Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) online

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end at once. I fhall try fome fmall experi-
ments on oil, in various fhapes, this fpring,
on my foils, which may enable me to dis-
cover how far it is valuable.

OIL-CAKE,

Mr. Carr. His foil a light fandy loam ;
tried 140 /.'s worth, but received very
little benefit ; then tried fatting beafts
with it, and the dung proved excellent.

Snettijham. Light fandy loam.

Quantity. One ton, at 3 /. 10 s. 104/. 10s.
does 3 acres, broke in pieces no larger
than walnuts, by mills.

Ufe. Attended with very great benefit.

Duration. Lafts only one crop.

Burnham to Wells. The foil a light fandy
loam.

Quantity. Half a ton.

War ham. Soil a light fandy loam.

Quantity. A ton and f , at 3 /. 3 s. to 4/.

a ton, will do 3 acres ; brought from

Ireland and Holland, but the Dutch

Vol. IV. F f cakes



434 THE FARMER'S TOUR

cakes the beft, from their not preffing
them fo much.
Ufe. For wheat ; but lafts ftrong only for
one crop, but a help to the following
turnips.
David Barclay. Clayey foil.
Quantity. Two quarters of rape oil-cake

duft, at 1 5 J - , a quarter.
Ufe, Sown on barley ; the effect remark-
ably great ; 5 quarters of barley an
acre, which is more than ever known
on the land.
Thefe trials, except Mr. Carr's, are ftrong
in favour of the manure ; his experiment
muft therefore have been an exception ow-
ing to a peculiar feafon ; the other minutes
fhew the effect to be fo great, that the
benefit is decifive, and I lhould remark,
that it confirms the theory which gave birth
to the oil compoft.

BONE-DUST.

Colonel St. Leger. Spread 35 bufhels per

acre on a limeftone clay, at 11 d. a

bufhel; much inferior to yard dung

at fame expence.

Part of an arable field manured with a

compoft of bone-duft and horn-fhavings,

40 bufhels per acre* at 1 1 d. ; the other part

1 1 2 loads



THROUGH ENGLAND. 435

12 loads yard dung. The latter fuperior
the firft crop ; the former, the fecond.

Although thefe trials are not decifive,
the one being rather in contradiction to the
other, yet they feem to prove bone-duft a
good manure ; I need not remark that it is
an oily one. — The price is however high.
The duft, I apprehend, mult be much
more advantageous than large bones them-
felves, as ufed in Hertford/hire.

CUTLERS BONES.

Colonel St. Leger. Spread on a limeftone
clay, 35 bufhels, at in/. ; the effect
quite imperceptible.
The obfervation on bone-duft is here

confirmed; 35 bufhels an acre proving

iifelefs, fhew, that they mould be reduced

to duft before they are fpread.

HARTSHORN SHAVINGS.

Colonel St. Leger. Spread on a limeftone

clay, 35 bufhels, at 11^/. inferior to

dung at the fame expence.

TANNERS BARK,

Rev. Mr. Hall. His foil cold and fpringy.

ico leads four years old, mixed with

fome yard dung and lime, turned once,

and when rotten, fpread on 8 acres

F f 2 wheat.



436 THE FARMER'S TOUR

wheat. It much ameliorated the land,
and prevented a too great adhefion.
Mr. Hall thinks the virtues of the
bark fmall ; better for opening than
enriching.
The bark being mixed with dung and
lime in this experiment, we cannot decide
how much of the benefit is to be attributed
to it, but in all probability Mr. Hall's
obfervation is juft, that the virtue of the
bark is rather that of mellowing the land*
than fertilizing it. I have tried it on grafs-
land alone without the leaft effect.

WOOLLEN RAGS.

Newbury. Ufe them with fuccefs; arc

very ferviceable to their lighter lands.
Mr. Clayton. Finds them more beneficial
on wet cold land, than on hot dry foils.
Woollen rags are a manure commonly
ufed around London ; but the farmers lay
them in too promifcuous a manner on all
{oils, and are of very different opinions as
to the land molt proper. The two minutes
here inferted, are in direct oppofition : we
want to be accurately informed, by minute
comparative experiments made in the fame
feafon, of the benefit refulting from rags
en various foils. Thofe who urge that

they



THROUGH ENGLAND. 437

they are proper only on wet foils, offer,
for a reafon, the quality of keeping the
land open ; the bits of rags preventing a
great adhefion. They after t that clay land
will never bind, however unfavourable the
feafon may be. On the contrary, the advo-
cates for fpreading them on a dry fandy
foil, quote the ftrong attraction of moifture
known in woollen rags ; which, fay they,
mult be highly beneficial for fands and
other dry foils ; but mud, in the fame pro-
portion, be pernicious in clays. When rea-
fons are in this manner offered on both
fides the queftion ; the heft way is to give
credit to neither, but reft the point totally
on experiments ; unfortunately fuch are
wanting.

SHEEPS TROTTERS.

David Barclay. His foil a ftoney loam.

Quantity. Six quarters an acre of them,
at 7 s. ; 2 /. 1 1 J", with carriage ; tried
againft 10 quarters of rabbit dung,
at 2s.; 1 /. 10 s. with carriage, and
alfo the fold.



Produces.


Bafi.


Trotters,


?<5


Fold,


20


Rabbit dung,


l S



Ff 3



438 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Mr. Arbutbnot, Soils ftrong and light

loam.
Quantity. Five quarters, at 9^. befides

carriage.
life. For wheat, and alio madder : they

were not attended by any advantage,

which he attributes to their going

through the glue-makers hands.
Cheam. The foil a chalky loam.
Quantity. Three quarters an acre, at 8 s.
Ufe. Sow them with wheat feed ; but do

not think them fo good as the fame

value in dung.
Cuddington. Soil a hazel loam on chalk*
Quantity. Eight quarters, at 6 s.
Duration. Two crops.

Trotters do not make any great figure in
thefe minutes, proportioned to their price ;
Even with Mr. Barclay, rabbits dung and
the fold are, at leaft, equal to them, ex-
pence ccnfidered ; and the idea common, at
the other places, of yard dung being
fuperior, gives us no reafon to recommend
them as a manure, where other forts are to
be had.

BUCK-WHEAT.
Mr. Bevor, Has fown it on ftrong land as

a preparation for wheat. Part fed

with



THROUGH ENGLAND. 439

with cattle, and what remained,

ploughed in the end of July ; the

wheat 5 quarters an acre.
Mr. Sturt) Tried it as a preparation for

wheat, and beat all others.
The ufe of this crop, as a manure, de-
pends wholly on the foil ; firft, in getting
a great bulk of it, and then in its opening
quality of making the foil loofe, hollow, and
puffy ; an effect very defirable in thofe
whofe faults is their adhefion ; but on
others, fuch as fand, that wants adhefion,
it cannot be proper ; yet herein I fpeak
from reafon alone.

RABBITS DUNG.

Mr. Arbitthnot. Clay, and ftrong loams.
Quantity. Twenty-five facks, at 1 s. 1 d.
Ufe. Sows it over the green wheat in

March ; the advantage very great.
Beconsfield. Various clays and loams.
Ufe. Sow it for turnips, and is better than

malt-duft.
Rabbit dung can only be had near great
cities ; the ufe of it, therefore, is con-
fined. I believe it is a very juft maxim in
hufbandry, that all dungs are excellent
manures ; they are of that mucilaginous
oily nature, that univerfally agrees with
F f 4 every



440 THE FARMER'S TOUR

every kind of land. We are often in doubt
about other forts of dreffing — lime, fait,
malt-duft, afhes, &c. thefe are not always
beneficial ; but the cafe is very different
with dungs. As to rabbit dung, if laid on
in fufficient quantities, there can be no
doubt of its excellence ; 25 facks are a much
better dreffing than ever given of pigeons;
but why not lay it on at the expence of 3/.
an acre, which would beflow a quantity to
the foil, approaching town manures and
yard dung ; the duration, as well as the
immediate effect, would, in all probability,
be anfwerable.

POULTRY DUNG.

Mr. Arbuthnot. Soil, a clayey loam.

Compared with rabbits dung and
wood-afhes, in November on wheat,
18 facks an acre of each. It much
exceeded the others ; then the rabbit
dung ; the afhes worft.

PIGEON'S DUNG.

Mr. Booth. The foil a rich red loam,

Quantity. Two cart loads.

Application. Sown on poor wheat in the

fpring ; it is very flrong, but laft§

only 2 crops.
Quenby. The foil a rich clay,



THROUGH ENGLAND. 441

U/e. With draining it completely kills

ru flies.
Jjawton. The foil, loam on lime and grit-

ftone, fpread on their barley lands.
Quantity. Three quarters, at 8 s. a quarter.
Wombwell. The foil a rich fandy loam.
Quantity. From 3 to 5 quarters, at 8j. a
quarter ; they reckon 5 equal to any-
common drelfmg of dung in a wet
feafon.
life. For wheat or turnips.
Toungsberry. The foil clay or ftoney loam.
Quantity. Twenty bufhels an acre.
JJfe. On barley, and they find that it beats

all other manures.
Mr. Burke tried pigeons dung, rabbit dung,
and yard dung, in quantities propor-
tioned to their price : the pigeons dung
belt. — next the rabbit — then the yard.
Thefe particulars are, upon the whole,
yery fatisfactory. Pigeons dung evidently
appears an excellent dreffing, and at an
expence not great. The IVombwell intelli-
gence, that 40 bufhels are equal to any
common dreffing of dung, is particularly
to the point. Mr. Burke's comparifon,
and the Toungsberry article fpeak the fame :
(Dne obferyation I fliall make, is the advant.,

age



442 THE FARMER'S TOUR

age of this dung always being kept in the
proper manner ; that is, collecting in a
clofe houfe, unexpofed to the fun, air,
winds, or rain, which is never equally
effected with any other fort of manure ; it
is taken from the houfe, thrown into the
carts, and directly fpread on the land. The
great force of this dung may be an elfential
quality of it ; but I cannot help attributing
part of it to this caufe ; it is at leaf! a hint to
imitate the conduct in other dungs, and to
keep them in the fame manner ; could it be
effected even with that of horfes and beafls,
it would probably be fo much the better.

QUANTITY OF DUNG RAISED

BY A GIVEN QJJANTITY OF

LITTER, OR NUMBER OF

CATTLE.

}Mr. Moody. Forty-five fat oxen, in fatting,

littered with 20 waggon loads of ftub-

ble, raife 200 loads, each 3 tons, of

rotten dung, worth j s. 6d. a load.

Every load of hay and litter given to

beafts, fatting on oil-cake, yields 7 loads

of dung, each 1 | ton, exclufive of the

weight of the cake.

On a comparifon between the oil-cake
dung, and common farm-yard dung, 12

loads



THROUGH ENGLAND. 443

loads an acre of the former, much exceeded

24 of the latter.

Mr. Arbuthnot. 134 Sheep and 30 lambs,
penned 6 weeks in a (landing fold,
and littered with 5 loads and 40 trufs
ftraw, male 28 large loads of dung.
Fed morning and evening in the fold
with turnips. Eat 2 acres of turnips.

Value dung, - - jT. 10 o o

Straw, at 20s. - - 5 15 q



Profit, - - 450



Per acre for turnips, 226



And per fcore per week, o 191



William White. 36 cows and 4 horfes tied
up, eat 50 tons of hay, and have
10 acres of ftraw for litter ; make 200
loads of dung quite in rotten order for
the land.

FARM YARD.

Tring, Litter well with wheat ftubble,

and ftack hay at home.
BUfivortb. Litter with ftraw and ftubble.
Quenby. Litter with rufhes, rubbifh, weeds,

and ftubble, but ftack about the fields.
pifiley. Don't cut ftubble, and ftack about
the fields,



444 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Mr. Bakewell. Winters all forts of horned
cattle in the houfe, tied up ; they are
not littered, but kept quite clean by
fweeping. He prefers, in raifing
manure, the dung arifmg from cattle
that eat a given quantity of ftraw,
to any manure to be gained from fuch
quantity of ftraw by littering.
Whole farm, - 440 acres.

Corn, 40

Food of cattle befides ftraw, 400
On which he keeps all the year,

400 Large fheep,
60 Horfes,

j cq Beafts ; which is better than j
flieep per acre, and 1 head of cattle to z
acres,
/llfreton. Litter with ftubble, but ftack

hay about the fields.
JLadburn. Know nothing of chopping ftub-

bles, and ftack their hay about the fields.
Tiddfwell. Ditto.

Lawton. No littering with ftubble.
Gateford. No chopping, but confine their

cattle to the yard.
Colonel St. Leger. Carries earth into his

yard for Jittering upon, with ftubble.
Canwick. Litter with ftubble, and ftack

hay at home, 2



THROUGH ENGLAND. 444

Snettifham. Do not chop their ftubbles,
but flack their hay at home.'

Warha?n. Do not chop their ftubbles.

Aylfiam. Harrow them and litter the yard.

Bracon Afo. The beft farmers chop ftieir
ftubbles, and flack their hay at home.

Mr. Bevor. Chops his ftubbles ; clears
the lanes of rufhes, fern, &c. and
rakes and faves all his leaves for litter-
ing; expence 6d. a. load. His yard
dung he forms into compofls with
ditch earth, &c. and is attentive to
keep the carts off the hills, to prevent
treading, which injures the fermenta-
tion. The compoft better, quantity
for quantity, than dung alone.

Flegg Hundred. Chop their ftubbles for
littering, and flack their hay at home.

Woodbridge. Chop all their ftubbles for
littering, and flack their hay at
home. They form all their yard
dung into compofls, with crag or vir-
gin mould, turning them over twice
or thrice.

Bramford. Ditto, and form it all into
compofls with chalk.

Colchefter. Litter with all their flubble,
and flack their hay at home.



446 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Toungsberry. Ditto.

Feverfiam. Ditto.

Beak/burn, Ditto.

Addijham. Ditto ; and cart earth to the

yard to litter on, and throw the

flable dunghills on to.
Sheffield Place. Litter with flubble and

fern ; but flack hay about the fields.
IJle of Wight. Do not chop, but flack their

hay at home ; they do not confine

their cattle all winter to the yard.
Alresford. Confine their cattle, and ftack

their hay at home ; but do not chop

the flubbles.
Moreton. No chopping, and flack the hay

about the fields*
Leigh. Ditto.
Newbury. Do not chop, but flack their

hay at home.
Mr. Bevor. Saves all the drainings of his

farm yard, with which he waters

his worfl grafs, and thereby foon

converts it into the befl.
I have thrown the articles, cattle and
farm yard, together, becaufe they are
particularly conne&ed ; and I have to remark
on them, that the true fyflem of manage-
ment,



THROUGH ENGLAND. 447

ment, fo as to raife the moft and beft dung,
is very little underftood throughout the
kingdom ; for which reafon I fhall venture
a few obfervations, which may throw
the fubjec~t with the general run of culti-
vators into that clear light, in which it is
viewed by the beft.

The firft grand object is to confine the
cattle clofe in the farm yards ail the winter
months. We find, that in numerous places
they are fuffered to run out in the fields 5
with which view the hay is flacked about
them ; this is a moft execrable cuftom,
and abfolutely deftrudtive of good hufban-
dry. 1 have heard but one reafon that
even feems to have any weight ; which is
the good of the cattle requiring it. Mr.
Bakewe/Ps never pra£tiling it, with much
the moft valuable cattle in this kingdom,
mould eternally filence this miftake. As
to the cattle eating up the old grafs left
at autumn, and doing well on their ftraw
thereby, I again reply, that the practice
of the beft farmers is againft it ; but the
mifchief they do by poaching is much
greater than fuch benefit amounts* to ; and
grafs, which is of value withered, furely
was of greater value when green and fit to

be



448 THE FARMER'S TOUR

be eaten : fo that this plea is merely a pre-«
fence, to defend bad hufbandry.

But by confining them all winter, there
Is the great advantage of making con-
fiderable quantities of dung : the refufe
litter is mixed with the dung and urine of
the cattle, and forms a compoft of the
richeft fort; but when the cattle are moft
of the time in the fields, both are loft ; for
it is the collection of dung into one body^
that yields the advantage, not a thin and
unequal fcattering about the fields.

If they are not confined the whole winter,
fo much farm yard compoft will not be
raifed as there ought ; the farmer, like (o
many throughout this Tour, will not chop
his wheat ftubbles for litter ; whereas, by
confining them conftantly, they will make
any quantity of litter into manure.

In the farm yard management there are
two methods, which deferve confideration ;
one, to let the cattle run loofe about the area,
and have their hay, ftraw or other food in
racks and cribs ; the other, to tye therii
up in fheds or houfes : the latter is Mr*
Bakewe/I's univerfal method with all cattle;
and that generally pradifed in fattening
on turnips, oil cake, &c I prefer it to the
other much, becaufe their food of what-
ever



THROUGH ENGLAND. 449

ever fort will go infinitely further, and their
dung turned to better account.

In the latter refpect are likewife two modes
of conduct : Mr. Bakewell never litters
but has contrived his ftandings for cattle
*o that they lie clear of their dung ; and
he prefers the dung arifing from a given
quantity of ftraw eat by cattle, to any
larger quantity that can be gained by lit-
tering. I apprehend this reafoning is per-
fectly good, where ftubble, fern, &c. are
to be had for litter ; becaufe then the object
is to keep as many cattle as poifible ; but
if nothing of that fort is to be had, the
cafe will be found more doubtful.

It mould be confidered, that the mere
dung of the cattle is fo rich, or rather the
quantity is fo comparatively fmall, that a
farmer mult either ufe it very fparingly,
or he will manure but a few acres in a
whole year. Mr. Bake-well keeps his
dung two or three years; this is confiftent
with his other practice, and he prefers
it for ufe, not when it is like black butter,
but the moifture of it gone off, and the
body of it become powder like muff: that
fuch dung will be very ftrong, I have not
a doubt ; but at the fame time, the quan-

Yol. IV. G g tity



450 THE FARMER'S TOUR

tity will be fo diminiihed r that it will
nearly refembk a rich top dreffing of foot,
which has a moderate effect for only one
crop ; whereas the great mifchief, as I have
already remarked of thofe dreffings, is the
fmallnefs of the quantity : manure to be of
confiderable fervice muft be laid on in large
bodies ; it will then laft. But if the eflence
of dung is the object, and you let fly
the virtue of a whole dung-hill from a
fnuff-box, moftafluredly the lofs of quantity
will produce a lofs of crop.

A large body of comport, though not
of the richeft fort, occafions a fermentation
in the foil, by completing under the mould
the laft putrefaction : this is of vaft confe-
rence in binding foils, or fuch as you-
want to pulverife.

Sow forty millings worth of foot over
a turnip fallow in May y and at the fame
time lay on the fame value in farm yard
compoft ; plough the ground twice or thrice
for the turnips ; at Midfutnmer view the
land ; the dunged part will be like a hot
bed, and garden mould, but the foot will
have had no effect.

For thefe reafons, which might be much
tstended, I am no friend to making the

farm



THROUGH ENGLAND. 45 t

farm yard compofl fo rich, that the quantity
per acre muft be fmall ; (let me remark
however that I am throughout this enquiry
fpeaking of the application only to arable
land) make all ftraw, &c. whatever cattle
will eat, go as far as poffible ; but on every
account litter them well, that the compofl:
may confift of rotten vegetables, as well
as mere dung and urine ; and if earth or
marie is added, more of the urine will be
retained.

This feems to be a point of particular
importance ; the value of the urine appears
clearly enough in Mr. Bevor's practice ;
it muft therefore be of particular conle-
quence to preferve it : the general method
is to make a prefent of it to the neareft
ditch or horfe pond; but manage how you
will, the yard muft overflow with rains
and fnow ; the object is therefore to flop
the ftream as often as you can to filtre it thro*
your compoft and earth ; by running over,
or being thrown on to an abforbent earth,
a very good manure would be created.

The general practice, which I fhalj
venture to recommend is, what I conceive
for the preceding reafons to be an improve-
ment of Mr. Bakewe/Ps fyftem. Tye
G g 2 up



452 THE FARMER'S TOUR

up all your cattle both lean and fat, litter
them well with ftubble, &c. In the
middle of the area form a layer of marie,
chalk, turf, or virgin earth, about a yard
thick; clean out all the cattle, lean, fat,
horfes, cows, hogs, &c. into fmall carts or
barrows, and pile up the dung on the earth,
until you get eight or ten feet high; then
form a frefh layer at bottom by the fide of
the firft, and go on in the fame manner :
from time to time, pump up the drainings
of the yard on to the compoft, ftir it ove r
once before it is ufed, mixing it well to-
gether ; and you will find that putrefaction
will advance very quick. In this method,
the dung lies in the fmalleft compafs poffi-
ble, confequently, the fun, wind, and
rains, have the iefs power over it, and do
it the leaf!: mifchief ; but when it is fpread
over the whole yard, much of the virtue is
fo loft. I recommend this plan with the
greater readinefs, becaufe I have practifed
it this winter with what I think fo much
fuccefs, that I am fully determined never to
purfue any other method.

I fhould not chufe to have the compoft
richer than would allow me to ufe 50 loads,
each a cubical yard, per acre.

Th$



THROUGH ENGLAND. 453

The great value of compofts is clearly
feen in the practice of the farmers in
Norfolk^ the bell: cultivated parts of Suffolk
and Effex ; in thofe tracts where their huf-
bandry vies with perfection, they one and
all unite in this, forming their yard dung
into heaps with marie, chalk, fea ouze, crag,
or earth : and in Eajl Kent and the IJle of
Tbanet, cart earth into their farm yards ; and
put fo much to their compofts as to lay on
40, 50, and even 80 loads an acre. As
the expence is the fame in both cafes, mine,
I think, is preferable ; becaufe the body of
marie or earth, being in the, farm yard,
has the advantage of retaining much of the
urine.

The experiments of Mr. Moody and Mr.
Arbutbnot prove how well it anfwers to
buy litter with a view to the dung ; in
feeding oxen with oil cakes, one load of
ftraw makes feven of dung, each one ton and
an half; and in feeding fheep with turnips
one trufled load made more than four and a
half large loads, worth js. 6d. each. With
Mr. White, 20 acres of ftraw, fuppofe 30
loads, made 200 of rotten dung in littering
cows, which are fix and a half for one.
G g 3 From



454 THE FARMER'S TOUR

From whence it appears, that litter may
fafely be purchafed at a very high price,
rather than be without it : an argument
which fhould furely be convincing with
the flovens, who have it in their wheat
Hubbies, and yet will not be at the trouble
of chopping and carting it home.






LETTER



THROUGH ENGLAND. 455



LETTER LX.

THERE now only remains for me
to give you a little table of the ftate
of the foil throughout England, fuppofing
this Tour the general average. This is an
enquiry of more than amufement ; for*
as I remarked on another occaiion, there
is a ufe in proportioning the particulars
of any considerable part of the kingdom
to the whole, that the real and comparative
ftate may be clearly known.

It is not of confequence to know whether
fuch parts of the kingdom, as are included
in the particulars of farms, make juft thirty
two millions of acres, but I fhall take
that fuppofition.
State, Rental, and Value of the
Soil.
Acres in all, - - 32,000,000

Arable land, - - 13,518,716

Grafs, - - 15,736,185

Wood, - - * 2,395,721

* N. B. Thefe three fums do not make 32,000,000
by 349,378, which is occafioned by the parts of
561 not being complete ; they form gardens, yards,
ponds, or other pieces not included.
G g 4



456 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Number of farms, - 57,040

Rental, at 14s. - JT. 22,400,000

Value of the foil, at 31 f years

purchafe, - - £. 705,600,000

STOCK in HUSBANDRY,





Number.


Draught cattle

Cows

Fatting beafts

Young cattle

Sheep

Swine

Poultry-


684,491

74i>53 2
5*3>3 6 9
912,656

22,188,948
11,711,200


Totals,


26,752,196



Rate.
I. s. d,

o
o
o
o

15

12



Value.

£•

o 6,844,910
o 5,190,724

O: 6,160,428
o| 3,650,624

o 16,641,711

oj 1,026,720

171,120



Total of live Itock, according to the
proportion in flocking farms, 273/.
to 100 /. a year,



39,686,237



61,152,000



The difference between thefe two fums
require fome remarks ; the latter being the
fum ufed to flock, is generally below the


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) → online text (page 20 of 25)