Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) online

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but little if he does not hire ; if keeping, fhoeing,
wear of harnefs, interelt of money, decline of
value, renewal of flock, &c. are taken into
account, I believe is. 6d. will be found no ex-
travagant idea ; if it is faid, the horfes ftand ftill
often, that only makes the expence fo much
greater when they are ufed. Suppofe a team
cofts 100/. a year, and work 100 days in a
year, it is 20 s. a day; but if they work only So
days, the price per day, riles, as the fum total of
time falls, is. 6d. a day is about 24/. a year-,
fame have oblerved that this is too high, but it
fuppoles that the horfe works every day in the
year, which is never the cafe, consequently it is

1 a mode-


a moderate price. Some farmers never work
their horfes for months together, through ceco-
nomy ; but two and two making four, is not
plainer than the miftake ; they only raife the
expence of ploughing, &c. from 45. to js. by
this means. If the horfe lived upon air when
he did not work, the idea would be juft. But
all good farmers feed their horfes with fome
regularity, whether they work or not ; the poor
man who ftarves his team on draw, to fave hay
and oats, may think himfelf a gainer, but if
hard work comes in the fpring, the land will be
weakly and poorly ploughed, nor will his day's
work, in quantity, nearly equal his neighbour's,
qnlefs he over-works and ruins his beaft.

Upon the whole, I adhere to the charge of 1 s.
6d. a day, as a low one. As to the 1 s. per man, it
can not be lower, but in many places muft be higher.

The remit of the comparifon is, that the
ipade is not only cheaper, but goes, at the above
expence, deeper, and has the great advantage
of being applicable to all foils, and every ftate of
the land — to little as well as to great inciofures
1 — in the power of little as well as ^reat farmers.
In this account I (late nothing but a calculation
drawn from facts ; being much more a friend to
the plough, as an ingenious contrivance, than
prejudiced againft it ; but the real and fair truth
fhould always be known, and no new machine
is ever produced, without many exaggerations,
for I have heard accounts totally contrary to the
truth which now appears from perfons who
attended the trial before the committee of agri-
culture at London. — But this muft ever be the
cafe with trials that laft only an hour or two, or
more likely, ten minutes ; I have been prefent
at fome of thefe committee trials, and am clearly
of opinion, that not one in ten is worth a groat;
for what analogy is there between the trial of an
% inftrament


inftrument in turning a furrow or two, or per-
forming any other operations by a ftop watch*
and the ufual execution during a common day's
work ? Will horfes or men work for a whole
day, as they do for a few minutes ? and perhaps
under the immediate direction of the inventor.

A draining plough, that would greatly reduce
the cxpence of cutting them, would be a moft
ufeful contrivance ; but I apprehend one necef-
fary circumftance attending it, is to perform
the work at one cut •, and another very material
point, is to rife out of the earth, or ftop without

damage, if it meets with a root or great ftone.

Since this was written, I have read in the
fecond volume of Mr. DoJJie's Memoirs, page 331,
that" Mr. Makings plough cut 1400 feet of truicb
in one hour, -without the horfes going a greater
pace than they are able to hold in a whole days
work ; that in land of moderate tenacity and
refinance, it can be wrought with four horfes, under
the direction and guidance of a man and a b:y.
This is juft the refult I mould look for from a
committer experiment of one hour. It requires
fix horfes, unlefs worked in fand, which wants
no draining : — inflead of a man and boy, three
men are neceflary •, — and as to the 1400 fccz in
an hour, which amounts to 6j8 perch in a day
of eight hours, Mr. Avon's experiments above
mentioned affert only 220 perch •> fo the Society's
plough did more than thrice as much. Kow are
we to reconcile this, but by a general idea that
ilop-watch experiments are not worth fixpence-
an hundred ?

Vol. II. page 211.
In feveral parts of the preceding minutes,
particularly in Suffolk, mention is made of cows
often giving eight gallons of milk per day ; this



fa6t is thought vesy improbable in fome other
parts of the kingdom ; this induced me, on all
occafiom that offered* to make minute enquiries
into the product of cows. I can pledge myfelf
for the accuracy of the following account.

Three cows Tone of them a heifer after her
firft calf) the property of the Rev. Mr. Afpin,
of Cockficld in Suffolk-, yielded from June to Decem-

pounds of butter, the old ones giving for fome
time in the height of the feafon, each eight
gallons of milk a day. The benefit received in
pigs amounted to 3/. and the three calves were
ibid at a fortnight old for 10 s. 6 d. each.
683 lb. at yd. (the felling price of the

neighbourhood) - £. 19 18 o

Pigs, - - 3 o o

Calves, - *• 1 1 1 6

Total, - 24 9 6

In this country they reckon a heifer in
her firft year as half a cow ; at two
and a half this is per cow, 9 15 10

Thefe cows were kept on only three acres of
grafs without any change of pafture till after
mowing time -, in the winter chiefly on ftraw,
with very Utile hay.

Thefe particulars are very valuable ; they
prove that I have not Jealt in romance, when I
have fpoken of the Suffolk breed ; and they ihew,
that this poor looking, mongrel breed, is
tly preferable for rhe pail to the large Hol-
dernefs cow, one of which would have coniumed
all the food of the above three cows, without
returning half the produce \ or to the fine Lan-
ccfiire breed, wh ch Jells at fuch enormous prices.
Thole, who are curious in cattle, ihould make
thefe neceffary diftinctaons •, for according to the



general notions of a breeding (lock, we may
pronounce, that the finer your breed is,
the more mifchief you do to the dairy ; a con-
fideration that mould perhaps check the rage of
breeding fo common at preicnt in ibme counties*.
I cannot here omit obferving, that Mr. A/pin's
huibandry is excellent : he does full jufttce to
thecourfe; i. Turnips, 2. Barley, 3. Clover,
4. Wheat. His foil a fine kindly light loam
on gravel. The turnips exceeding fine, being
the large globular fort that grows above ground,
and roots only by the tap. For the barley he
ploughs but once, which method he finds far
more advantageous than giving more earths, the
land breaking up in a fine mouldering order.
One ) ear he iVirred thrice, but his crop fuffered
much by it. This is owing to the lofs of an
early feafon ; for barley muft be (own while the
land is quite dry •, if it is furred early in the fpring,
a very little rain will caufe long delays, fo that
the feed will not be in the ground till too late •,
and with ail crops, nothing is more important
than an early lowing.

The barley and the wheat yields each five
quarters per acre.

The clover is fed with Scotch black cattle,
and fatting wethers, which is an application that


* This is not an improper place to introduce the follow-
ing certificates, with which I was favoured at Lincoln by
the Mayor and one of the Aldermen.

Lincoln, July 31, 1 770,

This is to certify, that a cow, now the property of John
Duties, of Lincoln, 5 gallons of milk at a meal, for
fome time after her firft calving.

John Da-vies, alderman.

Alfo, two cows, the property of Henry and Phil. Bulhn,
Lincoln, give upwards of five gallons each, at a meal, for
fome time after calving.

Phil. B alien, mayor.
N. B. Winchefier meafure.



turns out very profitable ; for the beafls being
purchafed lean in November, kept on draw in
the winter, and a few turnips in fpring, and
then finifhed in the clover, are generally fold
within a trifle at double the coft ; coming to
from 36 to 5oftone (14$.) The wether lambs
are bought in September, and fold that time
twelvemonth at treble their cofb. This fyftem
is, upon the whole, one of the moll beneficial
that I have any where met with.

This winter, Mr. Afpin had a fmall piece of
great Scotch cabbages for an experiment to try
the effect on milch cows. They were fed for
fome time on cabbages alone, and the butter and
cream proved incomparably good ; without
the leaft tafte ; equal to the beft hay butter.

Vol. II. page 211.

The Revd. Mr. Curteen, of Bradfield St. Clair,
has for fome years tried a hand-mill for grinding
wheat, invented by William Brand, the ingenious
mechanic mentioned in Vol. II. p. 212. See
the annexed plate.



m 1


2 —

2 feet




3 —





4 —





6 —





8 —





10 —




11 —




13 ~

1 1



16 —





17 —





19 —



l 9


20 —





14 —






ypwutix icLf./wrjSc.


— —




j :





The corn is put into the hopper 6, out of
which it is let very gradually by a moveable
iron, fixed at 17 and 12, but moveable at 13
and 14, by the iron 22, turning with the axis
of the mill ; the little cogs in it ftrike the iron
13, 14, which by the iron 13, 12, lets the corn
drop from the hopper : 21 is a fmall iron bafon,
2 or 3 inches below the point of the hopper,
out of which it falls into the mill. This is one of
the material parts of the invention j for Mr. Brand
has obferved, that the great fault in thefe mills
is the weight of the corn in the hopper lying
immediately on the grinding part of the body
of the mill ; which clogs it, and makes the
work much harder ; the meal falls into the
drawer 22.

The handle of the winch, 20, that turns
the mill ; 18 the axletree which runs through
the beam 23 to the double irons 7, 8. The
axle does not go ftrait to the beam 24, but only
to the firft iron of the 7, 8 ■■> this is with intention
to lengthen the lever, and eafe the work.

Refpecting the execution, Mr. Curteen and
myfelf tried it very accurately ; we ground
■ | of a peck of wheat in 7 minutes, the meal
of which filled the quarter peck meafure, and

1 over; whence it appears, that when a fack
of wheat is fent to a miller, he fhould return
7 buftiels.

Mr. Curteen was however of opinion, that if

2 men work a whole day, 15 minutes would be
a proper allowance : as we did not work at all
hard. I think this is rather too much ; however,
to allow it fully, this is a peck in an hour, and,
if we call a day 10 hours, it is 10 pecks a day.
Two men, on an average of feafons, may be
called 2 s. 6d.- ? this is exactly is. a bumel.

Vol, IV. I i A miller


A miller in this country in pay 3 d. ; toll, and
avowed deductions, takes about 6 d. a bufhel. Mr.
Curteen is very clearly of opinion, that the n.a
bufhel anfwers in mere expence ; for a general
complaint here, as well as elfewhere, is the
unbounded knavery of thefe rafcals, not only
in direct Healing, but alfo in changing the corn,
giving bad for good, grinding white peafe, &c.
and playing a thoufand tricks of the fame fort.

The mill, which appears moll to be wanting,
is one to be turned by a jack-afs or a little horfe ;
but then it mult be on the horizontal principle,
not the perpendicular one ; the common hand
coffee-mill, which turns round on the top, offers
a hint ; if the handle was a very long lever,
even a man would have a great force.

Vol. III. page 41.

Since this article was written, Mr. Crow has
advifed me of the products of feveral acres of
madder, taken up in the autumn of 1770.

Page 38, I mention his not thinking it
impofTible to gain 30 C. wt. on one acre ; he
now finds that idea exceeded \ for he has taken
up one acre, from which no plants were ever
drawn, that weighs dry 1 T. 12 C. wt. 1 §K 24 lb.
The minutes of this product, with a fample of
the madder, he fent to the Society for the Encou-
ragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, as
a candidate for their premium for the greatefi
quantity raifed on one acre, and obtained the
gold medal of the Society.

Adjoining to this acre, Mr. Crowe had another,
for an experiment of comparifon ; the preceeding
one had no plants drawn from it ; this had two
hundred thoufand plants drawn from it the two



firft fummers ; which circumftance was the only
difference, the foil, culture, &c. were perfectly
alike. The product of this acre was 19 C. wt.

T. C. §. lb.
Undrawn, - - 1 12 1 24

Drawn, - - -01900

Superiority, - o 13 1 24

No comparifon can be more decifive ; the
difference at 4/. 10 s. is near 60 /. from whence
we may clearly determine, that plants mould
never be drawn but on the molt urgent neceffity,
imlefs they are fold like thefe at 10 j.^wthoufand ;
then the practice is profitable, for here they
came to 1 00 /. whereas the damage is only 60 /.
From this proportion we are able to draw a
very material piece of knowledge for valuing
madder crops; which is, that for every 10/.
you receive for plants, you reduce 61. from the
product of the crop, which in fuch cafes may
be allowed accordingly. Mr. Crowe's idea
therefore of ufing winter plants to fave this great
damage to the growing crops, appears to be
perfectly juft.

On another piece, containing one acre and 20
perches, the foil a light fandy loam, planted
with winter plants, dug up at only two years
old, he had 17C. wt. dry and clean madder,
befides 172,000 winter plants. This crop is
amazingly great, and mews the importance of
the light fandy foils for this vegetable, in the
i flrongeft light.

Mr. Crowe further informs me, that there
are 12 acres planted about Feverjhcm laft
Michaelmas^ and 30 more ready for fpring

I i a Let


Let us in the next place take the account of
thefe crops, as of the others, at p. 40.

iT*. 12C. wt. 1 ^. 24/^. at 4/. 10 s.

per C. wt. - £. 146 2 1

Expences, (with 4/. 4.S. added for

drying) - - - 43 17 6

Profit, - - 102 4 7

Which is per acre per ann. - 34 1 6


igC.wt. at 4/. 10s. - 85 10 o

13 C. wt. 1 j^. 24. lb. at ditto, being the

lofs by drawing,

60 12


Expences, -

- 146 2
43 17




102 4


Per acre per ann.

34 1



14-C.wt.^ gK 14$. at 4/. 10 j. 66 18 9

Tillage, as at p. 39, and


£• 3






Hoeing and digging



- 4


Digging up,





Rent, &c. at 20 s.

- • 2

— 26 18 6


Brought over — Product, £. 66 18 9
Expences, 26 18 6

Profit, - - 40 o 3

Or per acre per ann. - 20 o 1 §

Befides 75/. for 150,000 winter plants.
I fhall in the next place draw all the experi-
ments into one view, that a clear idea may be
Formed of them.

Expences, No. 1. - - £. 39 13 6

No. 2. - - 42 19 *6

No. 3. - 43 17 6

No. 4. .. 43 17 6

No. 5. * - 26 18 6

Of five acres, - 196 14 6

Average, - - 39 6 10

» 1 1 *

Produff. Weight. Value.

r. c. %. w. i. s. d.

No. 1. 01800 8100

2. 1 7 1 o 122 12 6

3. 1 12 1 24 146 2 1

4. 1 12 1 24 146 2 1

5. o 14 3 14 66 18 9

Of five acres, 6 5 c 13 562 15 5

Average, 1 502 11211 1

Ditto per acre per ann. of the 4 firft,

being 3 years, * 41 6 4

The fifth, being 2 years, - 3394

* 3 /. 6 /. added for drying 1 1 C. <u>/. the loft by 1170,009

4 86





P^r ae. per am


s. d.

I. s. d.

No. i.


6 6

*3 15 6




26 11



4 7

34 1 ^



4 7

34 1 ^




20 1

Of five acres.

. 3 6 5

8 11
1 9

128 9 7


25 13 IJ

Thefe are very confiderable fums ; 25/. 13 j.
an acre every year clear profit, from a crop that
is kept perfectly clean by hand-hoeing, and
which receives a digging of 1 1 /. an acrej is a
degree of benefit that is uncommonly great,
and mould call on the poffefrors of excreme
rich deep foils, to exert themfelves in fo profitable
a culture. The rich black rotten mould of an
old hop ground is undoubtedly the true foil for
it •, but Mr. Crowe's trial on a much poorer
land fhews, that fuch a degree of fertility is not
abfolutely neceflary. That madder is an article,
which bids fair for yielding immenfe advantage,
we may eafily gather from the increafe of the
culture ; 1 2 acres being planted Lift Michaelmas,
and 30 more ready for this fpnng, fhew this in the
cleareft manner. The publick is not a little
indebted to this fpirited active farmer, for in-
troducing the culture in a country fo well adapted
to it.

Vol. III. page 59.

Mr. Taylor favoured me with a drawing of his
drill plough •, but it did not come in time for
inferting the defcription in the proper place :


the following are the references given by the
perfon who drew it.

A plan and elevation of a three drill plough,
made in 1770.

No. 1. Is a fide view, to an inch fcale, and
fo are all the reft ; what are marked W. is wood,
and I. iron ; P. I. plate iron. No. 2. Is the
plan (or flat) of the beam, foot handles, with
the ihuttle through the beam, and irons fcrewed
through the foot, for the ufe of letting out the
fide beams, , A. No. 3. Is an intire iron frame
to fix in the three drills ; the frame takes
afunder for the ufe of putting the drills nearer,
as you want the beams, A. The iron, B,
of which there are two, one at each fide of the
foot, fixed on to the foot, in No. 1. No. 4.
Is the drill open, fide-ways, in which you fee
the rollers on the end, where the axle goes
through fquare, and a fpring, pliable on a
pin at top, and a fcrew at bottom, to fcrew
tighter the fpring occafionally ; but the fpring
is no wider than the middle divifion in
No. 5. The corn goes only in the middle di-
vifion ; (one of thofe two divifions, made of
plate iron, has a hole cut for the roller to
go free) then fix in the plate F, to No. 5,
in which there is a fquare plate the width of
the middle divifion, and to lay over the
middle of the roller X, in No. 4. There are
on each fide plate irons fixed to keep the fur-
rows open, which may be fet wider as occafion
requires. ' The carriage of this plough has
a long axle, the wheels to let out in proportion
to the drill, and the wheels only two feet
high j but the fore and hind boxes are of a fize,
I i 4 on


on account of the wheels being more fteady
when let out.

A. A. The roller at large, which is of wood,
two inches diameter ; the middle part is hol-
lowed out for the corn, as you fee in the circle,
and a piece of thin iron between every hollow,
becaufe the wood fhould not break away -, the
two ends of the roller are hooped to the hollow.

a, in No. 2. a fmall iron bar acrofs the
handles, to which is fixed the chain B, to fup-
port the frame of the plough when it turns at
the end of the field.

J This is only turned down to fee the mortife
in the frame.

Vol. III. page 107.
After the word labourers.

At Ajh, near Sandwich^ Mr. Legrand has
tried fome very important experiments on car-
rots, for an account of which I am much obliged
to him i I received it by letter fince my Tour
through Kent.

Carrots, this gentleman obferves, are cer-
tainly excellent food for -all forts of cattle. For
their culture he chufes a fandy loam worth 20 s.
an acre, a very kindly foil for all crops, and good
enougli for Windfor beans, having no refpecl: to
the preceding crop : gives it a clean earth,
about eight or nine inches deep, as foon after
Michaelmas as poffible. About Cbr/Jlmas, taking
advantage of a froft or dry weather, he carries
out the manure, which is a compoft of well
rotted dung, with about two thirds of mould,
at the rate in the whole of 80 cart loads per acre.
The total expence of which is 3 /. This is



ploughed in the firft opportunity, about half
the depth of the firft earth.

The latter end of March, or the beginning
of April, he prepares for Towing, firft working
it with a large harrow with triangular plates,
and the co in mon tines alternately ranged (fome-
thing like plate XXIII. fig. 2.) which operates
as deep as the plough, and is fharp bufinels for
fix able horfes; then drafting the Surface as
fine as poflibie with the rolier, and common
harrow, he ftrikes the field into furrows, equally
diftant 1 1 inches afunder, with a light two
chip'd plough -, §ll\ an acre of feed are then fown,
and covered by drawing the comb of the furrows
in carefully with planting hoes.

Generally lpeaking, the weeds will firft: difcover
themfelves, and to check them Mr. Legrand
hand-hoes the intervals before the carrots ap-
pear, being guided in that operation by the ridge
made by the planting hoes. As foon as the
crop is feen, the plants muft be carefully fepa-
rated, the diftance depending on the ftrength of
the foil, &c.

In refped to taking them up, they are fit
when the tops begin to turn yellow and lofe their
frefhnefs. He chufes to clear the ground as
foon after Michaelmas as he can conveniently.
They are laid up in a barn or flacked, covering
them with ftraw for preservation from the

As to the quantity of the product, Mr.
Legrand has generally found it to rife from 20 to
30 tons, which latter product he has gained,
. confiderable as it may appear. This year, 1 770,
his beft acre does not exceed 23 tons ; but the
crop in general is not nearly equal to what he
has before had.



In the application of the crop, he has tried
various forts of cattle with them, particularly
cows, iheep, fwine, and horfes. To four horfes
he allows a ton weekly, and he finds that they
do to admiration on them; fo well that they
are very dainty with all other food. One year
he fatted 60 porkers on them, weighing each
5 or 6 fcore ; and they turned out as delicate
meat as ever known at AJh. Geefe and turkies
will fatten very quickly on them. Much of
this year's crop is applied to fatting wether
Iheep, 50 being kept on them regularly, that
were bought in on purpofe for a trial ; 20 out
of thefe 50 are confined to a grafs clofe of two
acres, where they have the carrots and good hay
regularly given them twice a day. The 20
wethers weekly confume one ton of carrots, and
4 C. wt. of hay •, and Mr. Legrand has found
from experience, that they take 20 weeks to
fat in. The iheep were bought in at 25 s. and
will rife when fat to 45 s. In difcovering the
value, he has an eaiy method, which from
experience he has found to be more exact than
the niceft hand -, it is to weigh them alive, and
half that weight is the dead marketable weight.
This is a very important fact, and particularly
ufeful to gentlemen farmers : Ellis afferted it, but
his authority has not been fatisfactory. The
account per acre, this gentleman calculates as
follows, fuppofing it to yield but 20 tons.


Rent, « - £. 1 o o

Tyche, * - 050

Poor rates, * - 026

Firft ploughing, • - 070

Carry ovei* 5 » I 14 6


Brought over,



Second ploughing,


Heavy harrowing,


Light ditto and rolling,








Drawing furrows,



Drawing in ditto,





Digging up, and cutting

off the tops,






Manuring, •





Twenty fheep, .«


Four tons of hay,


Total, m

!- 40

J 5



Twenty Iheep, weighing 30/^. a quar-
ter, at 4 ^. I per lb. - 45 o q
Improvement of the grafs land, 300

Total, - - - 48 o o

Expences, - * 40 15 3

Clear profit, » 749

Refpecting the 3 /. charged as product in the
improvement of the grafs land, where the carrots
are confumed, Mr. Legrand is extremely clear
in the eftimate being low.

He has had carrots two years fucceffively on
the fame ground, the fecond crop better than
the firft.



That nothing is here exaggerated, I think is
very plain, particularly from two circumftances j

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 25

Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) → online text (page 22 of 25)