Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) online

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is no proof that it has the other. I have
fome forts now by me, which efTervefce
ftrcngly with acids ; but will not fall in
water : others that effervefce, but not fall
in water : and mere clay, which in fome
parts of Norfolk is preferred to marie, has
none of thefe qualities.

The duration of the erTecl appears in thefe
minutes to depend much on quantity ; on
find in Norfolk it lafts twice as long as on
loams in Surry, &c. That the fame quan-
tity will laft on a fliff foil longer than a
loofe one, may eafily be conceived ; and
is plainly the cafe in feveral places. It 19
well known, that a dreiTing of yard dung
lafts the longeft on a ftirT true tile clay.

The expence, at which marie is gained
in fome places, is aftomftiing. About
Yarmouth, in Norfolk, they ufe it at ys. 4*/.
a cart load. Abcut Co , &c, they

have it from Kent, it cofts them at the heap
js. to 9-r. a waggon load, and they carry
it fo far as 10 miles: this is prodigious!
feven waggon loads an acre. Farmers,
who practife this in common, would never
doit if it was not a fertilizer.

A The


The pra&ice at War bam mews evidently
the benefit of repetitions ; experience has
carried them to the third time, with advan-

I have not met with any trials of the
efficacy of regaining it, when fubiided by
ploughing deeper. That the marie does
not lofe its common qualities, I know from
trying fome ploughed up 16 inches deep
in a field of Mr. Arbnthno?^ at Morden •
it efFerveiced in vinegar, and alfo in water ;
but did not fall in the latter. Benefit would
probably arife from it, but the new quantity
of ftaple gained would require a propor-
tionate quantity of marie, according to the
reafoning ufed in the latter on deep plough-
ing ; and alfo proportionate additions of
other manure ; fo that it is to be queftioned*
whether deep ploughing would ever be
advifeable on this account only*

Woodbridge. The foil all fand.
Quantity. Ten or 12 loads; it is a body

of powdered fhells, but has no effer-

vefcence with acids ; nor does it diflblve

in water.
Vfe. It enriches the foil far more than any

marie ; lads for ever ; but they renew



it by forming compofts of crag and

yard dung.
This manure is of a very extraordinary,
nature : it is a fhcll marie, confining of
nothing but fhells, whole, or powdered,
the colours red and white ; it is dry, not
being the leaft foapy ; it has not any effer-
vefcence in acids ; and docs not fall in
water, from all which circumftances its
virtues might be doubted ; but all thofe
effects produced in Norfolk by 60, 80, or
100 loads of their marie, are gained in
Suffolk by 10 or 12 of this ; and the effect
is, I think, much ftronger : refpecting
duration, crag lafts much longer, which
they have difcovered from an idea (a falfe
one I fuppofe) that land once cragged will
not bear any other repetitions than thofe
of compofts with dung ; and accordingly
they have many fields, in which it has
lafted with only fuch additions, .50, 60,
and to ico years. With crag, the nature
of the poor lands in that country are quite
changed, and gain an adhefion, which they
retain, as the farmers there fay, for ever:
it is alfo a very great fertilizer, as appears
from the great and fudden increafe in the
crops after it.



Colonel Coney. The foil a fandy loam.
Quantity. Eighty loads an acre, at 2/.

10 s. exptnces.
XJfe. Sown firft with turnips, 2 /. 12 s. 6 d*

an acre, wheat 41 quarters, turnips,

40 s. barley 5 quarters ; anfwer s

Burnbam to Wells. The foil a light fandy

Quantity. Eighty loads an acre ; they value

clay more than marie.
Duration. Fourteen years, then they add

a little more.
PJeg Hundred. The foil a rich light mixed

Quantity. Forty loads.
Duration. Twenty years.

From thcfe minutes we find, that clay
is juilly held in eftimation in a country that
underflands, and has experienced, marie
more than moft in the kingdom : it is
preferred to marie, where both are to be
had. This gives no flight reafon to fuppofe,
there is fomcthing in Mr. Cartas affertion,
that his beft marks are not thofe, whofe
effervefcence with acids is the ftrongeft ;
and confirms one in the idea, that chemifts.



Ire not the people to go to for the true
practical knowledge of manures.

Sir John Turner. Uies it inftead of marie,

and finds it to anfwer better : the foil

a lis-ht fandv loam.


Sampford Hundred in Suffolk. Form com-
ports of it with farm yard dung, which
they mix well, and fpread on clover
land for wheat.
Sea ouze is to be had in very many
places that totally flight the acquisition :
I remarked large quantities quite blue with
rotten weed at Gilbury, but none ufed*
The effect at War ham on old marled lands,
which wanted a renewal, is very great>
and fo much beyond laying on frefh quan-
tities of marie, that Sir "John Turner's
tenant carries it from a diftance to fields, in
which are excellent marie pits; the land
acquires a new fertility, equal, if not
exceeding that of the firft marling.

In Sampford hundred they are alfo fuch
excellent hufbandmen, that a practice com-
mon among them of this fort, mull be
o-ood ; they find infinite advantage from
forming compofts of fea ouze and their
farm yard dung, under the expence of donbk
carting both.



Mlnfler, in the IJle ofTbanet. They mix
it with dung and earth till it is rotten,
and lay 50 loads an acre ; reckon it
a very rich manure ; never ufe it
IJle of Wight, They bring it into their •
farm yards, and mix it with dung to
carry on to their bean lands ; without
mixing, they fay it won't do.
The fame obfervation on the neglect of
manures in fo many farmers is applicable
here alfo. This weed, which is fo valuable
in the IJle of c Ihanet, and which even the
IJle of Wight men, their next neighbours*
pra&ife, the farmers at Gilbury infift wil*
never rot; and nine tenths of the other
farmers on the fca coafts of England, utterly
neglect. But iea weed is an excellent
manure, and cannot be prized too highly,
The practice of both the iflands appears
to be excellent, for overcoming its refi fiance
of putrefaction ; making litter of it in the
farm yard mutt be quite effectual in that
reipect, and at the fame time produce a
mcFi rich compofl.


Mr. Bevcr. A hard clay, burnt ;
but calcined almoft to bricks, which
were broken and fpread ; the benefit
very little.
Mr. Turner, Burns refufe earth, turfed,
to ames, for which he gives 1 s. the
40 bufhels ; lays 20 loads an acre,
chiefly on to clover and grafs ; the
dreffing lads good 6 years.
There is no contradiction in thefe two
articles ; the firft burns mere clay ; but the
latter only the furface of wafte, refufe lpots
that have gained fomething of a turf, con-
fequently the allies are partly vegetable
ones : and I mail remark that Mr. Turner's
practice is in many fituations an excellen t
one ; converting wafte fpots, which would
be difficult to improve, into opportunities
!of gaining large quantities of excellent
manure. As to burning clay, we much
want experiments to afcertain the effect .
hitherto the world has received little more
than aflertions and conjectures.
th. Can have it at 2;. at Nor,
ampton, 5 miles, but will not.
Gateford. From Workfop, at 2 s. 6 d. to 3 s.
1 2 to the acre, lafc 3 crops.


JVarham. Buy at Wells at I s. Sir John
Turner remembers all that dung
thrown into the harbour of Wells,
which now brings 8 quarters of corn
an acre in the inclofures around the

Earlham. Norwich manures at is. and
find they anfwer greatly.

Bracon Afb. They bring manures from
Norwich^ though 7, 8, and 10 miles

Fleg Hundred. Buy at Tar mouth at 2 s.

Colchejler. Much fold from this place at
5 s. a waggon load ; they lay 7 or 8
on an acre.

Cheam. Bring it from London, at 2 s. and

1 ox. carriage, as much as 4 horfes
can draw ; lay 8 loads an acre.

Caddington. From London lay 10 loads art
acre at y.r. a load, carriage included.

Chichejlcr. Manure fells at 4/. or §s. a

Ijle of Wight. From Port/mouth at 3 J", a
cart load, freight and coll.

Gil bury 4 From Porifiouih by mipping,

2 s. a load, and is. freight. Froni
Southampton 2s. and is. 6d. freic .
Lay 30 loads an acre ; which L G

8 years.


The value of town manure, which in
general confifts of all forts of dungs, mixed
with the fweepings of houfes, the milage
of flreets, and allies, is well understood
in moft places. The farmers have not
always a juft notion how many miles it will
anfwer to go for it ; hut near moft towns
it is bought by fome in the neighbourhood*
Around London they are at a very confiderable
expence to get it, and with reafon, for the
value of it is great ; it is an improvement
on the farm yard compoft, being compofed
of richer materials, and at the fame time
not fo expenfive as to make it ncceffary to
ufe it as a top drefTing.

9%uenby. The foil a rich clay.
Ufe. Break up old grafs ; the turnips they

fow on it always great ; alfo the barley,

and then the oats.
Expence. 1 /. 4 s.

Difiley. The foil clayey, and fandy loams.
Ufe. On cold land for turnips*
Expence. 1 /. 1 j-.
Alfreton. The foil a hazel loam, on a (tone

Ufe. For turnips or wheat, and fure of a

great crop of either*
Vol. IV. Ee


Expence. igs.

Tlddfwell. The foil thin loams, on lime

and grit-ftone.
Expence. i /.
Lawton. The foil thin loam, on lime and

Vfe. Sow either turnips or wheat after it

No manure exceeds it.
Expence. \%s. 6d.
Colonel St. Leger. His foil a thin loam on

lime ftone.
Vfe. Has pratlifed it with the utmoft

fuccefs for feveral years ; has been

pra&ifed regularly for many ages on

lime ftone foils in the neighbourhood,

not 4 inches thick : He is very clear,

that it does not in the leaft diminifh

the ftaple of the foil.
Wombwell. The foil a rich fandy loam ;

reckoned a fine improvement.
Expence. ijs.
Canwick. The foil a thin loam on lime

Vfe. Pare old heath land for turnips, which

enfures great crops.
Expence. il. is.
Alresford. Thin loam on chalk.
Expence. \l. is.
Vfe. For breaking up old fainfoine.


faring and burning fhould certainly be
ranked as a manure ; for it is one of the
richeft kinds. In thefe minutes it appears
to great advantage, as indeed it alib does
in every part of the kingdom where ufed.
But as of late years fome people have
entertained ideas very contrary to it, fome
explanation is neceflary.

In the firft volume, this miftake is en-
quired into, under Col. St. Leger\ article ;
that gentleman very juftly remarked, that
the reafon the practice was condemned, was
the farmers, on the credit of a paring,
taking fo many fucceffive crops as to exhauft
the foil ; but he found uniformly from
his own practice, that it does not in the leaft
diminilh the furface.

It is aftonifhing, how gentlemen can
argue againft this practice, from its leflening
the ftaple, when they muft know, that in
feveral counties land not four inches thick
has, in the memory of old men, been burnt
four or five times, and the hufbandry com-
mon on it for ages. The truth is, you
burn not the foil, but the vegetables in it,
and in diminifhing the ftaple, reduce only
thofe, which would be the cafe was the
oil ploughed without it. The queftion
E e 2 therefore


herefore is, (hall I burn or rot the vegetable
matter ? That it is nothing more, appears
from the impoffibility of paring and burning
land before it has got a complete turf.
The power of the afhes forces iuch great
fucceeding crops, that a new turf, when
laid to grafs, is fure to be gained foon^
provided, as before remarked, the farmer
does not run out the land.

The value of the manuring may be
guefled from the afhes, which generally
amount to 5 or 600 bufhels an acre ; what
drefTing of other afhes can be given in fuch
quantities ? 500 of wood afhes at 6 a. are

12/. ioj-. of coal afhes at 3//. — 6/. 5J.
whereas the expence of thefe is not a fixth.

At Quenby, - £

1 4


1 1






18 6



Qanwttk %

1 1


1 1

Average, £.1 02


1'ring. Soil, loams ftoney and on chalk;

fown over clover in March.


Quantity. Twenty bufhels.

Sir Cecil JVray. The foil a loam on lime

Ufe. Tried for two years on fainfoine, but
did not the leaft good.

Toungsbcrrj. Clays, and ftoney loams.

Quantity, Twenty bufhels an acre.

Ufe. Chiefly on clover, and find the im-
provement great.

David Barclay. Soil, a good brick earth

Quantity. 160 bufhels, at 3^. f, expence
inclufive, an acre, were compared on
grafs land with 16 loads an acre of
rotten dung. Before the manuring,
the product half a load hay an acre;
the afhed part, 1 I, and the dunged | ;
much white clover in the former,
none in the latter.

Mr. Clayton. Soil, clay, and loams.

Quantity. Twelve to 20 bufhels, at 6 a 7 .

Ufe. The efFec~l very great on clover and
fainfoine; on the latter better than peat

Beconsfield. Various clays and loams.

Quantity. Forty bufhels. 6/. for 50, and
1 4 j". carriage.

E e 3


TJfc. Sow them on clover, and anfwer
better than any other manure.

The foils, on which thefe afhes have been,
tried, are fo various (mere fands excepted)
that they do not feem to be a manure pecu-
liar to any in particular. The quantities
per acre vary much.

Bitfiels. Prices.

Trmg, - 20

TToungsberry, 20

David Barclay, 160 3 \ d.

Mr. Clayton, 16 6

Beconsjield, 40 5

Much the greateft effect is at David
Barclay's, who ufes by far the greateft
quantity. May we not from heme con-
clude, that thefe allies are generally ufed
in too fmall quantities? I viewed David
Barclay's grafs, and can teflify that the
fuperiority, to 16 loads of rotten dung
more than a year after the manuring, is
extremely great ; the one a good verdure
for the feafon, the other, comparatively
ilubble. The foil a rich brick earth loam.

It is remarkable, that with Sir Cecil
Wray they were of no fervice to fainfoine,
a crop they are fo generally ufed for, and on
which fo fmall a quantity as 16 bufhels, with
Mr. Clayton, have fuperior effects to peat


Clover, fainfoine, and natural grafs,
are the only crops they are ufed for,


Mr. ArbutLmot, tried them on various
arable fields, 25 bufhels at 3d. per acre,
without any effect. On grafs their
ufe great.
The diftinction here made between graft
and arable land, mould always be remem-
bered ; for the ufe of a manure being with
the fame perfon great in one cafe, and
trivial in the other, is decifive of their
effect; we may from thefe trials conjecture,
that wood and coal afhes mould be applied
for the fame purpofe.


Hampjiead. The foil loams, ftoney, &c.
Ufe, Sown over wheat in March.
Quantity. Thirty or forty bufhels.
Turing. Sown over wheat in March,
Quantity. Twenty bufhels.

Soil. A loamy fand.
Quantity. Thirty bufhels, at 6 d.
Ufe. Lay it on- grafs land, and alfo on
wheat in fpring. It does great fervice
E e 4 for


for one crop, and fometimes for the

fucceeding one.
About Colcbejler. Much fown on their

paftures, at 6d. a bufhel.
Mr. Arbuthnot.
Quantity. Thirty bufhels an acre, at yd'

and id. fowing, befides carriage.
Ufe, Excellent on grafs land, and on wheat

if fown early in February. Compared

with coal allies 40 bufhels of each ;

at firft the foot made the greatelt ap-
pearance ; but no difference in the

crop of hay.
Che am. The foil a chalky loam.
Quantity. Twenty bufhels an acre, at 6d.
Ufe. On fainfoine and clover.
Newbury. Soils various.

intityi Twelve bufhels, at Sd.
Ufe. Sow it on the green wheat in the

Becon.feld. Various clays and loams.
Quantity. Thirty or forty bufhels, at $d.

or 6d.
Ufe. Sow it on the wheat in March ; it

forces ftraw much, but apt to caufe the

From thefe particulars it appears, that
feet is ufed to much advantage on arable



as well as grafs : the only application
mentioned, however, is the fowing it on
wheat in the fpring ; a ule that may be
determined advantageous to the wheat crop,
but not to thofe which follow. On clover
and grafTes the application is alfo common.
The following are the quantities.
















-' z

Mr. ArbutLviot,
' Cheam,


Thefe quantities appear to be very imall;
too trifling to have any but a flight effeel:
on the firft crop ; thefe minutes do not
give one a great idea of its virtues, which
I apprehend to be totally owing to the
quantities being too (mall. Coal afhes, with
Mr. Arbuthnot^ equalled foot, which is

It is not worth while to manure at a lefs

expence than 40 s. an acre, and in feveral

parts of England, where they are excellent

1 farmers,


farmers, that is the price of dreffing with
purchafed dung ; not thinking a lefs quan-
tity effectual : The advantage is, that fuch
a manuring lafts 3 or 4 years ; whereas
10 j". or 20 s. in a top dreffing, fcarcely
ever lafts more than one crop.


Cheam. Soil a chalky loam.

Quantity. 1 6 Bufhels, at 6 d. and bring it

1 2 miles ; reckon it better than foot.

Quantity. 10 to 20 bufhels, at 5 d. or 6d.
life. Chiefly on clover, and does fome

good to the following wheat ; fome-

times on green wheat in the fpring.
Newbury. Soils various.
Quantity. 10 Bufhels, at 6 d.
Ufe. Only on clover in March: the red

afh the bell,
Duration. Only the clover crop, but that

is encreafed by it, as 3 to 2.
Mr. Clayton. Soil, clay and loams.
Quantity. 10 Bufhels.
Ufc. Sows it on clover, which doubles its

The effects here mentioned of peat afhes,
are very aftoniftiing ; fo fmall a quantity as

10 bum el •


jo bufhels doubling the product of clover,
or increafing it even as 3 to 2, are fuch
powerful effedts, that I can only exprefs
my wonder at them : the expence of 5 s.
an acre in manure, to be attended with fuch
furprizing advantages, is a degree of profit
not equalled in any other method I ever
heard of, and determines me, at North
Minis, about 30 miles from Mar low, (the
nearefl place on the Thame: at which I can
have thefe afhes) to fend my waggon thither
next feafon for a load, by which means I
fli U have it in my power to try the effects
ei iem on thefe foils; they will at that
expence, be much cheaper than coal-afhes
from London, as I can bring 100 bufhels
at a time, or enough for 10 acres of land.

It feems very remifs in farmers not to
fearch for fo valuable a commodity as peat
in all their low grounds, efpecially bottoms
between fteep hills ; or in flat meadows on
the banks of rivers.


Colonel St. Leger. Spread 40 bufhels per
acre on grafs on limeftone clay ; 1 /.
1 s. 6 d. expence ; of not the leafl ufe.
Harrowed in with barley ; juft vifible.


— =6o bufhels an acre with turnips ;

the effect good.
Mr. Bevcr. Ufes them on grafs-land with

fuch fuccefs, 20 loads an acre, that

land let at 5 s. was advanced to a

guinea by them.
Mr. Pooh. Soil, good loam.
Quantity. 4 loads an acre, 32 bufhels each,

at 3 d. — 1 load an acre in drills, with

TJfe. Prefers them to all other manures for

Soap allies pofTefling much fertility, is a
fact that is here fufficiently proved, and yet
it is very contrary to any idea one could
form of them in theory. To prefer ve the
falts of afhes, we are juftly directed to keep
them quite dry ; but in the foap-boiler's
hands they are fo wafhed, that if water
can carry their falts off, they mould be left
worthlefs ; but the fact fpeaks againft fuch
reafoning, for in Mr. Bevor's trials, the
advantages attending their ufe, equal thofe
of the fineft manures ; and both Colonel St*
Leger and Mr. Poole find them excellent for
turnips. It is however obfervable, that
the quantities ufed are much larger than
of any dry afhes.



Colonel St. Leger, - 60

Mr. Bevor, (at 30 bufhels a load) 600
Mr. Poole, - - - 128

And their proving fuccefsful when laid on
in great quantities, is a confirmation of my
former reafoning, that the manure being
laid on in great bulk, is, fingly, a matter
of confequence.


War bam. Sow it on their barley lands, at

3 d. a bufhel.
TLarlham. Soil, a loamy fafid.

Quantity. 40 Bufhels an acre, at j\.d.
TJfe. Sow it on wheat in the fpring.
F/egg Hundred. The foil a light rich

mixed loam.
Quantity. Four quarters an acre.
TJfe. Sow it on clover, and find great

Toungsberry. The foil clay or ftoney loam.
Quantity. Three or 4. quarters per acre, at

7-f. or Ss. a quarter.
David Barclay.
Quantity. Four quarters, at js. for barley;

and anfwered well.
Mr. Arbuthmt. 50 Euihels an acre, tried

on arable, againft 20 facks of coal-

afhes, and turned out much fuperior.


Beconsfield. Various clays and loams,
Quantity. Thirty bufhels, at $d.
Ufe. For turnips.

Thefe accounts of malt-duft are all
favourable ; but it is a manure rather con-
fined in its ufe, being difficult to get, and
the price feems very great.



Flegg Hundred^
David Bar clay y
Mr. Arbuthnoty





1 1






The price near London is owing to their
being ufed as food for cows. Suppofe the
price 6d. ; 40 j. would then buy 80 bufhels;
a quantity I fhould apprehend, that would
be attended with very beneficial effects.
By Mr. Arbuthnofs trial they are plainly
fuperior to coal afhes.


Snetti/Jjam. The foil good loamy land.
Quantity. A ton, at 3 /. 5 j. and 10/. ex-
pences, to three acres.


TJfe. Tried for wheat, and promifed fo
greatly, that the farmers have bought
fome fhip loads.
Mr. PetU of the IJle of Thanet. Tried it,
one bufhel to 10 perches, againft coal-
afhes, 40 bufhels an acre: the afhes
beat the fait greatly, which, however,
did fome good to the barley, but
deftroyed the clover.
The quantities here ufed are extremely
'various ; the Norfolk ton may be called
about 30 bufhels, but Mr. Pett's is only
16, and yet that quantity deftroyed his
clover ; 40 bufhels of coal afhes exceeding
the fait, and at the fame time being beyond
comparifon cheaper, is decifive againft it.
The trials in Norfolk are yet in their infancy,
and not at all explicit ; but on fand in a
very dry feafon, the fait might be of fervice,
by attracting moifture from the atmofphere.
Experiments to decide the merit of fait are
much wanting ; in thofe I formed in Suffolk
it was uniformly unfuccefsful, and often
did mifchief.

O I L.

'James Stovin, Efq. On a rich fandy foil.
One acre manured with 12 loads rot-
ten dung, at 3/. I a J. j one ditto with



Dr. Hwiter\ oil compoft, 15*. 6d.\
all circumftances fimilar; fown with

3i B- P-

The firft produced, - 5 5°

The fecond, - 4 3 2

Superiority, - - 1 I 2

At 20*. - - £.139

Saving in manure, - 2166

Superiority, - - 403

Second year fown with rye ; the dunged
half much the beft.

This experiment is one of the moil
aPtonifhins; I remember to have heard. The
oil compoft does no flight honour to the
worthy author of the Georgical Eff'ays ; but
that fo fmall a portion fhould exceed 12
loads of rotten dung, I mull own, furpafles
one's comprehenfion ; as to its declining the
fecond crop, it is not a matter of furprize*
This manure calls for numerous trials to
decide its merit, for it bids fair much to
exceed all other top dreffings.

That uncommon virtue is in oil, we fee
clearly from the great effect of all oleagi-
nous manures, fuch as oil-cake, and the



dung of beafts fattened with oil-cake, rotten
dungs, &c. and it certainly deferves no
flight attention to examine, if the oil itfelf
cannot be ufed with fuccefs ; rendering it
mifcible with water appears to anfwer the

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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) → online text (page 19 of 25)