°


544


6




33°


100










100





20


36







40


J<5


4




40


420


170


250

65
80




420
100
240


4° 3


56


35°




82


6S1


180


500




139


50


3 6


24




21


190


57


133




126


121


24


97




121


I 12


20


92




74


853


273


400


180


3 Z 5


985


70


257


664


192


764


120


244


400


240


800


600


200




500-f


IOO


35


65




40


280


210







260


I IO





40




100


50





20




50


200


130


70




170


I20





5?




100


750


644


106




200


600


30c


300




500


3OO


240


'60




200


200


166


34




200


130


ICO


30




IOO


42


42







40


I80








105


IOOO


150


S50




4 o0 t


3OO





300




150


IOOO


IOO


900




500



THROUGH ENGLAND. 369



Places.



Rent pet-
acre.
I. s. d.
086



yc'Varham
tp Sir J. Turner
4.7 iyljham
48 ^arlbam
t&.Ar. Thompfon
co ir. Bevor
co. Mr. Rogers

5 a lad lei gh
ftlaftead
ft)itto
tfiColcbcfter
sii'oungs berry
•t^itlor den
ifcuddington
W^arjhalton
U'everjbam
-TiOitto

■dr. Reynolds

4. 'banet

Wye

Wfa-iv&hurjl

7.1r. Holroyd

Wbeffield Place

I indon

mPalberton
I.Ir. Turner
X. «y?o«

IJ4? Wight

m)itto
- \Mtto

"6. )/V/o

■ Tra/ir^

illr. Mi (for d

mtrit chill
, m<Utto

■• loreton

I Ir. Frampton

■I ^. »^;rt

■;4r. Darner
„ 16. Ir. P/y^//

g.Wfcw Abbey o 8
ord Milton I
Ir. Hardy jo 5

I. IV.



o 14
o 16



o 15

o 15
o 14

o 16

O 12
O 12

o 17

IO

1 O



o 17
o 16

O 12



O IO

7

1 o

O IO

O IO

I o



OIOO



o 8
o IO

O IO

O 12



O II

O IO



Total Grafs\Arab.
acres.



500

236

300

100

200

530

»75

35°
300

160

150

400

300

120

35°

2000

180
160
520
440
400
150
836
318
600

55°
300

436

100

80

400

1000

650

280

130

960

300

1000

800

266

1255

902

1800

3000

1 1000



120
72



10


400

20




40

75
40


10


400

4
4

85

o

300

80
450
106
300
200
185

54
o
o

40

600

o

30

12

I30

4'
624
362
160
874
627
1620

13S
9400

£ b



Wood



380

IOO
250

90
170
130
150
300

250
120

75
360

270

1 10

300

1600

176

156

435
440
100
70
66
148
300

35°
i'5
374
100

80
300
400
650
250
118
770

259

296
268

»°3|
526

2 55

180



64



Size Farms
in general.



200 to



50c



50 — 15c

50 — 200



50 — > 500
40 — 300
20 — 130



320
64



60



76
170



20



30
20



to
40



20
o
1 20' I ^00
1600.



Rent.

£.

260

IOOf

200

65

fi6o
400
105
260
200
108
120

333

180



300

iooof

200

100

185

374t

300

100
41 8 f

140
20

55°t
150
200
100

60
200
500
160

90
6 5 t
450
150
260
400



500 300 — 700
500J150 — 250
700 150 — 700'

I275t

3000)



Med.



■iooo

• 3°°

- 500

- 600

- 200



500
400



40 — 130
to — 500
40 — 400



20 — 200

60 — 300
to — 300

100 — 400

40 — 400



120

IOO

80



125

140
100

70



200
86



200

IOO



60
130

IOO

250
25®



3yo THE FARMER'S TOUR



Places.


Rent per
acre.

1. s. d.


Total
acres.


Grafs.


Arab.


Wood


Rent.

£•


Size Farms M
in general.


90. Henlade


1


138


96


42


i 3 3


20 — 200


9 1 . Donnitigton


15


150


zo


13°|


100


30 — 300 o,


92. Mr. Clayton


15


55°


So


120, 360


400


40 — 300 &


93. Mr. Burke


13


410


160


i6oi 90


250


20 — 200 8


Totals,


5 IIX 3


25467


2I627J3975


24202



f All rents marked thus f are {"applied from the average of the counti

Next I mall give the live ftock of thefe
farms, under the heads of draught cattle,
cows, fatting beafts, young cattle, and



fheep.



Farms j


Drau.


Cows.


F#.


Toting.


Sheep,


No.












I


16


6





4


300


2


IO


6








2CO


3


6


2








60
80


4


8











5














IOO


6


x 7


8





4


300


7


6


5











t


8


8


10


10


130


9


6


6








ICO


10


10


15








500


11


6


10


9





160


12


8


6


100





600


13


4


4


no





600


14


8


9


4


6


60


15


4


4





6


30


16


1


12





2





>7


16


9


4


16


120



THROUGH ENGLAND. 371



Farms


Drau.


Cows.


-Rrt.


Young.


Sheep.


No.












18


10


27





10


40


l 9


12








40


IOO


20


6


8





12


260


20*


8


8





16


400


21


2


5





6


O


22


6


6





12


IOO


23


8


6





6





24


8


4





6





2 5


16


10





20


500


26


8


6





10


500


27


12


10








600


28


37


12





243


250


29


5








8


40


30


8


6


60


4


80


3i


8


4


16


4


60


32


4


2





2,





33


8


6


40


4


60


34


6


5


6


4


20


35


8


6





15


300


36


*5





80


35


500


37


8





20


20


300


33


4





20





300


39


4





J 5


5


150


40








12





120


4i


10


4





22


70


42


30


2


20





|8oo


43


H


10


10


10


100


44










I700


45


30


20


12





500


47


12


20


20





IOO


48


5


8










49


!4


i 2 7





12


60



B b 2



37 2


THE Fi


SlRM


ER's


TOUR


Farms


Drazi.j


Cows.


Fa/.


Young.


Sheep.




No.
















5°*


104.


22


20


30


l8o


4- And 90-


IO


O


O


O


O


morejoift.


5*


*7


20





40






5 2


16


2





l8






53


8


IO





6


60




54


6


20





5





f 16 of


55


12


8











them oxen.


56


8


8





20


200




58


9


6





5


130




59


15


20
60





30


200


f 8 of them


60


34





2 5


100


oxen.


61


12


4





4







62


10


4





3







63


10


11





30


250




64


16


4


c





200




65


itf


12





36


200




66


f!2


8


6


24


100




67


fi4


12


48





500


t+ 12 of


68


isn


6











them oxen.


69


26^


5








900







24











35°


* 16 of


7 1


i8§


10








100


them oxen.


7 2


26§


12





4


150




73


6














§12 oxen.


74


5


8













75


18


20








200




7 6


36*


24





40


1200




77


16


6








1000




78


12


16





10


120




79


7


12





4


60




80


16








20


800




81


9













THROUGH ENGLAND. 373



Farms.

No. 82

83

84

86

87
88

89

90

9 1
92

93

Totals,






No. 1

2

3

4

5

6

7



10
11

14

J 7
iS

>9



Drau.


Cows.


Fat.


Young.


Sheep.


10


60


O


40


300


8


60


O


40


5CO


6


40


O


44




IO


20


O


25


134°


l6


30


O


60


1700


6



-0


O





1430


7 6


200


40


300


13000


8


6


12


18


80


8


6


O


8


*5°


H


10


O


6


300


6
1128


H
1268


O


6





886


150936220










1



CVa^r 0^* thefe farms.





to


O
ft




bo

ft

ft


3

as


9


ft


100


k


100


40


40


100


O


80


50


25


25


10


IO


40





20


20


10





10


IO


20





20


30


40


10


10





40





20


25








5


5


10








100


50


40


50





100


60





:





10





20








20


20


20


10


5





6





10


20


6


8


10





5





30





20


20


c





25


14





5


IO


c


4 1














20
4


10
2


16
6



I


4



3
2


4
2


20
6


50


20





5


5


.6


20*




12


6


7


10


10








20I


20








10


10






io[



CO



£T>



B b



374 THE FARMER'S TOUR



Farms.




to

9




<*>


pi


91


3|

7*


$
^
$


No. 29


15


10


5


5


0]


10


10


10


35


II


5


5o


3?


O


10








36


IOO


20


IOO

















37


3°|





10





20











38


10 J


5


5


4


5








5


39


11 !





5





14











42


100


200


40


60





200


250





43


6a


60











6o'


120





44


200 |


200











200 [


300





45


60


IOO











60


130





46





24











24


48





47


24


60





42





42


84





48


18


36











18


18





49


30


40


10


10





45


40





50


32


3 2











32


32





5 1


60


120











60


60





5 2


62


62











61


61





53


24


24




14





10


24


24


54


20


10


10








5


10


20


55


90














90


90





5^


40


40


20


20





20


10


100


58


28





20


4


20








28


59


80


50


; 50


5


20


' 3°





40


60


200


200


IOO


60


10


140


45°


200


61


84











84


c








62


50


50











c


2





63


95





55


13





37


43


65


64


IOO


IOO




25


25


2C





80


65


40





10


10





C


40





66


20


5


20








c


5


12


68


60





2 5


12





4


25


20


6 9


60


60











60


120





70


70


70





10





20


60


50


7i





12


30


6


13


6





12


72


1148


1 8


1 92


54








39


33



THROUGH ENGLAND. 375



SI


|


Si 1


O


ft




5i





£


2

<->












1*"


<3


P


No. 73


50


O


20


O


14


6





10


74


20


O


IO


O


IO





20


20


75


75





45


O


O


6


30


75


76


120


120


20


IO


O


40


60


60


77


8


100


100


20


O


50


20


80


78


35


35


35


O


O





105


35


79


24


16


18


6


O


6


20


20


80





160


60


20


O


5


160


60


3i


42


80


10


9


O





40





83


40


80


20





O





100





84


63





16





O





24





85


35


40


40


34


O


40


192





86


40


40


40











125





87


30























89


200


400


300








300 1400





90


12


10





1


5





10


4


9 1


40


40


15








15


20





92


40


40











20


20





93


40


25


16


24





30


25





Totals


35623328


1894


671
I -


534


1
21803733

1


*359



Servants, &c. on thefe farms.



Farms.


Serv.\


Maids.


Boys.


Lab


No.x


8








6





3


1




2


5










1


6


1


2




12


7


1


1




1


8


3


1




2


9


2


1




1


10


1 1





2,


20



B b 4



376 THE FARMER'S TOUR



Farms.


Servan.


Maids.


£oyj.


Lab.


No. ii


• 2


1


1


1


12


3


1


1


3


13


2


2


2


2


*4


3


I


1


1


15


2


I


I





16





2,


1





*7


6


2


6


4


18


3


I


o


2


J 9,


9


2


1


6


20*


3


I





1


21





I


1





22


1


I


2


1


23


1


2


1


1


24


1


2


2


2


25
26


3
1


4
1


4

2


4

2


28


5








*5


29


2


1





2


30


3


2


1


3


3i


2


1


1


1


32





1


1


1


33


2


1





2


34


2


1


1


2


35
36




2









6
6


37
' 38


2







X




1
1


39


1











4 1


2


2


1


2


43


3





1


4


45


4





2

1


2


47
48


2

1


2


1 ;


4

*



THROUGH ENGLAN



Farms.

No. 49
50'
52
53
54
56

59
60

61

62

64

65
68

69

70

7 1

7 2
73
74

76

77

78

79

80

82

83
86

87
89

90
9 1



Serva?i.


Maids.


Boys.


3


2


3


2








4


2


1


1


1


1


2





1


5

6


2

1


2
4


1








5


2


1


5
6


2



1

4


2


1


1


2


2


1


7


2


2




















5


2


5


1


O





1


O


1


8


3


2


15
8


3
1


5
4


3


2


1


2





1


3


2





5


2


2


3





1


3





1


2


2


2


1


2


1


1


1


1


1


1


2



D- 377

Lab*
8
12

4
3
3

4

9

20

4

4
8

3

6

5

20

5

5

2

1

6
6

3

2
10

6

8

8

10
200

1

2



37* THE

Farms.

No. 92

93

Totals,



FARMER'S TOUR



Servan.

1


Maids.




Boys.

2


Lab.
8
6


205


82


103


5 2 5



The following is the average


farm of


thefe fifty thoufand acres.




Total acres per farm,


56i


Ditto of grafs,


*2 79


Ditto of arable,


237


Ditto of wood,


42


Rent 265/. 19J. id.




Acres of wheat,


49


Ditto of barley,


a6


Ditto of oats,


- 26


Ditto of peafe*


9


Ditto of beans,


7


Ditto of tdrnips, cabbage, potatoes


, and


carrots, - -


30


Ditto of clover, ccc.


53


Ditto of fallow,


19


Draught cattle,


12


Cows, -


13


Fatting beafts, -


9


Young cattle,


- 16


Sheep, -


389


Servants,


2i


Maids, -


I


Boys, -


Ik


Labourers,


7



* The grafs comprehends all the waftc tracts in-
cluded in each farm.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 379

Here we fee the average farm of more
than fifty thoufand acres divided into
numerous variations, and comprehending
all forts of foils and circumilances. The
proportions of each article to the other
are as follow.
Rent, 9 J". $d. per acre.
The wood, the thirteenth of the farm,

13 a-

The wheat, the eleventh, 1 1 ££

Ditto the fourth of the arable, 4 ±±.

The barley, the twelfth of the farm, 12 T ?.

Ditto the fifth of the arable, 5 ■&.

The oats, the twenty firft of the farm 5

Ditto the ninth of the arable, 9 A.

The peafe, the fixty fecond of the farm

62^.
Ditto the twenty fixth of the arable, 26 4..
The beans, the eightieth of the farm.
Ditto the thirty third of the arable, 33 *.
The turnips, the eighteenth of the farm,

Ditto the feventh of the arable, 7 |2.
The clover, the. tenth of the farm, I a 44.
Ditto the fourth of the arable, 4 i{.
The fallow, the twenty ninth of the farm,

29 TI ,

Ditto



a



380 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Ditto the twelfth of the arable, 12
Draught cattle. Forty fix acres, total per

head. Ditto ; of arable nineteen and

an half.
Cows. Forty three acres, total per head.

Ditto; of grafs twenty one and an

half.
Fatting beajis. Sixty two acres, total

per head. Ditto ; of grafs thirty one.
Young cattle. Thirty five acres, total per

head* Ditto ; of grafs feventeen and

an half.
Sheep. One acre and half, total per head

(1 lH)' Ditto; of grafs, one fheep and

one third per acre.
Men Jervants. Two hundred and four

acres per head.
Maids. Five hundred and fixty one per

head.
Boys. Three hundred and feventy four

acres per head.
Labourers. Eighty acres a head.
Ditto ferva?zts. Fifty fix ditto.

Upon this general account, we may
obferve, that farms are throughout this
tract of country large, for fo the average
one of 56 1 acres muft be efieemed ; this
however chiefly arifes from fome enor-
2 mous



THROUGH ENGLAND. 381

moiis ones, particularly in Dorfetfiire ;
the proportion of the very great, and
fmaller ones is worth calculating.
Average of all that reach 1000

acres, being nine farms, A. 2561

Rent, - JT. 903

Average of all under, - A. 342

Rent, - - - JT. 195

From which it appears, that thofe nine
vaft farms are what principally caufed
the general average to be fo high as 561;
and it is obfervable, that the rent per acre
of them is much lower than the average
of the reft ; indeed the largeft include a
confiderable quantity of wafte land.

The proportion of 279 grafs to 237 arable
is extremely good ; the furplus of the
former we may fuppofe to be occafioned
by the waftes being included ; fo that the
equality is pretty exact. This is alone
a mark of good hufbandry ; for the mife-
rable farmers, who can fcarcely keep
out of gaol, are nine tenths of them found
on farms confiding all of arable land. Half
a farm being grafs, is a mark that a tolerable
flock of cattle is kept, upon which the
ploughed fields much depend for manure.

The



382 THE FARMERS TOUR

The fame obfervation is applicable to
the article clover y which occupies a fourth
of the arable land ; which is upon the
whole fo excellent a proportion, that I
cannot but congratulate the reader on
finding this confiderable part of the king-
dom in fo good a management ; half the
farms grafs, and a fourth of their arable
under artificial grafs, is upon the whole
a fyftem, which the moil correct idea would
correfpond with, rather than to be expected
really to exift.

Peafe, - - - ~ 9

Beans, - 7

Turnips, &c. 30

Clover, &c. - - "53

Fallow, - - - 19

Ml ■*

Total, - 118



Thefe arable crops with a fallow are
all fuch as clean and ameliorate the lands,
if the pulfe and turnips are well hoed, as
they moftly are. Half the arable being
fallow, or fallow crops, is not amifs, for
a farm (o conducted cannot well be kept
in bad order.

The



THROUGH ENGLAND. *8*



O u J



The number of draft cattle is moderate ;
not confident with the very beft hufbandry,
but at the fame time contains no dangerous
excels ; good management would even
make this portion neceflary.

The ftock of cows, fatting beafts, young
cattle, and fheep, feem tolerably adapted
to the quantity and value of the land ; it
cannot be efteemed a bad Hock : I found
this remark on the rent of the land, and
the grafs including wafte tracts ; but I
fhall not venture to affert, that this article
could not be amended ; the ftock is rather
inferior than equal to what it might be
in proportion to the crops of the farm,
but however has nothing reprehenfive
in it.

As to the labour, it is better proportioned
to the farm than I mould previouflv have
expected ; very near ten men and a boy and
half are tolerably well adapted ; not to the
ideas of fpirited and correct hufbandry,
but to thofe of good common management ;
being fufncient to fhew, that the culture of
this trad of country, if not excellent, is at
leaft many removes from very bad fyftems.
Confidering fo much being grafs. and feme

wood,
4



384 THE FARMER'S TOUR

wood, it is fuperior to the portion of labour
of the average farm of my Northern Tour ;
as indeed this is in almoft all refpe&s;

Upon the whole, this average farm fhews,
that the general fyftem of rural oeconomy
is advantageous ; no kingdom in thefe
proportions can be badly cultivated. Cer-
tain traces may be much fuperior, but in
thefe general enquiries, we fhould rather
dwell on what is, than on what might
be.



LETTER



THROUGH ENGLAND. 385



LETTER LVL



T



HE fums necefTary for flocking
farms, according 10 the cuftom of
thofe places, where the matter is regiftered,
is an object that mufl on no account be over-
looked, as it will let us almoft as much
as any other article, into fome curious
particulars of the flate of the nation's agri-
culture.

I fhall divide the fums into fix articles :
live Jiocky labour, implements, furniture^
feed, fundries.

Places.



Hempflead

Tring

Blifivorth

Glendon

£hienby

Dijhley

Alfreton

Radburn

Tiddfwell

Chejhrfidd

Lawton

Gateford

Ditto

Vol. IV.



Farms.




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If


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Co


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25


g


r—


s.


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Ac.




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$5


5




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100




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I


£•


£.


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£•


100
















IOO




183


88


80


72


20


J 74


loo
















200
















150
















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170


72


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100 200


507


11S


150


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£•

400.

425'
617

750

I ceo

530
300

4.C0
400
400
500

1074

35°



386 THE FARMER'S TOUR



P/a,



CCS.



Blytbe
Ditto

Brcadfwcrtb
Wambwtll
Boctbam
Canwick
Swinebead
Leverington
Runcion
Sn ttijham
Warbam
Aylfhum
Ear, ham
Bracon AJh
Fleg Hundred
South cf Bcccles
Madleigh
Hajhad
Colcbcjcr
Youngsberry
Cuddington
Fever/ljam
Bealjburn
Sheffield Place


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) → online text (page 17 of 25)