Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) online

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five ploughings, and a good manuring ;

I with it, white clover and meadow fefcue ;

f ': it has for fome years been an excellent paf-

ii ture ; but was a very poor one before break-

|: ing up.

' Upon thefe ufeful experiments, and Colo-
I nel Sf. Leger\ hufbandry in general, I fhall
' obferve, that his country is much indebted
to him for attending fo minutely to the im-
j provement of the agriculture of a neigh-
bourhood that wants it not a little. The
country around Park Hill will foon be a
garden in comparifon to w^hat it wa* : the
clearing away the old hedge-rows, and lay-
ing the land down to fainfoine, are as real
and great improvements as can any where
be feen ; and have advanced the value of
the foil much more than ten-fold. The
trying various other grafles — different ma-
nures — improving the fyftem of the farm-
yard — and draining wet fields, are all like-
wife objedls of no trifling importance,
which ftrongly prove the merit of this
U 4 gentle-



%^6 THE FARMER'S TOUR

gentleman's agriculture. It is vejy corijedt ;
and cannot fail of having many ufeful con-
fequences. His country ,i8 indebted to him
for thofe fruits of his undertakings, which
it will undoubtedly reiap.

A few experiments have been tried by ^
•— T- Stanniforth, Efq; at a fmall diftance
from Colonel St, Leger^Sy which deferve
noting. He fowed 8 acres of burnet on a '
clean fallow ; and kept it fo for three years3
No cattle would touch it, but broke perpe*f'^
tually into very bad grafs to fatisfy their
hunger, and yet the crop was good.

Liucerne he had much better fuccefs with.
On a piece of rich light loam on lime-ftone*
he.drilled it four years ago, the rows equallyr
diftant, 1 8 inches afunder : and tranfplanted
fbirie at 3 feet 4 inches. It has been kept,
in general clean of weeds, and the drilled:
has regularly maintained at the rate of 5'
horfes per acre through the fummer of fix
months; iris cut and given in the ftable,
and does inftead of oats and part of their
hay. The tranfplanted not fo good by half.

Sainfoine Mr. Stann'iforth has cultivated
for many years. He finds the average pro-
duce to.be I -i load of hay an acre for 16
years. %




THROUGH ENGLAND. 297



LETTER VI *

H E town of Blythe^ and the country
around it for feveral miles every-
way, belongs to William Mellifi^ efq; of
that place : It is owing to his very obliging
and friendly attention, that I am able to
give the following account of the hyfbandry
of the country.

The



* The Earl of Scarborough at Sandbec^
within three miles of Park-hill, has built a hrge
hbufe, and ornamented his park in the new tafte j

^'it is a place which (hould by no means be over-
looked by thofe who are fond of viewing the

f improved feats of the nobility and gentry. The
hoiife is built out of a quarry of his Lordfliip*s
at Roche Ahhey\ the ftone is whiter than the
Portland •, it quite dazzles ones eyes to view it
when the fun Ihines. The back front is very
light and pleafing ; and the portico of the prin-
cipal one, fpacious, but light, the pediment
fupported by ten magnificent pillars of the com-
pofite order. There is a double rultic through-
out this front, which lifts the portico higher than

i common.

In the Great-room, ^o by 22, is a chi:nney-
piece by JVihony extremely elegant. Statuary
marble on a ground of verd antique, with bafs

releives



298 THE FARMER'S TOUR

The i'oii is in general fand or gravel j
;ind lets at the average rent of 10^. an acre.
Their courfcg of crops are,

I. Turnips 3. Clover i year

z. Barley 4. Wheat.

I. Turnips 3. Pcafe

z. Barley 4. Wheat,

They plough but once for wheat, Tow
3 "builiel-s, and gain on an average oJi

bufliels ;



(1



rekiveS' ia the frieze ; the cornice fupported by
figures. The ceiling is coved •, the ornament
executed with great lightnefs in fbucco, Tha
cove is decorated with bafs releives in oval an^
circular pannels, the center in compartn;ient;sj|
In this room are, among other pidlures -,

JJnknGijjn. Two large landfcapes ^n a peculiai
flile •, but the figure's pouched with
great Tpirit.

jpitto. A battle. Spirited.

PoH^n. Two landfcapes ; one on each fide the
chimney. Very fine : Chafte, but
ftrong execution ; and the keeping ex-
cellent. The grouping, and the fi-
gujes in that to the right are admirable.

Rubins. A hiftory piece j (over the chimney).
Strongly done.

XJnkno'UDti. Holy family. The attitude of the
Virgin and the child yery pleafmg.



li



11



I THROUGH ENGLAND. 299

bufhels ; on the beft fand farms 33, and
on foreft fands 18, For rye they give two
ploughings, fow 3 builiels an acre ; and
reap 24 on a medium : that is, 30 on the
good fand, and 20 on the bad.

They give two ploughings for barley ;
fow three bufhels an acre in March^ and
gain 4 quarters in return ; fix on the
rich lands, and only z o^^ the forefl.



Vnhio-v:n. Portrait of a woman \vit|i a dog iq
her arms. Very fine.

In the Drcfflng-rcojn.
Diit9. A Madona. Very line. The exprej-.
fion of the countenance, and the pref-
fure of the hands 00 the b.reaft, arc
noble : the colouring good.

' In the Dimr^-rcom, 48 by 24 ; with a pro-
}e<^ing center to a large bow 32 feet. Here
are,

Salvator Rofa. Two large landfcr'.pfs. Good.
Unhwwn. Two cattle pieces. Fine.
Ditto. Two large landfcapes. PleafiRg.
I}>itto. Two ovals of horfemen •, fpirited, and
the colouring very good.

Here are two flabs of granate in edgings of
Siena : The carving (gilt) throughout the houfe
executed in a very light and elegant tafle.

The grounds are ornamented with very great
judgment, A vale floated with ^ater is fur-
rounded



300 THE FARMER*s TOUR

For oats they flir but once ; fow 3 bufhels
an acre ; 5 quarters the average crop ; 8
on the bell fands, and 4 on the foreft. 10
quarters an acre on the former are often
gained. They do not hoe their turnips ;
feed them all off with fheep. The average
price 40/. an acre; 3/. on the rich i^ds,
and 304". on the poorer. •' ■

Their clover they mow twice for hay,
and gain at the two mowings, 2 loads of

hay



rounded by feme fine falling flopes, very happily
crowned by thick woods : a gravel walk waves
around it through a llripe or garden lawn vpry
prettily varied by nev/ plantations j ' in fom^
places clump'd — in others ftraggling and broken
by fingle trees : the fpotted fcenes are very judi-
cioufly varied by a proper ufe of planting. In
fome places the lake fpreads to the eye in large
fheets i in others, it is broken by the hanging
lawns, and feems to wind into rivers in different
dired-ions. Creeks run up into thick wood, and
are loft. Sometimes the trees are fcattered about
the banks, to let in a view of the waper through
their branches j at others, they thicken into dark
Ihadcs i a fine fhore of wood.

The walk in one place leads to a point of a hill
which commands a fine view of the houfe, the
park, lake, and woods : The houfe of fuch a pure
whitenefs, in the midft of fpreading plantations,
and backed by a noble wood of 500 acres, has a

fine



THROUGH ENGLAND. 301

hay an acre : 2 t on the better land, and

I 4- on the inferior.

|r c Refpeding manure, the firft circumftance

' to be noted is their never folding their

{heep. Lime they much depend on : lay a

chaldron per acre; the expence, by the

time it is on the land, about 16^: the

effect lafts for two years ; fome few good

farmers mix it with earth and dung, in

which management it is more durable, at

^ri the



fine efFeft ; the lawns and the water appear alfo
to great advantage.

His lordfliip has fketched a veiy fine riding
for feveral miles, which he intends to execute :
It will command many varieties of profpeft, and
lead to the ruins of Roche Ahhey in a moft roman-
tic fituation- Here is to be a pleaiure ground.

The fpot at prefent is one of the mofl: itriking
that is to be feen : It is a narrow winding valley-
full of wood i a ftream takes an irriguous courfe
through it over a bed of flones and fragments of
rock (hivered from the deep cliffs that bound the
vale on either fide ; in the middle of it are the
ruins of the abbey. — A few mafly buttrefies re-
main, with fome lofty arches ; trees have grown
j from the rubbilh, and fpread their branches
, among the ruin'd columns •, the walls are half
, covered with ivy, which breaks in fome places
from its fupport, and hangs among the trees in
thick groups of foliage j the furface cf the vale

is



toz THE FARMER*s TOU-lt

the Cinie time that the efFe£t is greatci'*
Their fyflem of the farm-yard may be
gucfled from their never cutting their ftub-^

bks.

The plalliing of hedges is here pradifed 5
but they make no ditches.

The beft grais-land lets at 30^. an acre;
They mow moft of it for hay; An acre of
fuch tliey reckon fufficient to fummer feed
a cow. The breed of cattle is a mongrel,

between






is half covered with thorns and briars -, irregulat'
and broken — with here and there a rocky frag^-
ment that has forced its way thrbugh them — the
ftream murmurs over the rock — and the chffsfj
which hang almoft perpendicular over the vafe
and look down on the ruin, are fpread witk
thick woods that throw a folemn gloom over ti
whole •, and breathe a hroiL'ner horror on eve
part of the fcene — all is wild, and romantic!:
every objeft is obfcure ;~^every part unites to
raife melancholy ideas ; perhaps the moft power-
ful, of which the human foul is capeble.

Improvements of this noble fpot are in con-
templation -, twenty pounds laid out in removing
ti few of the diinculties of gaining the heights of
the cliffs — in deftroying a mill — and in obftrucl-
ing the ftreani rarhcr more than at prefent to
make the noife fomething greater, would be irh-
provemt-ms — but expend fifty, and the whole
Vki4i be mined. A gloomy melancholy is the

prefent



THROUGH ENGLAND. 303

between the long and fhort horns. Cows
give three gallons of milk a day ; and the
average produ(fl of one per aruium, is about
6 /. 6 s.'. They d.o not keep above one pig-
to every cow. A dairy-maid will take care
of ten. They get their winter food ia the
fields.

They fat fwine to i 6 ftone on an average.

Flocks of Iheep rife to 5 or 600. The
profit about' 9 j". a head : the winter food

turnips j



prefent imprefTion of the ^ctnt •, raife a chearful
idea, and it will be pernicious. Lay the facri-
legious hand of drefs on the vale — convert the
thorns, briars, and broken rocks — into a lawn
or a fmooth Ilieep pallure — expofe more of the
ruin to view — and throv/ the brilliancy of a
fmooth flieet of v/ater over the reft of the vale —
the fublime is at once converted into the beauti-
ful : the prefent ftrong emotion, the effedt of
uniform caufes, will be changed into a mere
divided attention — there may be many fine things
to look at, but none that will, in one irrcfiftable
imprefllon, feize the m.ind of the fpeftator, and
command its admiration.

Another very flrong reafon againfl beautifying
Rochi Abbey ^- is the great beauty of the crna-
mented grounds at Sandbec, which arc laid- out
with real tafle, and in perfect conformity to' the
ger)ius of the place. The contrafc at prefent
between the two is great ; and wlicre not pcfTef-
fed, much to be envied.



304 THE FARMER'S TOUR

turnips, and a little hay. The average
fleece ^Ib,

The rot is quite unknown.

In their tillage, they reckon 6 horfed
necelTary to loo acres of ploughed land;
they ufe 2 in a plough, and do an acre and
a quarter a day. The price 4^. an acre.
The annual expence of a horfe 13/. the
depth of ploughing 5 inches. They know
nothing of cutting ftraw into chaff ; nor in
general of the ufe of chaff ; for they throw
away all that arifes from their crops. They
break their ftubbles in autumn ; ufe none
but Rotheram ploughs.

In the hiring and flocking farms, they
take them with three rents ; but the befl
farmers reckon that ten are neceffary : they
calculate the ftock of 200 acres in the fol-
lowing manner :



Rent at 12 s. 6d,


-


- ^-125


Town charges,
8 Horfes,


-


15

lOO


6 Cows,


-


50


10 Young cattle,


-


40


40 Sheep,


-


30






Carry over, - - 360



•THROUGH ENGLAND. 305

^ *' Brought over, - £-3^0

Bwine, - - - i.- '^ • j-

Waggon, • - ■ - - 2'o

2 Carts, - - - - 20

. 4 Ploughs, - - - 6

i 3 Pair of harrows, - - ^

, Rollers, - - - - 4

' Sundries, - - - - 10

- Harnefs, -• - - 15

-;;i'UTniture, - - - 60

'; -Houfekeeping, - - 100

2 Men, - - - - 20

♦ .2 Boys, , - - - - 10

Extra labour, - - ^ j;o

2 Maidsj - - - - 6

, Seed for 40 Acres wheat, 20

40 Barley, - - 15

40 Clover, - - 10

— — 40 Turnips, - ;z

Cafh in hand to -c^nrwer Inciderital

demands, - - - 100



Total, - - £.B3j

The annual account of fuch a farm, they
reckon as follows.
Vol. L X



3o6 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Produce,
6 Cows, - - - £-30
10 Young cattle, - - 3^

40 Sheep, - - - 20

Swine, - - - - 5

40 Acres of wheat, - - 200

30 Ditto barley, - - 120

30 Ditto turnips, - - 60

£.465

Expcnces,

Rent, ^ - - ;C- 125

Town charges, - - 15

Labour, - - - 86

Seed, . - - - 47

Wear and tear, - - " 5*^

Houfe-keeping and cloaths, 50

£•373

Produd, - - - 465

Expences, - - - 373

The farmer's profit, £. 92

Land fells at 40 years purchafe ; poors
rates I /. in the pound ; twenty years ago
were but 6^; and twenty before that were
nothing at all. The employment of the

women



THROUGH ENGLAND. 307

Ivomcn and children, generally drinking
tea with white bread an.d butter twice a day.
— an extremity that may furely be called
luxury in excefs ! No wonder rates are
j idoubled.

; I The following particulars of farms will
tllhew the general oeconomy of this country*



403 Acres in all


^.82 Rent


350 Arable and fo-


6 Horfes


:reft, which is plough-


8 Cows


ed now and then


12 Young cattle


56 Grafs


260 Sheep.


Another :


681 Acres in all


8 Cows


1 500 Arable and fo-


16 Young cattle


•eft


400 Sheep


180 Grafs


3 Men


;;. i39Rent


I Maid


8 Horfes


I Labouter,


Another :


50 Acres in all


3 Cows


24 Arable


6 Young cattle


1 36 Grafs


I Boy


'jC- 2 1 Rent


I Maid.


1 2 Horfes








3o8 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Another :

190 Acres in all 12 Young cattle

57 Grafs 100 Sheep

133 Arable i Man

jf. 126 Rent 2 Boys

6 Horfes 1 Maid

6 Cows I Labourer,

Another :

121 Acres in all 6 Young cattle

24 Grafs I Man

97 Arable i Boy

^. 84 Rent 2 Maids

8 Horfes i Labourer,
6 Cows

Another :

112 Acres in all 6 Young cattle

20 Grafs I Man

92 Arable 2 Boys

^.74 Rent 2 Maids

8 Horfes 2 Labourers,
4 Cows

Another :
853 Acres in all >C'325 ^^^^
400 Arable 16 Horfes

I So Foreft 10 Cows

273 Grafs 20 Young cattle

I



Id

I



THROUGH ENGLAND. 309

^00 Sheep 4 Maids

3 Men 4 Labourers.

4 Boys

Another :
985 Acres in all 10 Young cattle

664 Foreft 500 Sheep

70 Grafs I Man

257 Arable 2 Boys

^.192 Rent I Maid

8 Horfes 2 Labourers.

6 Cows
Mr. Mellifi in his attention to the oeco-
nomical management of his eftate, has
made fuch enquiries into hufbandry, as
were neceffary for enabling him to improve
the culture and value of it ;— and he has alfo
tried fome experiments of a very important
nature : That he hints nothing of this fort
without the foundation of experience, will
})eft appear from the particulars of the land
}ie keeps in his own hands.

764 Acres ^.240 Rent

120 Grafs 12 Farminghorfes

400 Foreft and 9 Other ditto

plantations 10 Cows

244 Arable 600 Sheep.

Such a fpace of land has well enabled
X 3 him



Sio THE FARMER'S TOUR

him to make obfervations of a truly ufeful



nature.



PROFIT OF CULTIVATING
DIFFERENT SOILS.

The two great diftindtions of foil around
Blythy are the rich fands, and the foreft,
fands. The firft are let at 165 17, and 18/.
an acre; but the latter produce no more
than from 2 s. to 4/. an acre. The differ-
ence of rent is fo great, that to forne the
cheapen land is always beft. i-

Culture, Expences, and Produce of an acre
of the beft fand during four years,

Firjl\ 'Turnips,

Rent and town charges, - ^. i 00

Four earths, at 4J-. - - 0160

Three harrowings and rolling, 020

Seed and fowing, - - 016

Harrowing and hand-hoeing, 066

Preparing the dung in the yard ;

carriage, and fpreading 10

loads ; 4 horfes, 2 carts, 4

ynen, 15 loads ^i day. o 10

2 16



r



THROUGH ENGLAND




II


Second, Barky,






Rent, &:c. - . _ ^. i


o


o


Two ploughlngs, - - o


8


o


Harrowing, - - - o


o


o


lo Pecks feed, - - - o


6


6


Sowing, - - - - o


o


6


Mowing and hanrefting, - o


8


o


Thraihing, - - • o


6


o


1


IX


o



Third', Clover,

Rent, &c. - o - I o o

Seed and fowing, - ~ o 6 o

Mowing, making, &c. once cut o 8 o



Fourth \ Wheat,


I


H









-~


\ Rent, - - - -


I


c





I Ploughing, - . -





4





Harrowing and rolling.





2


6


Seed, _ - - -^





12


6


Sowing, -, « -








3


Reaping and harvefting.





10





Thraihing 30 buihels>





7


6





16


9



X4



31^ THE


. FARMER*s

'Expellees..


TOUR




Turnips,


<i» -• •"


^.2 16


Q)


Barley,


- - -


2 II





Clover,


- - -


- I 14





Wheat,


■^ T »


^ 2 16


9






9 17


9




Produce,






Turnips,


-T


3





Barley, 6 quarters, -


- 5





Clover,


_ - -


- 2 10





Wheat, 30


bufhels, at 4^.
produce.


6r/. 6 15





Total


17 5





Total


expences,

Profit, ^
er Sicre per ann.


9 17


9.




-11


3


Which is p


I 16


9^


Or, per 1 00 acres,


- 183 15





per 500 ditto.


918 15


Q


per 1 000 ditto.


1837 10


Q



I



Culture, Expences, and Produce of an
acre of forefl land during four years, ,

Firji ; turnips.
Kent, &c. - - - -056
Tillage, &c, as before, • i 16 Q



\



THROUGH ENGLAND. 3


13


Second 'f Barky.






Rent, &c. - - -


^•0 5


6


Tillage, &c.


I 4


6


Seed, - » -


10







2





nird'y Clover.






Rent, - ._-,


5


6


Sundries, as before,


14





Fourth \ Oats,


19


6






Rent, . , - -


5


6


One ploughing,


c 4





Harrowing and rolling,


2


6


Seed, - • - -


8





Sowing, - - -









blowing and harvefting,


8





Thrafhing 5 quarters,

Expejices,


5


Q


I 13


3






Turnips, -* - -


2 I


6


Barley, - -. - -


2





Clover, « - - -


19


6


^ -6ats, ■♦ :j q "•


I 13


3




^.6 14


3



314 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Produce,

Turnips, - - - £,''2' o o

Barley, 4 quarters, -• 3 12 o

Qover, - - - i 10 o

Oats, 5 quarters, - - 400



Total produce.
Total cxpciiccs.

Profit,

Which IS per acre per ajinum.
Or per 1 00 acres,
Or p^r 500 ditto,
Qv per 1000 ditto.

Profit pcj' acre on the rich

fand, - - -

Ditto on the foreft fand.



Superiority of the former, 14 lo^

Which is /»^'r 100 acres, 74 9 y

Per 500 acres, - 372 711

P^r 1009 ditto, - 744 15 II

Before any reiuarks are offered on this
account^ it will be necelTary to explain the
rent of the foreft land. It is fuppofed in
one piece, with a ring fence around it, done



II


2





6


14


3


4


7


9


I


I


II


109


II


8


547


18


4


1095


16


8


I I


6


9^


I


I II



r/^t^JY.pn Sk^VoL I.




THROUGH ENGLAND. 315

at the landlord's expence ; alfo the neceflary
buildings eredted. The tenant fubdivides
it, and grubs up the whins, broom, or
other trumpery that may be fcattered about
it ; the rent of the land is 3 s. the other 2 j,
6 </. is the intereft at 8 per cent, of the mo-
ney he firft expends j of which the account
is as follows.

The fides of the fquare, in Plate IV. fig. 2.
are juft t a mile in length ; the contents
160 acres: fuppofe the ring fence of fuch
a farm done by the landlord ; the remainder
for the tenant to perform fo divided, in the
•northern meafurc, amounts to 85 acres, at
28 yards each.

85 Acres, at i /. i j. A bank
with quick ; a ditch and dou-
ble hedge of dead wood ; the
materials of which reckoned
at 1 5 J-. a load on the fpot, - 89 5 o.

The divifion of the i /. \s. is ;



Making the hedge, -


IS,


Bank and ditch.


1


Wood, - - -


15


Quick, 224 in an acre,


I


Planting,


I



Carry over, • ^9 5



3i6 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Brought over, - £.89 5 o

tight gates, - - 10 o Q

Reparation to bring up the quick,

at i8j^, - - - 76 o
Stubbing and clearing 160 acres,

at loj;. - -• !? 80 o o



iL iis,()d. per acre, - £, 255 5



Intereft, at 8 per cent, 20/, 8 J. or 2s, 6d,
an acre.

This is certainly the proper method of a
tenant*s calculating his expence on entering
a farm in which improvements are to be car-
ried on : it is imagined that a man cannot
reckon lefs than 8 per cent, for money
which he lays out thus on a leafe of 21
years, Thefe expences amount nearly to
the rent of the land.

In refped: to the fencing, there are feveral
methods purfued j but the exad: propriety
of them, or degree of comparative cheap*
nefs, duration confidered, are not clearly
iinderftood, Inftead of dead wood hedges
on each fide the quick, fed banks are fome-
time§ made, with ling laid along the top,

and



THROUGH ENGLAND. 317
Ind fixed by a row of ftakcs : the expence



as follows :


J".


J.


I Acre, double banking,


<>


8


^ Getting ling,


3





Setting ditto,


2





Carriage, _ - -


4





Value of ling and flakes.


I


8


Quick, - _ ,


I


2



14 6

Reparation, - - -' 50

This fence cannot be had every where ;
but where the ling can be got eafily, the
quick may be raifed with a double bank and
ditches, and the ling in faggots fet aftride
on the bank, and fixed down with Hakes,
and kept in repair for 19/. 6^. an acre,
which is much lower than the wood fence.

If fields are divided that are always fo-
cropped, that cattle never feed in them,
they may, in this country, be fenced with
three rows of quick alone for 6 s. an acre,
as no hedge or bank is wanting to defend it.

The comparifon between the two fands is
extremely decifive; 14/. 10^. per acre fu-
periority of profit is very confiderable ; and

amounts^



3i8 THE FARMER'S TOUR

amounts, as before obferved, to a confider-
able Income when extended to 500 or looa
acres. This fhould be a leflbn to all farmers
ever to choofe the beft land at a fair rent,
in preference to what is commonly called
the cheapeft foil : In this country there arc
large tradts of the beft fand, but not exten-
five enough to admit the fuppofition of a
farmer's hiring as much of it as he pleafes.
The cafe is different with the foreft land ;
and this is a circumftance very favourable
to it. There is fuch plenty of it, that any
calculation might at once be realized. Mr.
Mellifi has one clofe of 700 acres of it let
at 2 s, an acre tythe free ; befides many
others of a fmaller fize. If the various ad-
vantages of fuch great extent, and the com-
padtnefs of fuch farms are confidered, it
wdll be found that they are more advanta-
geous than the above comparative account
allows. The enquiry thus ftated is not
therefore, whether 1 000 acres of rich fand
are more advantageous than 1000 of foreft;
becaufe the latter may be had, but not the
former : could they be gained, the former
comparlfon would here be decifive : but the
grand point relative to the foreft land is the

profit



THROUGH ENGLAND. 319

profit of cultivating a trad: of wafle where
a man may have as much as he pleafes.
The account before given fcts this matter
in a clear light ; it appeared that the clear
profit of farming thefe foils is above a guinea
an acre : hence it is evident that thefe lands
lying v^-afte are a real nuifance to the pub-
lic ; the profit refijlting from them by main-
taining fheep is on comparifon with this
too inconfiderable to mention. The pre-
vious improvement of i /. lis. g J. per
acre, expended in fencing and clearing, is
not high ; not to be compared with various
other methods of reducing wafte land to
cultivation.

The above data are drawn from ex-
Ijperience; Mr. Mellijh has found the ex-
pence, produd, and profit to be as there
ftated — and I fhould obferve upon it, that
thefe foreft fands cannot be fo bad as the
farmers in this country think them : for a
guinea an acre is not a low profit in much
richer countries. Tlie rent of 5/. bd. an
acre is trifling when compared with the


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 15 of 23)