Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) online

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dp not anfwer fo well as horfes.

The time of breaking up ftubbles is after
the wheat fowing. They ufe wheel
ploughs, with the beam rcfting on very
high gallows, fomething like the Norfolk
ones, but not near fo light.

In hiring farms, they reckon five rents
neceffary to flock.

Land fells at 30 years purchafe ; land
tax at 4 j - . is 7.5. 6d.

Tythes both gathered and compounded 5
the compofition ^s. an acre round.

Poor rates 4-f. in the pound; 20 years
ago only 6d. In the town of Newbury
7 s. but not to the full amount of real rents.
The employment of the women and chil-
dren fpinning. They all drink tea tw T ice
a day.

The following are the particulars of a
farm ;

150 Acres in all 40 Acres wheat

20 Grafs 40 Barley

130 Arable 15 Oats

100/. Rent 15 Turnips

8 Horfes 20 Clover
6 Cows 3 Men

8 Young cattle 2 Boys

150 Sheep I Maid

30 Swine 2 Labourers.


Mr. Cdwffade, of the Priory at Denning-
ton, has tried fome experiments which
well deferve being known.

Experiment, No. i.

To difcovcr the importance of brining
wheat feed, he has tried it for feveral years
drying with lime; and on comparifon with
the feed unbrined, he obferves, that it is
a prefervative from the fmut ; for corn will
be fmutty, that comes from feed unbrined,
while that brined is quite free, and the foil

the fame.

'Experiment, No. 2.

Three acres were in 1763 drilled with
wheat, in equally diftant rows, 18 inches
aiunder, one and a half bufhel feed per acre ;
it was carefully hand-hoed : the crop three
quarters and a half per acre ; which is a
produce confiderable enough to prove the
merit of the culture.

Experiment, No. 3.

Two acres, in 1764, were drilled with
wheat in equally diftant rows, one foot
afunder ; a bufhel and half of feed per acre 5
it was hand-hoed once ; the crop three
quarters and a half per acre. Adjoining
was a piece of broad-caft wheat ; foil, til-


lage, &c. the lame, fown with 2 bufhels and

a quarter per acre ; the crop five quarters

per acre : this great fuperiority of the

broad-caft, induced Mr. Cowjlade to give

up drilling wheat, as the common method

was fo evidently better.

But he drills all his peafe and beans, and

feldom gets lefs than four or five quarters

per acre.

Experiment^ No. 4.

Sainfoine this gentleman finds a mofl.

profitable crop ; he has got at one cutting

5 tons of hay per acre, which is the greateft

crop (well authenticated) that I have heard of.

Experiment^ No. 5.

Mr. Cowjlade planted one Batavia pota-
toe which weighed 2 cz. and it produced
10 lb. — This trial fhould be purfued, for
the fort is not generally known ; it may
turn out more productive than the com-

mon ones. *


* Mr. Andrews has built a houfe at the grove
near Newbury^ in the Gothic (tile •, and orna-
mented the grounds about it with much tafte.
The fituation is on a riling ground, backed by
a hill crowned with wood ; out of which rifes
Dcnnington caftle. A lawn fp reads around the
houfe, and falls to a very fine water ; a ftream


O '


Near Reading the foil is a good rich loam
on gravel, which lets at las. an acre.
The courfe of crops here ufed is,

i. Fallow 4. Clover 1 or 2 years

1. Wheat 5. Wheat

3. Barley 6. Barley.

There are not many turnips ; when they

are fown, it is now and then inftead of a

fallow. Wheat yields 3, or 3 § quarters

fer acre ; Barley, 5 ; Oats, 6 ; Peafe they


enlarged into a river, which takes a winding eafy
courfe near a mile long, and of a confiderable
breadth ; there are three or four iflands in it,
one of which is thickly planted, and affords
fhelter to many fwans and wild fowl which fre-
quent the water, at the fame time that they add
to the beauty of the place. Over the river the
country confifts of corn fields which rife agree-
ably. The lawn is very neat ; the trees and
clumps well managed, and the wood, in which
the water terminates at each end, finiihes the
fcene in a pleafing manner. There is a winding
gravel walk through both the groves on the banks
of the river, which opens to feveral retired and
pleafing fcenes \ at one fpot is a pretty ruftic
Gothic temple, built of flint, near a cafcade,
which the river forms by falling over a natural
ridge of (lone. The whole place is laid out with
great tafte.

Plate XXIX. is a plate of Mr. Andrews'- %
taken from a drawing of his own •, the point of
view the grove by the river to the right of the


drill in equally diftant rows, 18 inches
afunder; hand-hoe them once; the crop
3 I quarters per acre.

Farms here are in general from 100/. to
200/. a year.

In their tillage they generally ufe 4 hor-

fes and a driver, but fometimes, after feve-

ral ploughings, only 2 horfes, but a driver



The houfe is a good one; the flair-cafe pecu-
liar, but agreeable; and the library a large,
handfome, and well proportioned room. Mr.
Andrews has feveral pictures by fome of the
principal mafters.
Rembrandt. An old man's head. Very ftrong :

the expreffion of the hands and face

Com. Jchnfon. Portrait of a duke of Auftria.

The head in a noble ftile of expreffion.
Its companion. A lady. The colouring and

minute expreffion great.
Hall. A copy from a laughing boy: well

M. Angelo Carravaggio. Fruit : well executed.
Unknown. A fmall portrait of king James. Good.
Swaine. A moonlight piece of (hipping. The

effects of the light agreeable.
De Neff. A piece of architecture in perfpective.

Baptift. Two flower pieces.
Berghem. Cattle.
Fluent. Two fmall pieces of fcripture hiftory.



There are many variations around Mar-*
low and Harleyford, the feat of William
Clayton, Efq. for the particulars of the fol-
lowing account, I am obliged to that gen-*

Farms rife from 40/. to 300/. a year ;
but are in general about 100/. The foils
are various, gravel, loam, chalk, and clay;
the hills let at 10/. or I2J-. an acre; the
whole in general, meadows included, at 15^

Carlo Dolc'r. A fmall head of (Thrift.
Swaine. A piece of ihipping.
Vel. Brughle. Two landfcapes.
Collet. Small landfcapes with figures' and build-
ings. There is a warmth and mellow-
nefs in the colours that are pleafing.
Old Frank. A city taken by florm. Singular
and very ftrong exprefllon.
Sir Jofepb Andreivs has a feat in this neigh-
bourhood, where are, among other pi£hires, a
boy by Amiconi, which is executed with a pleaf-
ing tendernefs of tints. Alfo fix views of Rome
by Occhiali, of which the colouring is fine -, the
perfpeclive good, and well finifhed. Here alfo
is a Wake by Rubens, with many figures of capi-
tal expreflion ; there are various attitudes fpirited,
and feme men's heads in a great ftile. His wife
in one comer-, a better figure than common
with Rubens ; and the back of another woman in
the front ground in fine relief. Likewife a re-
pair i the mailer unknown ; the group agree-
able. There are alfo fix pieces by Canaletti,


To Henley, it runs at 15 s.

To Reading, 1 5 s.

To Beconsjieldy js. 6d.

The courfe of crops common here* is,

I. Turnips 5. Peafe.

1. Barley And fometimes add

3. Clover, 1 year 6. Wheat.

4. Wheat

Alfo y

1. Fallow 3. Barley

2. Wheat 4. Peafe.

They plough but once for wheat on clo-
ver ; 3, 4, or 5 times in a fallow ; fow 3
bufhels an acre ; the crop 3 quarters. For
barley they plough three times ; fow 3 f
bufhels ; the crop 4 | quarters. They giv e
but one ftirring for oats ; fow 4 bufhels an
acre; the crop 4 \ or 5 quarters an acre 4
They give two earths for peafe ; fow 3
bufhels an acre ; many are drilled in equally
diftant rows, and twice horfe-hoed with the
fhim ; the crop 3 \ quarters.

For turnips they plough from three to
fix times ; hand-hoe them twice at the ex-
pence of 5 J", and 3 j. 6 d. ; and feed them
all on the land with fheep. Clover they

Vol. IV. E mow


mow twice for hay, and get 3 loads an
acre. Winter vetches they cultivate for
foiling horfes ; 1 acre will keep 4 or 5 a
month. They fow much fainfoine on the
hills ; mow it for hay, and get from 1 to 2
loads of hay an acre ; but manure it with
afhes once in two years.

In manuring they depend mod on pur-
chafed dreffings. Peat afhes they have
from Newbury ; and fome afhes, foot, &c.
are bought at different towns. But few of
their flocks are large enough for folding.
No ftubbles here are chopt ; and they fell
all their hay ; fo the farm-yard fyftem may
be gueffed. On their ftrong lands they fow
buck-wheat, and plough it in.

The breed of cattle here* is the Derby-
Jbire long-horned cows for dairies, but
they are not of confequence. Mr. Clayton
has a Holder nefs cow that has given 12 lb.
of butter a week; fhe gave 18 quarts of
milk at a meal. Lord Granville had one
that gave 20 quarts.

Swine fatten up to 30 ftone.

In their tillage they reckon 6 horfes ne-
ceflfary for 100 acres of arable land; ufe 4



in a plough, and do an acre a day ; they
ftir 6 or 7 inches deep ; the price 9 J", an
acre. Cutting ftraw into chaff is well
known* The time of breaking ftubbles for
a fallow, is between Michaelmas and Ckrift-*
was. Wheel ploughs chiefly ufed.

Land fells at 30 years purchafe* Tythes
are gathered. Land-tax, at 4/. in the
pound, is is. Sd. Poor rates were 4^. qd°
in the pound ; now only 2 s. 6d.; and at
the fame time that this deduction has been
made, they have almoft paid off the debt
they contracted for building a poor-houfe ;
and this meafure is what has funk the rates.
They allow no tea in the houfe ; but they
have had much trouble to effect it.

The employment is lace making; it is
very difficult to get women, &c. to work
in the fields.— -All drink tea.

There are many vaft woods of beech in
this country; moft of which are in the
hands of the landlords themfelves. The
management of them is peculiar. They
do not take regular fells, as of underwood,
but let them grow up in fingle items till they
are young trees : they pick them every 6
or 7 years; cutting down from the 12th to
E 2 the


the 20th part, at 32 or 33 years growth;
and the whole product is rived into billets
for firing, and all goes to London: this
pays about ioj. per acre per ann. rent.
Molt of thefe woods have 30/. or 35/. an
acre in wood on them, are confequently
more valuable in that, than in the fee-fim-
ple of the land.


In harveft, 35^. a month and board.
In hay-time and winter, 1 s. 2d. a day.
Reaping, $s.
Mowing corn, is. 6d.

grafs, 2 j.

The rates of labour not rifen in 20 years.


Bread, - id. per lb.

Cheefe, - 4 .

Butter, - 7 1

Beef, - 4

Mutton, - 4

Veal, - 5

Pork, - 4

Bacon, - 6

Labourer's houfe-rent, 30/. to 40 s.

firing, the labour of digging




Bricks per thoufand, 1 6 s.

Tiles, 1 8 J".

Oak timber per foot, 1 s. to 2 s.

Am ditto, 1 s.

Elm ditto, 1 o d.

Beech ditto, 6 d.

The trials and obfervations made by Mr.
Clayton, are highly deferving the attention
of the public ; that he pra&ifes hufbandry
on no fmall fcale, will appear from the par-
ticulars of his farm.
550 Acres in all 20 Turnips

360 Wood 14 Horfes

80 Grafs 10 Cows

120 Arable 6 Young cattle

400 /. Rent 300 Sheep

40 Wheat 16 Swine

40 Barley 8 Labourers

20 Clover 3 Boys.

Experiment, No. 1.

Sainfoine Mr. Clayton tried comparatively
in three pieces of ground on the hills, fix
years ago.
No. 1. A ftoney furface 2 feet deep on


E 3


No. 2. A loamy foil on clay, on the fide

of a hill, 5 or 6 feet deep, on chalk.
No. 3. Very fhallow foil, but a few
inches deep, on chajk,
The event ;
No. 1. has yielded annually 2 loads of hay
an acre, worth 30 s. a load ; the after-
grafs 8 j. 6 d.
No. 2. The fame.

No. 3. Has produced only 1 load an acre,
But it is very obfervable that this field
has a fharp declivity on both fides intq
a bottom ; fo that there the foil is 6 feet
deep of the warnings from the hills ; in
this part, the crop has always been fo
great, that it could fcarcely ftand On the
ground ; but on all the reft of the field
not more than 1 load an acre.
From this experiment, which is a valu-
able one, it is very evident that the ftratum
of chalk being near the furface, is not at all
necefTary for the crop ; for the product is
better from 6 feet than from 6 inches.
Which fhews that the idea, common, of
fainfoine thriving only on very fhallow (oils 3
is a falfe one.


Experiment^ No. 2.

In preparing a ftrong clay field for
laying down to grafs ; the foil proved fo
tough, that it could not be got into order
by the common tools : Mr. Clayton made
a fpiky roller for it, which effected the bufi-
nefs completely. He accordingly fowed it
with very fine hay feeds ; and defigns it as
a nurfery to gather from by hand ; the forts
{o gained he purpofes to fow in drills.
This trial fhews how important a fpiky rol-
ler is in many cafes ; the lofing a feafon,
or, what is worfe, fowing land when not
in proper order, are often confequences of
wanting this machine.

Experiment, No. 3.

An acre and half of ftoney loam on clay,
and under that chalk, was cleaned by a
lummer fallow, and fown with lucerne (no
corn) in 1765, part broad-caff, and part in
drills equally diftant, 18 inches afunder.
It was kept clean by hand-hoeing; and
mown once, befides a flight feeding ; but
the produce inconfiderablc.

In 1766 it was mown thrice for horfes :

The broad-cad was harrowed ; but that

E 4 i operation


operation being ineffective from the hard-
nefs of the foil, this induced him to plough
it with a round fhare, and left it like a fal-
low ; but ftill that part of it was not to be
kept clean. The broad-caft maintained at
the rate of 5 horfes, from the middle of
May till Michaelmas \ the drilled 4; the
value is. per horfe per week.


This year the drilled was cleaned by horfe
and hand-hoeing ; and the broad-caft by
ploughing and harrowing ; the produce of
both the fame as laft year.

And thus it has continued ever fince,
Mr. Clayton tried alfo tranfplanting in rows
equally diftant, 1 8 inches afunder ; but
there was no difference between that and
the drilled.

Soiling horfes with lucerne he has for
three years oberved to be an infallible cure
for botts.
5 Horfes, at 28 j. - £-9 ° °

4, At ditto, - - 740

Experiment , No. 4.
In 1767 fourteen acres were laid to grafs
after a very clean fallow without corn ; the
following feeds per acre.


Cow grafs,


Z lb.

Dutch clover,



Three poa's



Two trefoiles



14 IB.

The nth of July, in two years, he
mowed 2 ton an acre of excellent hay,
befides having a very valuable after-grafs.
— That the land was in great heart
may eafily be conceived from fo very fmall
a quantity of feeds anfwering fo well. But
Mr. Clayton from this trial thinks that there
are no better forts to be recommended than

Experiment^ No. 5.

Twenty five acres of land were laid down
to grafs, after a clean fallow, with corn ;
nothing fown but a plenty of common hay
feeds. The refult w T as very unfavourable ;
it turned out fower bad grafs, and came to
no good turf. In four years he manured
it well, and fowed white clover ; this was
of great fervice to it — fince then it has been
a good pafture.



Thefe two experiments prove that land
mould be laid without corn ; and alfo that
a very few good grafs feeds are far prefer-
able to the greateft quantity of that rubbifh
commonly called hay feeds.

Experiment^ No. 6.

Peat Mr. Clayton has found in one of his
meadows ; it is black, but full of roots ;
burns to a red am, and fells at 6 d. a bufhel
on the fpot ; a burner from Newbury pre-
ferred it to Newbury afhes. He has tried
it on clover; io bufhels per acre; and the
effect is as great as the Newbury : the clo-
ver, not peated, did not produce fo much,
as that manured, by half. He alfo tried it
on fainfoine, but it did not fo much good
as fea-coal afhes ; for the latter he gives
6 d. a bum el at Mar low ; they are brought
from London ; and he lays from 12 to 20
bufhels per acre — the effect always very
great on both clover and fainfoine.

Experiment^ No. 7.

The worft weed with which Mr, Clayton
is troubled in his grafs-land, is mofs ; and
he has tried various methods to deftroy it



without effect : At laft he manured it with
foot, and that totally killed it,

Experiment, No. 8.

Among other manures, this gentleman
has tried woollen rags ; that they are a be^
neficial drefling, cannot be doubted, but I
was defirous of knowing on what foils they
do heft. Common hufbandmen lay them
chiefly on wet ftiff foils, with a view to
keep them open and mellow ; but it is
alferted by fome, that their attracting fo
much moifture from the air, renders them
proper only for hot dry foils. Mr. Clayton
has ufed them on both ; his expreffion was,
" that he finds them more beneficial on
wet cold land, than on hot, dry, gravelly
foils. " — This is, as far as it extends, deci-
five ; and I need not add that theory, in
thefe points, muff give way to practice.

Experiment, No. 9.

Two contiguous fields of wheat, fown
on a fallow, were, for a comparifon, ma-
nured differently; one with lime, 80
bufhels an acre, after the corn was fown ; the
other was part dunged from the yard, and

3 part


part dreffed with woollen rags. The pro-
dud: of the latter field was moll: confiderable,
but it was much blighted ; whereas the
limed one was nearly free from that

Experiment, No. 10.

Mud from the river Thames, Mr. Clay-,
ton has tried on both grafs and arable
land, frefh from the river, and alfo kept
fome time, and turned over. The princi-
pal effect he has obferved from it is the
production of an amazing quantity of
weeds, though lefs on grafs than arable :
this has deterred him from ufing more
of it ; but I fhould apprehend, if it was
kept two years, turned over feveral times,
and well mixed with lime, that it would
prove a rich manure. As to the producing
weeds, if it then had that efFed, I would
lay it on for a hoeing crop, when the
effect would not matter. It certainly is
probable, that the mud brings feeds, but
not clear : it may be its excellence as a
manure, that forces all thofe in the land
to vegetate.


Experiment, No. 1 1 .

In 1769, four acres well fallowed were
planted with turnip cabbages, and fed off
with iheep in April and May, 1770: they
kept 60 ewes, 60 lambs, and 30 fat wethers
live weeks and a half, which Mr. Clayton
reckons at q.d. per week : this amounts to
8 /. 5 s. or per acre 2 /. is. which, upon
the whole, is a refult favourable to the plant,
as they laft through the feafon, that is the
moft critical in the whole year. In a fnow,
Mr. Clayton has obferved fome of them
eaten down by the hares, and afterwards
grown over with a coat, and been quite
iecure from the weather. This year he
has a crop of Reynolds's cabbage turnip,
which promifes to be good fheep feed.

Experiment, No. 12.
Mr. Clayton had a crop of wheat, drilled
in equally-diftant rows, five inches afunder;
it was kept clean hand-hoed, proved a
good crop, but not equal to the broad-

Experiment) No. 13.

Burnet was tried in laying down a field

of 28 acres, part of it with fainfoine, part

4 white


white Dutch clover, part bird grafs, and
part burnet, and the field has at various
feafons been fed with fheep, cows, horfesj
&c. and they all eat the burnet quite as
clofe as any of the other grades ; and the
cattle of all forts are generally on the bur - '
net part once or twice a day. This is a
very fair trial, and fhews that burnet is by
no means fo defpicable a plant as many
would have us imagine*

"Experiment^ No. 14.
Sixteen acres were laid down with
Rocque's bird grafs. Mr. Clayton thinks it
a valuable grafs ; it is as early in the fpring
as ray grafs ; it thickens very much on the
ground. All cattle are fond of it, and
fheep remarkably fo.

Experiment^ No. 1^.

In planting, Mr. Clayton has alfo been

attentive. Weymouth pines, fpruce, Scotch

filver, balm of Gilead, the larch, cedar of

Lebanon) and the Virginia cedar* all at ten

feet fquare, of 1 3 years growth : they are

worth 1 s. a tree now : the larch is heft,

next the Weymouth pine and fpruce; the

balm of 'Gilead does not thrive at all.



Mr. Clayton plants all forts of trees,
ever-greens as well as others, in November
and December, if not frofty, and has
had better fuccefs than with fpring

A pinafter of an hundred years old was
blown down, and being fawn out, it
proved a red deal, but very coarfe : it con-
tained a load and a half of timber. Some
Scotch alfo, of the fame age, were blown
down : they were red deals, and much harder
and better than the foreign. The foil a
thin fharp loam near the chalk *.


* Mr. Clayton has built one of the moft
agreeable houfes I know, in a moll elegant fitu-
ation, and has difpofed the grounds in a manner
that does great honour to his tafte. A fine
fvvelling knole rifes from the bank of the river
Thames, on which the houfe is built, and has
(from the offices being quite hid behind
wood) the exact appearance of a large tem-
ple : an effect, which is never completely
gained without being uncommonly agree-
able. An extenfive lawn waves around it,
bounded on one fide by the river, and on the
Other by a fine hanging grove, which fpreads
over the fides of the hill. A finer union of
wood, water and lawn, can hardly be imagined.



Sir 'John Hoby Mil/, Bart, of Bijham-abbey
near Marlow, has this year a very import-
ant experiment on cabbages, carrots, and
turnips ; the particulars of which he was fo
kind as to give me.

A fmall field was this year cropped with
thefe vegetables. The foil is a rich, deep
black loam, worth 3 /. an acre : it was
ploughed in October very deep ; and twice
more in the fpring ; the latter of thefe fpring
ploughings was given while the land was
quite wet, which was very prejudicial to
the crop, and alfo occafioned fuch delay,


The wood is of a dark fhade ; in fome places
it projects down to the level of the lawn ; in
others it retires from it, and admits the livelier
green among its deeper tints. It crowns the
brows of fome of the declivities, boldly hang-
ing on their edges ; while, on other fpots,
it thickens over the whole hill, to form a dark,
unvaried back ground to the houfe, and con-
traits the reiplendent ftream, which glides
through the vale below.

The principal floor of the houfe is exceedingly-
well difpofed into a dining-room, 27 by 21,
with an ellipfis bow, through the windows of
which the river is commanded in a moft linking
manner. In this room is a fmall antique buft of



that the carrots could not he Town till April.
They were kept clean by hand-hoelng.
All the expences of tillage, cleaning, &c.
&c. came to 4 /. 4/. per acre ; and the
drawing, cleaning the roots, carting home
came to 1 /. ioj. per acre ; the diftance to
which they were carted 300 yards.

The turnips were fown in Jwie; and
hand-hocd twice.

The cabbages were planted at the fame
time, in rows, 3 feet by 2 ; and kept clean
by hand-hoeing.

Early in November I marked a fquare


Venus, and feveral portraits by Sir Peter Lely.
On one fide it opens into a drawing-room, 27
by 18 ; and en the other, into a noble library,
of 36 by 1 8, with a bow of 18 by 7. The chim-
ney-piece Doric, the entablature fupported by
columns of variegated marble. On the ftair-
cafe is a very good piece by Snyders.

The offices, though near the houfe, are quite
hid by the wood. Lady Louifa Clayton has a
neat little ruftic temple in the grove, which
opens into her dairy. The whole building
agreeable and in tafte. From hence, on the
brow of the hill, there is a fine winding terras,
which commands various beautiful views of the

Vol. IV. F


perch of each, and cutting off the tops of
the turnips and carrots, and the roots of
the cabbages ; the produce was as follows.


Carrots. lb.

No. i. A bufhel baflcct, 70 57

2. 66 — 59

Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 4) → online text (page 3 of 25)