Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) online

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crops — turnips worth 40 j. an acre; barley
4 quarters — clover '^os. — and oats 6 quar-
ters, all fpeak a rent much higher : I know

many



320 tHE FARMER'S TOUR

hiany tradls of country, that do not product
fo much, let at from i o to 1 2 j-. an acre ;
which Is a ftrong proof that thefe fands are
net of that mean nature the farmers of thi^
country efteem them.

CARROTS.

In 1768, Mr. MelUfi caufed three acres
to be twice trench ploughed ; one plough
following the other in the fame furrow. In
February fowed it, 4/^. of feed per acre:
The plants arofe very favourably ; were
liand-hoed twice ; and weeded as often ; all
which operations coft tvv^o guineas per acre ;
but they vrere not thinned fufficiently;
however the carrots throve extremely w^ell,
and were upon the whole a favourable crop.
They were taken up as v/anted ; beginning
at Michaelmas. Horfes, cows, pigs, and
other cattle, were fed on them, and with
mcft uncommon fuccefs. The produd
amounted to 20 tons per acre exclufive of
the tops ; from the moft attentive obferva-
tion which Mr. Mellifn could make on the,
expenditure of the crop, in faving oats for
horfes — feeding cows— and fatting hogs-^
he is clearly of opinion that the value of
them is about 20 s. a ton.



THROUGH ENGLAND, 321



Expenccs of the three


acres.






Rent, &c. - - -


£•3








PloughiQg and harrowing,


2


8





Seed, - - - .





12





Hoeing and weeding.


6


6





Taking up, - - -


3








Carting home,


3










18


6





Produce,








4o tons, at 20 x.


60








Expences, - - -


18


6





Profit, . - -


41


14





Which is per acre, ^


>C.i3


18






Great as this crop is, Mr. Mellijh ima-
gines that they may be cultivated to greater*
advantage ; he has been prevented by va-
rious undertakings from having any carrots
fince, but now he has finiihed feveral great
works of building, and improving the en-
virons of his feat, he is determined again
to fow carrots, and have a regular crop of
them every year,

VoL.L Y After



322 THE FARMER'S TOUR

After the carrots on the above three
acres, barley was fown, without manure ;
and the produce was ieven quarters an acre;
which was more confiderable than an ad-
joining piece oT the fame foil yielded, after
turnips well manured for : a very ftrong
proof of the excellent quality of carrots
in cleaning and ameliorating the ground.
Thefe rich fands will ever be found to
produce vafl uncertain crops of carrots ;'
and that without the afhftance of dung : tho;
clear profit of 13/. an acre on a crop which
anfwers all the ends of the beft fallow,
and is fubftituted inftead of it ; at the fame
time faving that manure which turnips
would require, and raifing, in the expendi***
ture of the crop, a vaft quantit)'' of dung^
for other lands ; all together forming a fyf-
tcm of profitable hufbandry, hardly to be'
equalled by any other management. Pota-
toes yix.Meiriffo has alfo found uncommonly
advantageous — they produce immenfe crops
on the beft fands ; and with dung, exceed-
ingly beneficial ones on foreft land. The
iollowing courfe of crops, with the intro-
du£lion of tliefc very profitable roots, will
flievv'^ how requifite they are to carrying the
profit of hufbandry to the higheft: pitch.



I

I



THROUGH ENGLAND






23


EXPENCES.








Firjl\ Carrots,








Cjiie third of th^ total above








.inferted of i8/. 6/.


£■(>


2


6


\dd for manure, * *


I








7


2





tecond ; Barley I total as at page






311, - -. .


2


II





fhird ; Clover : at ditto, -


I


14





feurth; Wheat: at ditto,
TroducCi


2


16


9


14


3


9


irrots, « - *


20








"parley, (fee page 312)

< Clover, ditto, - - -


5

2



10







kVheat, ditto, • - *
Total produce, *•


6


15





34


5





Total expences,


H


3


9


Clear profit,
1 Or per acre fer arm.


20


I


3


5





3^



Another courfe flrongly to be recom-
mended, is;

y % tirft :



324 THE FARMER^s TOUR

Ftrft ; Carrots, expences, jT. 7 2

Second ; Barley, ditto, - 211

9 13



Produce. Carrots,


20
5 ^

9 n


Total produce,
Total expences,


Profit,


15 7


Per acre per ann.


7 n



I muft be allowed to recommend the cul

tivatlon of carrots in fome courfe of this for.

to all farmers poffefling any fandy foils!

cfpecially fuch as are rich :" But undei

takings of this nature require great fpir|

and much money ; the culture is expenlivc

and the purchafmg cattle to confume tl

crops, would require large fums of mom

Another courfe to be recommended, is,j|

I.. Carrots 4. Barley

2» Barley 5. Clover

3. Potatoes 6. Wheat.

Expences,.

Carrots, - - - ^.72

Barley, - - • 2 11.

Carry over - 913



THROUGH ENGLAND. 325





Brought over




£•9


13





; Potatoes-


-Rent, >r. I












-


Manure, i














3 Earths,


12











Harrowing,


t^











Planting,


10


G






-


SoBufli.fetts, I


10











Hoeing, i














Taking up,


10











Carting, i








4





-■






7




Barley,


-


-


2


1 1


G


^.^ Clover,


-


-


I


14





. Wheat,


>— «•


-


2


16


9


;(■-






23


18


9


'Produce,










Carrots,


-


-


20








Barley,


-


-


5





G


Potatoes,


, 300 bufhels, at


i.f.


15








Barley,


-


-


5








' Clover,


-


-





10





Wheat,

Total produce,


~


6


15


G


54


5


G


Total expences.


-


23


iS


_9


Profit,

Or per acre per nnn.


-


• 3^


6


3


5


I






326 THE FARMER'S TOUR

CABBAGES. 7

In the year 1766, Mr, Mellijh had three
acres and an half of the great Scotch cab-«
bage ; the foil his rich fand, ploughed for
the firft time in OSlober ; and i^ianured ii^
the fpring with 1 2 loads an acre of farm-si
yard compofl : The feed was fown in Fe-n
hruary ; and the plants fet into the field the
latter end of May^ in rows planted 2 feet
alunder every w^ay, and kept clean hand-
hoed. They were cut and given to fheep
on grafs land ; eighty fheep were bought at
14 J", each, and put to them to fatten ; and
fold from them at a guinea apiece ; which
is a profit of 28/. ; or 8/, an acre produc©;)
for the crop. The fame ground was plantecj
the year following j and managed in the
fame manner, but not manured again : It
fatted 60 fheep ; the profit the fame, which
is 6 /. per acre. — -The average of the two
crops 7/. It is obfervable, that the fandy
foils have not been recommended as the
proper ones for cabbage crops ; but yet Mr,
Mcllifi^ produ(5ls are very confiderable,
and far exceeding finy thing ever known
from turqips.



THROUGH ENGLAND.



n -».



LAYING LAND TO GRASS.

, This gentleman has found from repeated
I experience, that the beft way of laying
land to grafs, is to fallow well for turnips,
and to feed the crop on the land with flieep
early enough for fowing rye ; with which
he fows part of the grafs feeds, and har-
rows in the remainder of them on the rye
in the fpring. If he lays with hay feeds,
lie fows 2 quarters an acre, and loZ^. ot
white clover. If no hay feeds, then lo/^.
nvhite clover, io/Z\ trefoilc, and lo/^. nar-r
row leaved plantain, called rib-grpifs. The
iirfl year he feeds the grafs ; but ^he fec.ond,
plows from 2 to 2 4 tons of hay^^r acre.

In 1766, ten acres of gi-avelly fand, a
whin cover, were fown witli turnips ; and
the crop eat off with fheep; the value 2/. 2 j.
per acre ; after thefe turnips it was fummer
fallowed : and at Michaelmas fown with
rye ; which proved a very good crop. 2
i^uartcrs of hay feeds and 10 U?, of white
clover per acre were fov/n on the rye.
This pafture was mown the firit year, and
pyoduced 2 tons of hay per acre : the iecond
year it vv-as fed.

y 4 The



328 THE FARMER^s TOUR

The rent of this land before was 5 J. 6^,
an acre, but now it is worth 12^.

Sometimes the broom and fern will come
again in grafs fields laid down from forefl:
land : In this cafe, Mr. Mellijh has found
it neceffary to plough it up for turnips,
which are harrowed and rolled on one
earth, and fed on the ground. If they
prove a good crop, then he limes and dungs
for barley : but if they are indifferent, the
manures are fpread for a fecond crop of
turnips ; which are likewife fed on the
land ; and fucceeded by barley and red
clover : on the latter, wheat is fown ; and
after that turnips again, to be fed off time
enough for rye and graffes to be fown on
it. Such a tillage courfe will totally clear
the land of all rubbifh.

TURNIP HOEING.

Mr. Mellifo having found a great difficulty
in procuring turnip hoers — and being dii-
gufted at the idea of the flovenly manage-
ment too common among ^he farmers,
made ufe of a machine for executing the
v/ork, which feems much better adapted to
jt than any I remember to have feen.
' ' Plate



/•■ :1



rujf v. Vo/.i.p^i ,i




THROUGH ENGLAND. 329

Plate V. rig. I. reprefents it at large,

I to 2. fix feet.

I to 3. one foot 10 inches.

4 to 5. three feet 4 inches,

6 to 7. eight feet 6 inches.

Length of Ihare irons, 2 feet 4 inches.

Wheels 2 1 inches diameter.

This machine 1 can conceive will by
crofs cutting do much fervicc ; probably to
doubling the value of the crops compared



with thofe unhoed at all : but let it ever be
underftood, that it is chiefly to be recom-;
mended to thofe perlbns who are fo fituated
that they really cannot get hoers fufficient
for their crops — never let it be totally de-
pended on, when hand-hoes can be gained.
The true turnip culture, is to fet the crop
out regularly. ; to cut up all Vvreeds, and to
leave the plants every where diftlnct, which
no machine will near efFed:. But I Ihall
readily allow that fuch a machine would be
i of great ufe in any country v/hen the crop
grows rather too faft for the hoers to thin
the plants, and give the weeds a check
before they begin : or by way of loofening
the earth in cutting deep : the great f^iult
of the common turnip hoeing is, the mcji
2 fkim-



ZZO THE FARMER'S TOUR

fkimming over the ftirface, juft cutting off
the weeds, but looienrng the earth, efjxici-
ally in loam, very Httle. This machine
may, hy the backhands of the horfes, be
made to cut any depth, and fo far exceeds
any hand-hoe. It would probably be of
great benefit to precede the liaad-hoeing in
any country*

PLANTING,

Mr. MelliJJj has, for many years, raifej
numerous plantations, which are a very
great ornament, not to his ellate only, bu^
to the whole country. In this noble purfuity
he has gained much experience in planting
fandy foils, efpecially from trying various
methods, and different ibrts of trees. Some*
pieces of foreft land he has cleared from
the fpontaneous rubbilh, in the fame mao-«
ner as for corn, and ploughed it once in the
common manner, upon which he fet the
trees : Others he trench-ploughed, and fet
^hem ; and, upon fome other pieces, he did not
plough at all, and cleared no more than
necellary to make the holes to plant theia
\n. The refult of thefe various trials was
mdetermlnate, each yearly equal; but, ii

3 • ^^y



THROUGH ENGLAND. 331

any difference, thofe planted after clearing
^nd ploughing, were the beft. The forts tried
were Scotch and fpruce firs, larch, oak, afh,
cheflnut, beech, birch, &c. the whole mixed.
Scotch and fpruce firs have grown much
fafter than any of the reft, and they have
all fo generally fucceeded, that fcarcely one
in ten thoufand have failed. The foil he
has chofen is foreft fand of 3 j. an acre.

The number he has generally fet on au
acre is 5000; the expence of enclofingj
raifmg the trees, and planting, is 3/. an
acre. In five years they require thinnings
the value of the wood taken out about pays
for the labour: * the number taken out
about 1000.

In five years more they are thinned again,
when another thoufand trees are taken out>
which make very good hedge wood and
hedge ftakcs. The value about 5 /. more
than what pays the labour.

After thefe thinnings^ 3000 are left,
which Mr. Mellifi has found from experi-
ence to be then worth 6 d. each, on an ave-
rage,



* Firs fhould always be cut the middle of fummer,
Ip full turpentine: they arc as goad again.



332 THE FARMER'S TOUR

rage, as they ftand, and clear of all ex-
pences, if fold. At this time another thou-
fand fhoiild be taken out.

Two thoufand are therefore left, which,
at 30 years growth, will be worth, as they
ftand, I s. each ; and, at 40 years, they will
be worth 2 s.

This is the ftate of the planting produce
on the poor foreft fands; but Mr. Me/Ii/J:
has many Scotch firs, planted 35 years ago
on good land, which are now worth 40/.
each, and very many from 25 j. to 35 j.

Upon thefe data we may eafily calculate
the profit of planting at different periods.

Account of an acre of Jirs at the end of the
fifth year,

Firfl Inclofing,* raifmg, planting,

fencing, &c. - - ^.300

Intereft of the above fum for

five years, - - o 15 c

Rent, -^ -* * o 15 o



10



* This price is for a large field of 10, 15, or 2a
acres, and not a fingle acre. It is the proiK)rtion ©f
the whole.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 333

I?i Jive years more.
Reparation of the fences, /^. o 5 o

Intereft of 4/. 10 j. for 5 years, i 26



Allow for comport intereft.
Rent, - - - -

Firft five,






15
15







4


^7

10


6




Expence at the end of ten years.
Received for thinnings.


7
5


7



6



Excefs, - - -


^


7


6



-,^/ the e7id of twenty years.

Rent, - - I 10 o

Reparation of fences, - o 10 o
Intereft, - - 100

3 Q Q

Jlcceived for 1000, at 6^. 25 o o
Value of 2000 remaining, at

. fame rate, - - 50 o o

75 o o
Deduct, as above^ 300
Excefs at end of 5 years, 276

~ 5 7 (>

Clear profit in 20 years, 69 12 6
Which is per acre per a?niwu, 391



334 THE FARMER^s TOUR

But, fuppofing the 2000 trees left ten
years longer, the account will fland as
under.

Received for 1000, at 6d, £, 25 o o
Dedudt, as above, - 5 7 6

Profit, In 20 years, exclufive

of trees remaining, • 1 9 1 2 6

Which, per acre per annum y may

be called, - - 100



^l the end of thirty years.

Rent, - « I 10 o

Fences, - - o 10 o

Intereft, - -100



300



Suppofing the plantation then

cut down, the 2000 trees, at

I/, bring, - - lOO o o

Dedud, as above, • 300

Profit, «• - 97 o o



THROUGH ENGLAND. 335

] jrfl ten years expence, £,'] 76

Second ten ditto, - 300

Third ditto, ^ -300

Total €xpence, - 1376



Received fecond thinning,

flfhird ditto,

llriie 2000 remaining,

Total,
1 Expences,

1 Clear profit in 30 years,

t Or per acre per cmnum^

At the end of forty yei
Expences, as before,

Heceived for 2000 trees, at 2 s.
Ditto, firft and fecond thinnings


5
100













130
13




7



6


n6


12


6


3


17


I


ars.
It

200
>» 30















Total, - - 230

JDedud expences, as

before, 13 76

\ 1)itto, - 300



Clear profit in 40 years,
Or per acre per annumy



16


7


6


213


12


6


5


6


I



336 THE FARMER'o TOUR

This account of the expences, produce^
and profit, of planting foreft land, at 3 s. an
acre, fhews the amazing profit of fuch un-
dertakings. Plantations have, in general,
been raifed with a view merely to beauty, or
elfe through a very noble patriotic motive
of being ferviceable to the country ; but it is
evident, that they may be undertaken with
very different views : with thofe of profit.
So that a man may cut down the trees he
planted himfclf, and exped: to reap, in fo
doing, very confiderable profit.

If he cuts ail down at the end of 20 years,
and leaves not a fingle tree, he gains a pro-
fit clear of near 70 /. an acre, which is 3 /. 9^".
per acre per ammm from the firft planting.
Let me aflc the mofi: fkilful farmers of this
country, how they will exceed fuch a profit,
by any fyfi:em of common hufbandry, on fuch
poor land ? It before appeared, that com-
mon good hufbandry, after fome improve-
ments, would yield but i /. i /. \\ d. per
acre profit: fo that the planting, to cut ia
20 years, is more than thrice as beneficial,
and certainly much lefs expofed to acciden-
tal loflTes.

But fuppofing the trees left 30 years, in

that



THROUGH ENGLAND. 337

that cafe the thinnings pay, for the firft
20 years, i /. per acre per annum j and, at
the end of the 30th, the account, from the
firft planting, is 3/. 17 J. I d. per diCXQ \ and,
in 40 years, ^ I. 6s. id. After which time
they may be fuppofed to decline in quicks
nefs of growth, and confequently had better
be cut down, in point of profit.

If beauty of fituation is not, in fome re-
fpedts, commanded, we feldom fee plan-
tations of quick-growing trees ; but it is
evident, that poor foils fhould be planted
upon the mere view of profit : a crop oF
firs, inftead of a crop of wheat, barley or
oats, at 20 years growth, which fo many men
jnay expedt to fee out in perfection, they
turn out far fuperior. One of the moft pro-
stable farms would be a thirty years leafe
of fuch land, with liberty to plant and cut
down. One of twenty years, which is a
fhorter period than the generality of long
ieafes, would, thus applied, exceed commoa
hufbandry on fuch foils.

Mf. MelliJJj has a wafte, inclofed with a
ring fence of 700 acres, which he would lett
at 3 s. an acre, tythe free. Suppofe a perfon
Hired it under a leafe of 30 years :

Vol, I, Z. The



338 THE FARMER'S TOUR

The raifing, planting, &C.&C. would

come to, - - jT. 2ioa

Rent of 700 acres, for thirty years, 3 1 50

Reparation of fences, fuppofe, - 50

Intereflof 2100/. for 30 years, at ^per

cent, - - - 2 s 20



1

f



Total expence, - - 7820

Produce — Thinning, in ten years,

at 5/. an acre, - 3500

Ditto, in 20 years, 1000 per

acre, at 6^. 25/. - 17500

— r— Cut down at 30 years, 2000

per a.cre, at i^. or 100 L per acre, 7000a,.

Total produce, - - 9100O' ■
Total expences, - - 7820^

Clear profit, - - 8318a

This account is ftated in the ftile of a

common farm : the firfl expenditure called

ftock, and compound intereft not calculated^

It is very evident, that no man, poflefled of-

fuch foils, who can hire them for 20 or 30

years, under a planting leafe, need ever to

be diftrefled at the idea of younger children's

fortunes, or raifing large fums of money in.

future. A moderate expenditure will, by

planting



191



k



THROUGH ENGLAND. 339

filanting, fecure the certain pofleffion of any
fum that may in future be wanted,

Mr. Meliijh has, befides thefe various im-
Drovements, executed other undertakings,
«rhich fhew an activity not often exceeded.
He has made ten miles of road, at his own
jxpence, and a river four miles long, and
;en yards wide, as a drainage to a large ex-
ent of low land, in the center of his eftatCj
:apable of being made as fine meadow as
my in England, He has alfo built feveral
arm-houfes, and above thirty cottageSj all
n the moft fubftantial manner, 6f brick and
He : works of the nobleft tendency, that
vlil ever carry their own eulogy ! *

* This gentleman has added a very magnifi-
;ent apartment to his hoiife, (before an exceed-
ng good one) awithdrawing-room, 40 feet long,
12 broad, and 18 high, v.'ith a circular bow of
\ I feet fpan. The proportion very agreeable.
The chimney-piece elegant ; Ionic pillars of Egyp-
ian granate, fluted with ftripes of white marble,
upport the frieze, in which is a tablet, an an-
ient facrifice. The furniture is extremely rich*
:he chairs and carpet crimfon velvet, embroidered
vith yellow filk. From the windows of moih
of the rooms you command a fine water, which
.winds through the lawn for a mile and half i the
breadth from 50 to 70 yards.

He has alfo built a large and hf^ndf^me pile^f
^l:abling,and ornamented his eltate with 200 acre*
^f thriving plantations.



340 THE FARMER^s TOUR



L E #1 g: E R VII.

FROM 5/j'/'/^ I took the road to Don^
cajier^ and made enquiricv^ into the
ftate and culture of the rich lands near that
town. , -,

Farms rife from 30/. to 70/. a year, and
the land letSj on an average, at 50 j. an acrCr

Their crops of wheat are, on an average,
about 30 bufliels, of rye 34, of barley 6
quarterSj of oats 10, and of rape half a laft.
They never feed this crop.

Their turnips they never hoe; but th€
value does not rife higher than 40 j. an acre..

Their manuring confifts in little elfe than
buying Doncajier dung, which all the
farmers, within four or five miles, regularly
praftife.

Their paflures arc very good : an acre wiL
fummer feed a cow. They prefer the fiiort*;
horned breed, and reckon the average pro*-
duce of milk per diem at four gallons.

In their tillage, they uie but two horfes ir
a plough ; do one acre a day ; the deptl:

* 1 fivr



¥li^OUGH ENGLAND. 341

£ve inches, and the price per acre 4/. 6d,
Their fyftem of feeding horfes is not the
moft perfed; and, among other inftances,
know nothing of cutting ftraw into chaff.

Swing ploughs only are ufed.

I^an-d fells at fifty years puxchafeu Tythes
are taken in kind. Poor-rates 2 s. in the
pound ; their employment is in the maniy-
fadure of the place, which is the facking,
and alfo that of ftockings : fome hundreds
of bands are employed in it.— All drink tea.

No leafes in this country.

The experiments made hy Anthony Whar-
toriy Efq. of Carr-Houfe^ will bcft explain
the nature of this rich fand.

.i POTATOES.

^- Experiment, No. i .

In 1767, two acres of the hefl: fand were
I planted with potatoe$, after a third crop of
Ljcorn, in rows equally diftant, three quarters
I of a yard afunder. They were manured for
ijhem with 12 loads an acre of rotten dung,
i forkful to each fet, fpread from heaps in
;he common manner. The produd was
2 bufhels per acre, which, at the price of
\ a peck, amounted to 12/. an acre. After
Z 3 them



le



i



342 THE FARMER^s TOUR

them cabbages were planted, and the ccbg
proved very fine. They were horfe and
hand-hoed as often as requihte to keep
them clean from weeds. -I

Experiment, No. 2.

In 1768, two acres more were planted;
the management exactly the fame, and the
produce again 12/.

Experiment, No. 3. -J

In 1769, four acres and an half weft
planted on the fame foil, and managed ir^
the fame manner. The product 390
hw^clsper acre, or 15/.

Experiment, No. 4.

This year, 1770, he has feveral pieces
jn rows at various diftances, from 2 feet
)S inches, to 3 feet 6 inches. I found them
all as cleari as a garden ; and as fine lux-
uriant a growth as I remember to have
feen. Half an acre will yield at the rate of
515/. />^r acre. The reft 15/.

All thefe crops Mr. Wharton has applied
chiefly to the feeding fwine: ; he fats pork-
ers with them : generally boils them ; and
fogietinjQS mixes them with barley meal,

4 a



\



THROUGH ENGLAND. 343

ia peck of the latter, to 6 biifhels of the
potatoes. The pork is perfedly good, and
the fat as firm and as good as any other.
He alfo finds them of very great ule in half
fattening bacon hogs, to prepare them for
peafe and beans. In thefe applications the
value of the potatoes is 4^/. per peck;
whereas only 3//. is ufed in the preceding
calculation as a market price.

Mr. JVhartori*?, general culture of them
is as follows. The land is ploughed three
or four times : then holes are made by a
line with a fpade ; dung is put in thefe
holes, and the potatoe fets, on the dung.
The firft tillage is to harrow the land flat,
as foon as the weeds come up, and before
the potatoes. They are afterwards earthed
up by hand-hoes feveral times ; and all
weeds extirpated. One circumflance in
which Mr. IVbarton is peculiar, is the
planting only the knots or eyes, cut off the
potatoes ; the heart is all preferved for ufe ;
and this method of cutting them, is recom-
mended as a very great faving.

The average produce amounts to lol, pcv
acre, at 4^. a peck ; and the expences of
the crop are as follow.

Z4



344 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Rent and town charges, - £.2 lo a
I o Bufhcls qf (ecd, - -013 4
12 Loads of manure (on Xo t]\e

land) at 6x. - •- 3 12 o-

Planting and flicing, - 0100

3 Ploughings, r ii baoii o 10 6

I Harrowing, - r - t^-^i^ |^ o
3 Horfe hoeings, - - 050
3 Hand ditto, and weeding, 070

Taking up and carrying home, 100

o 8 10



,,i^ Total produce, • vi^i^i. ° ^

Total expences, ■• 9 8 10.



S^^' Profit, - - ' ID n 2


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 16 of 23)