Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) online

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firft, the loweft produdt is taken as the average i
the crops, rifmg from 20 to 30 tons: and fecondiy,
the whole price of the manuring being charged
to the firft crop of the courfe, whereas it ought
certainly to be divided as long as the benefit
remains, for inftance three or four years •, in
which cafe that charge would be much lower.
Thefe circumftances confidered, mull be fuf-
ficient to convince one, that this eftimate is
extremely moderate.

Several very important conclufions are to be
drawn from it : that carrots will repay very heavy
expences with confiderable pre lit, cannot from
hence be doubted. Manuring 3/. Tillage
1 /. 8 s. Hoeing 1/. 10 s. Thefe are articles
that are fo advantageous to the land, that no
perfons can fuppofe the benefit exhaufted by
the carrots •, they muft be efleemed as a very
noble preparation for fucceeding crops, both
by enriching, and cleaning.

The circumftance in the culture attending
the fowing in drills, of hoeing the chief part of
the ground before the carrots appear, deferves
particular attention ; in the broad-caft method,
they generally appear in fuch a thicket of weeds,
that the.expence of the firft hoeing is very great,
amounting fometimes to more than all Mr. L.e-
grarid's operations of that fort -, the feed lies fo
long in the ground before it comes to the hoe,
that the weeds have time to get a-head ; great
advantage in hoeing before the crop appears
has been found in the culture of potatoes,

Mr. Legrand's trials are in another point very

I important,



H


o





o


14





o





4



APPENDIX. 493

important, which is the deciding the value of a

given weight of carrots.

Product of 20 tons, exclufive of

dung, - - £. 45 o o

Deduc~b for fheep and hay, - 3100

Remains the value of the carrots,

This is per ton,

And per buftiel, of 56 Ik

Upon this very low value I muft however
be allowed to remark, that it is decifive in only
one application, that of fattening fheep with
the affiftance of hay : and from the extreme
lownefs of the value, I apprehend that other
applications of the crop would prove far more
profitable, particularly the fattening hogs,
or that of oxen Jiall fed, with hay ; it is
a fact, well known, and very commonly
experienced in the cafe of turnips, that the
crop pays not near the fame value con-
fumed abroad, as if the beaft is flailed. Fatten-
ing an animal to an high degree, and as quick
as poflible, is certainly a very different affair
from keeping him in health, air, and exercife ;
the latter may often be gained by partly facri-
ficing the former ; fattening a boar for brawn,
and Mr. Moody's beafts almoft fuffocated with
heat, but gaining flefh fpeedily, are I apprehend
decifive instances of this.

For thefe reafons, this valuation of carrots
paying no more than 4^/. a bufliel, muft not
be taken in general, but merely in fattening
ftieep.

Mr.



494



APPENDIX.



Mr. Legrand has carried the products much
higher than any other peribn in the kingdom ;
30 tons are more by five than any one elfe has
produced.

It is very material to know, that four horfes
will in proper feeding eat one ton per week ; alfo
that 20 large wethers will do the fame with 4 C. wt.
of hay.

It is likewife extremely clear, that carrots will
fat porkers, and not a fingle accidental one or
lb, but fo large a number as 60.

Upon the whole, Mr. Legrand's account of
this culture is perfectly fatisfactory ; the par-
ticulars are accurately noted, and curious ; and
though the profit is not fo high as it has been
carried, yet is it confiderable, and may in dif-
ferent applications of the crop turn out much
higher.

Vol. III. page 184.

The references to the turn reft plough are
incomplete ; the following fupply the defi-



ciencies.














From


1


to


2





8


Feet 2 Inches.




1


to


3





1


11




3


to


4








71




5


to


6





4


4




7


to


8








4




2


to


9





1


1




9


to


10





2


4




10


to


11








8




11


to


12





1


6




11


to


14





1


9



APPENDIX. 495



From







Ground Plan.


I


to


2 — 2 F. 4 In. the fhare.


I


to


3 — 15


3


to


4—i 8


4


to


5 — 1 2


4


to


7 — o 1 1 1 the heel.


5


to


6 — i 5



(15.) All this is fhare from (11) to the
mark. .(16.) An iron fixed, rifing 3 inches
from body of plough, and extending acrofs it
12 inches, forming a very flight iegment of a
circle, 2 inches wide. The beam has a flit in
it, through which it turns. (13) Is a fcrew that
fixes it at any part of the fegment. The beam
turns on the iron pin (3,) and may confequently
be fixed by this fcrew. The fhare at (10) is
4 inches wide •, the beam, 4 inches by 3, refts on
a carriage ; 7 to 6 in ground plan, the fame as 3
to 9 in the view.

Vol. III. page 243.

The references of plate XXV. fig. 2. are
erroneous ; for Mr. Mitford has been fo obliging
as to fend me a more correct drawing- of it.

O

A to B 3 feet 8 inches, A to C 5 feet, A to D
14 feet 6 inches, E an iron pivot, on which,
and a correfponding one on the other fide, the
machine turns, a a. Valves, which open on the
infide. There is another valve at the bottom,
clofe to the end A B.

The following are the references to plate
XXV. fig. 3. from another drawing, wiili which
that gentleman favoured me.

A. A rough frame fixt on the ground, which
fleddies the pump.



49<5 APPENDIX.

B. The trurTel-tree, a fquare frame cf timbe 1 *
•which moves round on the top of the great cy-
linder, H. From A to B 7 feet 6 inches.

C. The crofs-tree, a block of timber, to which
the ladder G is fixt by pivots at c c.

D. The crank, which works the fucker of the
pump, by means of the iron rod I. The bend of
the crank, meafured perpendicularly from a to b,
is 7 inches. From B to C is 2 feet 6 inches,
C to D 4 feet 6 inches.

E. A femicircular iron which fteddies the top
of the loggerhead. There is fuch another on
the other fide, but, to avoid confufion, not ex-
preifed.

F. Four fpokes, to which the vanes are fixt.
The vanes are 1 1 feet 6 inches long by four
broad, and, as well as the fails, exactly like
thofe of a common windmill.

G. A ladder, 5 feet wide at bottom.

H. An elmen cylinder, 18 inches diameter at
top. The other wood-work is oak.

To fet the pump a working, a man takes the
bottom of the ladder G from the ground, and
with it eafiiy turns the whole frame B E, called
the loggerhead, ib that the vanes may face the
wind. To Hop it, he in the fame manner turns
the vanes from the wind. Wherever the iron
runs, as at K, it is in caft brafs. The fmall
cylinder L is fixt to the great one H, and does
not turn with the loggerhead.

The wind-pump is of that kind, called by
the falternmen a clearing-mill, its ufe being to
raife the brine, made by the fun in the out-
works, into a large wooden refervoir, called a
clearer, from whence it is let at pleafure into
the boiling-houfe. With a moderate wind, it

will



APPENDIX. 497

will difcharge twice the quantity of water that
a common hand-pump will in the fame time.

It difcharges the water nearly at the top of the
great cylinder H, into a pipe fixt clofe to that
cylinder, which carries it down into the well
again, and from thence under ground to under the
clearer, into which the pipe rifes. It feemed
needlcfs to exprefs this pipe in the draught.

The other machine is called a laving-gun.
Its ufe in the falterns is, where there cannot
be a regular defcent from the feeding-pond
through ajl the outworks, to raife the brine
into thofe which lie neareft to the boiling-houfe.
One man can with this cheap and fimple machine
raife water fall enough to turn an over-mot mill ;
but the work is violent, and requires two men to
relieve one another. They have in fome of the
great falterns near Lyminglon, wind-pumps, which
they call drawing-mills, to ferve inftead of thefe
laving-guns. Thefe are conftru<5ted upon the
fame principle with thofe above deicribed ; but as
they are required to raife the water but from
2 to 4 feet, inftead of 20 or upwards, their bore
is from 12 to 15 inches diameter. It may be
eafily conceived, that the difcharge of water by
a pump of 15 inches bore, worked by any thing
of a brifk wind, muft be very great. The fal-
tern work requires no exactnefs in this particular,
and therefore no exact calculations have been
made of the power of thefe machines. The price
of the wind-pumps is from 15/. to 22/. or 23/.
according to the fort and lize.

In a letter I received lately from Mr. Mitford,
concerning plantations, he writes me as follows
on the growth of firs.

" There is one thing concerning fir trees, ma-
terial to be known, and I believe fcarcely well

Vot. IV. K k known



493 APPENDIX.

known at prcfent : and that is, to what fize thg
different forts will come in this country. As
far as I can judge, by obferving my own, I
imagine the filver will grow to a greater height
than the Scotch. A very flourishing filver fir
was blown down lafl fpring in my garden grove :
it meafured 50 feet 6 inches in length. The laft
year's fhoot was 20 inches, and the four laft
years moots together 6 feet 6 inches : this is at
the rate of 16 feet in 10 years. There is fcarcely
any faying to what height a tree of that fize,
fo flourifhing, might not grow. I have many
filver firs much taller than this, and which ap-
pear equally flourifhing ; but there is no mea-
suring their upper moots, or their exact length,
as they ftand."

Vol. III. page 303.

Since this work was written, an anonymous
publication has appeared, entitled, The Complete
Englijh Farmer, Svo. in which fome expreflions
and calculations of mine, in my Northern Tour,
are mentioned, as having been rather too free
in fuppofitions of profit. The work has real
merit ; and therefore I am defirous, that writers
of moderation, and apparently of practice,
mould not in thefe proportions think me chi-
merical. I am led into this obfervation by the
following paffage, page 137. " Fertile fields,
" loaded with corn, and giving food to nume-
*' rous herds of cattle, ought, fays the writer of
" the 'Northern Tour, to be the profpect in thofe
" tracts, not whins, fern, ling, and other trum-
" pery." " In proof of his opinion, he inftances
the little garden of the turnpike-keeper, in the
road from Bowes to Brcugh in Yorkftjire, which

is



APPENDIX. 499

is taken from the wafte, and produces " excel-
<c lent potatoes, good garden beans, and ad-
li mirable turnips." But from fuch little fpots
highly improved, it is not always fafe to found
an opinion of whole tracts. It is more reafon-
able to fuppofe, that if improvements were fo
eafy on thefe immenfe heaths, as this writer
imagines, they would not have been fo long
neglected. Eut the certain expence of building
houfes and barns, and other buildings, notwith-
standing the almofl incredible cheannefs of build-
ings in that part of the country, and of inclofing
and fencing, which is confeffedly great, oppoied
to the uncertain event of improvements upon
thefe wilds, ill watered, and worfe roaded as
they are, deters the land owners from hazarding
their fortunes in projects of this kind, which
Sir Digby Legard has candidly acknowledged to
be much lels profitable than the author of the
Northern Tour would make us believe. I have
myfelf made all the enquiry I could, concerning
the fuppofed profit of the land owners on the
v/olds, or if you pleafe, the extenfive commons
now inclofing on the Broadway hills, in Glou-
cefierjhire, &c. &c."

This writer is in general candid, and I am
indebted to him for feveral genteel expreffions,
which I readily acknowledge ; but I muft on
this pafiTage remark, that through hafte he has
rather miftaken my meaning : my inftancing
the turnpike-keeper's garden v/as but as a fmall
collateral proof of a fad, which wanted it not - y
for the appearance of the foil was enough with-
out it •, and I am fince informed, that the pro-
prietors have at laft thought the fame ; for the^
are now engaged in procuring an act for the inclo-
fure, having been for feveral large tracts offered
K k 2 15 s.



5 oo APPENDIX.

15 s. an acre. This is information received in con*
verfat on ; but I can readily aflure this author,
that the foil is richly worth it.

But he makes me give this as an inftance of
the immenfe heaths in general •, whereas it was
of that tract in particular ; furely Mr. Scrcofs
improvements, Mr. Banbfs, and thofe by the
fall of Tees, would have been more to the purpoie,
being fads really executed that have aniwered,
in the degree I mention.

As to the heaths not remaining wade, if it
would anfwer to cultivate them ; I reply that
all the modern improvements in the North fpeak
the cont r ary : why were they not done before ?
Mr. Elliot of Freming ten's Improvement (vol. II.
p. 192.) pays fome hundreds per cent, and yet
none of his neighbours follow his example.
The whole range of husbandry improvements are
but one aggregate proof of the fleepy fully, or
term it prudence, if you will, of mankind.
A thing not being univerfally done, a proof that
it cannot be done : this is now the reaioning of
thofe farmers, who will not hoe their turnips,
nor fow clover, becaufe their grandfathers did
not.

But here are other circumftances, which
convince me this author confounds all waltes
together, ill watered, and worfe roaded : I never
yet viewed a moor without plenty of ftreams, and
do not recollect any tracts upon the whole better,
if fo well watered. As to roads, fome are bad
enough ; but as many on turnpikes, and ad-
mirable ones too. In that Tour I travelled, I
iuppofe, an hundred miles on excellent roads,
through the uncultivated moors I fpeak of.

But Sir Digby Legard. — Here again the writer
jumbles tv/o foils together j Sir Digby Legard 's

is



APPENDIX. 5 01

is wold land, which is as different from moors,
as light from darknefs : that gentleman cannot
candidly acknowledge any iuch matter : for
throughout the Northern "Tour I give no calcula-
tions of that foil, which is a thin loam on lime
ftone or grit-ftone •, but the better part of the
moors are deep black foils, or fandy loams; fome
fandy gravels, which are bad •, but the chief is the
black peat foil, which I will venture to aver to
be as good land for grafs as any in England.
The Broadway hills refemble the wolds, though
not exactly ; but the fame reafoning muft never
be applied to thefe as to moors. *



* This writer, at page 242, fays, fpeaking of my
Courfe cf Experimental Agriculture, " but I own
" I do not underftand his calculations, as the ex-
" pences throughout are, in my opinion, much un-
" der rated."

What the author can mean by this, I cannot well
conceive. A critic has founded no fmall abufe on
that work, from the height of the expences : fo little
poflible is it to pleafe every one. The writer of the
Complete English Farmer, I apprehend, means the
expences of tillage ; but, if he will take the trouble
to turn to the refpevStive chapters of Expences cf Tillage,
General Expences of ' Horfes, &c. he will furely find,
that I charge the expences, not by way of calculations,
but what they in reality came to.

I may obferve, that all the writers on hufbandry
give the nominal price of hiring ploughs, £-cc. in their
experiments ; and I believe I am the firft that has
attempted to afcertain the real amount. Let the
author of this work regifter but one fair experiment
in debtor and creditor, and I will venture to fhev/,
that he cannot be accurate, unlefs he knows what
his team cofts him.

A farmer fays, The expence of ploughing an acre

of lanJ is 10 s. Why is it 10*. ? Why is it not 20 s. ?

K k 3 Why



5 02 APPENDIX,

Vol. III. page 413.

Another courfe i

1. Turnips, 3. Barley,

2. Wheat, 4. Clover.

Ditto on fand land, at Weft; Buckland 7 near
Wellington.

1. Turnips.

2. "Wheat and eddifh turnips.

3. Barley.

4. Clove* one or two years.
Ditto on clay.

1. Fallow.

2. Wheat.

3. Barley or oats.

4. Clover, one or two years. If one,

5. Wheat. If two years,

5. Fallow.

6. Wheat ; they reckon two years clover
leaves the ground too firm for wheat
on one earth.



Why is it not 5*. ? He knows nothing of the matter.
Suppofe you keep ten horfes, which in oats, hay,
chaff, ftraw, farrier, and decline of value, colt you
200/. Suppofe thefe horfes in a year plough you 800
acres, is it not very plain, that this par' of tillage cofts
you 5 s. an acre ? Now to this is to be added the ex-
pence of the ploughs, man, (and driver, if one is
ufed) and the wear and tear of plough and harnefs,
divided in like manner ; and the total of all is theexpence
per acre of ploughing. If this author has a clearer
way of coming at the truth, let him declare and ex-
plain it ; for, as to the common hiring price, as well
might the price in the moon be taken. A farmer,
who buys or grows oats at lbs. a quarter, hay at 30$,
a load, who goes through the year without lofs in
horfe-fielh, and never fees the face of the farrier, tells

me



APPENDIX. 503

About Curry Mattot, on lime ftone in the in-
clofures.

i. Fallow, ploughed with fix or eight
oxen.

2. Wheat.

3. Peafe or oats.

4. If the latter, clover.
In the open field ;

1. Fallow, 3. Peafe or oats.

2. Wheat,

Vol. III. page 481. /

January 18th, 1 771, Mr. Anderdon weighed
fquare perches of brown boorcole, Scotch cab-
bage, and turnips, for companion.

Boorcole, 34 plants weighed 3
quarters 5 lb. or per acre,

Scotch cabbage, 34 plants 3 quar-
ters 1 2 \ lb. or -per acre,

Turnips, 64 plants, 1 C. wt.
1 quarter 24 lb. or per acre,
All planted in July.



me his expence of ploughing is 10^. an acre. Another
year, in which oats are 20 s. hay 50 *. the farrier's
bill long, and two horfes dead, I afk him the fame
queftion, and ftill the anfwer is 10 s. Now is it pof-
fible, that the fame price can be true in both ? If it
is faid, that he takes 105. as an average, I reply, then
it is a conjectural average of conjectural fums, for the
truth of not one is known.

For this reafon I mould not be difcredited, becaufe

I give not the prices of the country, fince in reje^ing-

them I adhere to plain fadts ; but in part of Suffolk^

3cd all Norfolk) the price of ploughing is below my

K k 4 rates,



T.


C.


$.lh


6


7


16


6


*7


3


11


14






5 04 APPENDIX,

Mr. Anderdon has further favoured me with
the following account of his moft approved
method of making cyder.

" I mould firft tell you my orchards are on a
clay, which circumftance, I think, conduces
much to the ftrength and goodnefs of the liquor.
I will be fhort in my practical account, making
but few obfervations, and leave the curious to
draw fpeculative reflections from it.

" I permit my fruit to remain on the trees till
a great part of them fall by ripenefs, then gently
making the trees, take in the apples in dry
weather, laying them in heaps, of equal ripenefs,
in a loft over the prefs. There they remain till
they have perfpired, and that perfpiration ceafes.
As foon as convenient afterwards, I prefs out the
juice. If it calls a pale colour, as the cackagee
will, which is one of our beft juices, I permit
the pulp, after it has paffed the mill, to remain
in vats, trendies, or other convenient open
receptacles, for about twenty four hours, which
will heighten the colour of the juice. As foon
as expreifed, I pour it into vats through a fieve,
or range, with high fides or hoops, where it
remains about two days and a night, according
to the nature of the apple, and the ftate of the
weather, (the longeft when a froft) till a thick
head or fcum rifes on it ; then I draw off a,

little



rates, though I loft not one horfe, and had no expen-
five accidents, or decline in value.

This author appears a man of real knowledge, and
no lefs candor ; I therefore offer this note merely
to undeceive him in a point, in which I appre-
hend he miftakes the ground, on which I ftate my
sxpences.



APPENDIX. 505

little in a glafs, to fee if it is fine, and as foon
as I catch it lb, I fail not without delay, to draw
it off into other open receptacles, if I have them,
if not into hogiheads, or other dole ones. If the
juice be put from the wring into veifels wider at
top than bottom, and I draw it off as foon as
fine, I need not take off the head firft ; as in
going downward it will not, in that cafe, break,
and mix with the body of the liquor ; but if my
veflels, in which it is, are of a different conftruc-
tion, or I have not been attentive to draw it offin
the critical hour, I find I do better, before I
begin to draw, to take off the head with a
wooden fkimmer, and throw it away, and then
fpeedily draw off the cyder. "Whenever I find the
brown head begins to open in the middle, or eHe-
where, and a whitenefs appear at the opening, I
am pretty certain it is high time to be buiy in
drawing off. But I find from experience the
fureft token is, to obferve its ftate by what is
drawn off in a glafs, which is to be done by the
help of a peg placed at a proper diflance from the
bottom of the vat, and this method of obfer-
vation mould be clofely attended to -, for fmcel
had the plealure of feeing you at Henlcde* I have
drawn a glafs of cyder out of a vat at eight
o'clock foul, another at ten fine, almoft candle-
bright, without any appearance of the head's
opening, as above obferved; at eleven, it was
growing cloudy apace, without high winds, or
any extraordinary event, as I could perceive,
to occafion it \ and I found it abiolutely necef-
fary, not to lofe a moment in drawing it oil.
If then drawn off into other open veffels, a frefli
head may arife in twenty four hours, or there-
abouts, when it may be rackt into a clofe hog-
(head, or other receiver, where it will begin to

ferment



506 APPENDIX.

ferment after a day or two, according to the
weather, the nature of the fruit, and other
circumflances. I then permit it to ferment four
or §ve days generally, never exceeding a week
for the hardeft fruit, fuch as royal wildings, or
cackagees. Then I fumigate a clean, fweet
hogfhead, or other clofe veffel, with a match
or two made of coarfe cloth, dipped into melted
flone brimftone, and rack the cyder into it, as
fpeedily as pofTible, racking it again in the fame
manner as often as it ferments, till I cattffit
very fine, when another fuch racking often turns
out the final one. I cover the bung with a tile,
or piece of thin wood only, during the feafon of
racking ; and when I put a bung cork into the
hole in the fpring, I leave a peg-hole open juft
by it. The fceces through the whole procefs are
conflantly removed.

I never feek to raife frequent fermentations,
and often complete the bnfinefs by two or three
rackings *, but have had very good cyder, which
has been fo prone to ferment, that I have been
obliged to flop it by racking into fumigated vef-
fels, ten and even upwards of a dozen times.

Many other, probably much better methods
of flopping the fermentation, and bringing the
cyder fine, I have heard of-, but thefe are what
I have in general hitherto ufed, and have the fa^
tisfadtion of finding my cyder as good as mofl I
meet with elfewhere ; and though I am far from
thinking my management unimprovable, I will
anfwer for its turning out very well to thofe,
who, being unacquainted with a better method,
will attend to this, "



ADDENDA.



SINCE this work was printed off, I have
read the minute of an experiment in Dr.
Hunter's, Georgical E/fays, on fattening hogs
with carrots. By J. S. Morrit, Efq.

In the preceding pages are feveral experi-
ments on this ufe of carrots, which I appre-
hend will fufficiently clear me from any im-
putation of being fo much prejudiced in their
favour, as to publifh fuccefsful experiments, and
fupprefs unfuccefsful ones ; they will fhew alio,
that I am not at all fingular in the fact, that
carrots will fatten hogs.

Mr. Morrit, rather angry I apprehend at
being led into a lofing trial by my book, gives
his experiment as a commentary on one of mine ;
and from it ventures the bold affertion, that
carrots alone are of no value for fattening hogs.

As I have (what I think) a very clear idea
of the importance of carrots thus applied, it is
neceffary in my own defence, but more fo in
defence of a crop mifreprefented, to make a few
obfervations on that gentleman's experiment;
from the particulars, he may look to other
caufes of his lois than the werthlefTnefs o£


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) → online text (page 23 of 25)