Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) online

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of the candidates giving in accounts of their
foil and methods of culture ^\

Mr. Stovin has, in feveral inftances, ex-
perienced the uncommon richnefs of the foil
about Doncafler j and among others he


* The following letter was addrefled to Mr. Stovin
as fecretary to the fociety. I infert it here for the ule
of thofe who may want it. Q<. -^ 0»

*' Sir, Nottingham^ 'July 10, "^ll^^

" Seeing an advertifement in our news paper fome
time fince, offering a premium for the beft recipe for
the gargle or downfal of the milk in cows, I make
bold to fend you the following, being what I have
made ufe of feveral times, and always with fuccefs ;
that is, the cows foon got well without bleeding or
any other application either external or internal.
Take two ounces of nitre, pound it fine, and give it
in a hornful of water, wafhing it down with a few
hornfuls more, taking care to repeat it every day for
feveral days, and to draw the paps well, as often as
poflible — I never heard of any perfon ufing nitre for
this purpofe before myfelf : I took the hint from Dr,
JameCi difpenfatory, where he fays a folution of it



broke up a piece of grafs land, and fowed
it with oats 2 years fucceffively, and had
12 quarters per acre each year. — He has
alfo fome experiments on cabbages, pota-
toes, carrots, and Siberian flax, now on
the ground, for the purpofe of difcovering
what crops are beft adapted to this rich fand.

Carrots have been tried by Cook;

Efq. of Wheatly^ near Doncafier. He
fowed them on a fallow for barley ; the
foil a light loam on alime-ftone, ploughed
I o inches deep : they were hand weeded
and hoed fufficiently to keep them clean at
the expence of 35/. for 3 roods. The crop
was a very good one.




will refolve coagulated milk ; therefore I thought Hr,
probably would have the {amc effe6l inwardly by im-''
pregnating the juices well with it. I believe thtf.
quantity may be confidera.bly increafed With fafety,
but then I fhould chufe to give it oftner rather than
augment the dofe — As I have not complied with the-
terms, fo neither do I expe£l the premium, but (houl^
be glad if you will give it a fair tryal, and inform Mr/
CnU'wdU printer here, with wlwt fuccefs — I havf
not fet my name, as that would be of no fervice, but
might perhaps procure me the appellation of Brother
Doctor amongft the cow-leeches.

I am. Sir, yours, &:c.'

The following is added by another perfon. " For dry-
ing cows for feeding. Bleed firft, then as much pepper
as wdll lie on a half crown piece, and a bolus of tarr
at the end of a ftick : repeat three times. ''


»:The next year, the experiment was re-
plated on the lame land ; but the crop was
^t quite fo good as before. G3rn was then
fejwn, and it proved much better than in any
jher part of the field. They were vifed
chiefly for horfes, and found excellent for
'fmt purpofc. Several had the diilemper,
which raged among them fo univerfally a
'sw years ago ; but, L)y feeding on carrots,
t.had very little efFe*^ on tlicm. One that
was broken-winded had, while fed with
;arrots, the appearance of being recovered.

Mr. Cook planted, on the lame foil, an
icre of potatoes, for which he manured with
[even loads of :dung : they were fet in rows
hree feet afundcr. The crop fucceedcd very
well. Ke was. oFered' 12/. for it, while
(landing, to be taken up at the expcnce of
he buyer; but heufed'them himfelf, prin-
cipally for cows *aVid~ Kogs : the former eat
f&em very heartily, and the milk and butter
(>rOYed exceccMngly good from them.
'^' This gentrem-^.n once tried an experiment
oh the improvement of walle land, which
is worthy of bei^n'g minuted. On a piece of
[Kungry fand on bad giavcl, which yielded
nothing but mofs and poor wild grafs, he
Vol. I. B b laid


laid I i chaldron of lime, mixed with 2 cart-*
loads of black moory earth. It* had no ef^
fed: the firfl: and fecondyear; but, the third,
the benefit was very great ; for all the cattle
in the field were almoft conftantly feeding
on that fpot. ^tyif*!

From Doncajlcr I took the road towards
"Barnjley^ by Broadfworth^ where the foil
changes totally. It is in general a lime-»
flqne, let at 6 •. an acre. FarrtiS are, in ge-
neral, about 35/. or 40/. a year: fome rife
to 60 /. Their courfe of crops,

1. Fallow 3. Barley

2. Wheat 4. Tares or peafc^

For the field lands.



In the inclofures, feme of them take,

1. Turnips 3. Clover

2. Barley 4. Wheat.

Their wheat yields, on an average, 15
buihels acre ; and rye, of which the];
fow but little, as much. Of barley, they
get 2 \ quarters, and of oats 3 quarters. The
mean produce of peas is 14 bufhe]s ; and qi
beans the fame, when they fow them.

They do not hoc their turnips : reckbr
the average value at 25/. an acrp.

1 Thre^



Three acres of natural grafs land they
thhik requlfite to lumpier feed a cow. Their
breed of cattle the fhort-horned : the average
©1 quantity of rni Ik 2 gallons.
•gf In their tillage, they reckon four horfes
neceffary for 40 acres of arable land : ufe two
! or three in a plough, and do an acre a day :
jjj- the depth three inches : the price per acre
^.3 J. 6(i. They know nothing of cutting
... draw into chaff.
« None but fwing-ploughs ufed.

In the hiring and ftocking of farms, they
reckon 250/.- ncceflary for a farm of 6c/. a

Land fells up to 40 years purchafe.
Tythes are taken in kind ; poor rates 8^.
In the pound : the employment of the wo-
men and children fpinning flax : all drink

l\ No leafes granted^ :-, •

'{^ The farmers carry their corn five miles.


•^ In harveft, i /. 6 ^. a day,

In hay-time, i s,
y' In winter, i /.

Reaping, 4^. 6 J,
:r,' ^ b 2 Mowing


Mowing and binding barky or oats,,

—— grafs, I /. 6d»

Plalhing hedges, i s. 2d. an acre.
Thrafhing wheat, 8 ^. a load of 3 bufhels.

— barley, is, 6d. 2l quarter.

■ • oats, 8 d. ditto.

Head-man's wages, 12 /.

Next ditto, 7/.

Lad*s, 5/. 10/,

Maid's, 3/.

A woman a day in harveft, I s.

— — — in hay-time, 8 d,

in winter, 6d.

Value of a man's board, wafliing and lodg-r
ing, 10/.


A new waggon, 15/. Their waggons are

about two feet wide.
A cart, 9/.
Shoeing, i J. 4^.


Bread, - - i -'V. a pound.

Cheefe, - - 3 4 ditto.

Butter, - - 8 for 18 cz.

Beef, - - 34.

O -










y- d. per pin*.


3 4 /^'^ peck.


6 V per lb.



Houfe-rent, 25/.

Firing, 21s,


Bricks, 12 J. a thoufand.

Tiles, 25/.

Oak timber, i j. to 2

: J", a foot.

Afh and elm, i s.

A carpenter and mafc

)n a day, zod.

A thatcher, is. id.

Stone walls, 2J-. a rood worlvmanfhip ;

zs.6d, ftone del.

The particulars of

a farm as follow.

100 Acres in all

10 Barley

65 Arable

5 Oats

35 Grafs

5 Peafe and beans

£.40 Pvent

10 Clover

5 Horfes

10 Turnips

2 Cows

10 Fallow

8 Young cattle

2 Men

40 Sheep

I Maid

15 Acres of wheat 2 Labourers.

374 TH£ farmer's TOUft

Great improvemerits have been made at
Broad/worthy by the Archbifhop of York,
with fainfoine*. Thefe loams on lime-
ftone, notwithftanding they are in genera!
of a clayey nature, do excellently well for
that plant. His Grace has greatly advanced
the value of his land fo applied. ' Mr. Wbar^
ton, of Carr-Houfe, has alfo feveral clofes
of fainfoine on his farm here, which anfvvcr
much better than any of the other fields.

At Swakhy near Barnjley, the rev. Mr.
Hall has tried feveral very important expe-
riments in hufbandry, the regiller of which
he was fo obliging as to give me^ Their
utility will be judged of, when I mention the
Hate of his farm,, which is cultivated In a
very neat and accurate manner, and the crops
all excellent. - , -, - - •

Mr. HaJl has a niethod of fencing, in
which I apprehend he is perfectly original,


* It is much worthv of obfervation, that this eftate ;
wa? fold to the late Earl o'^ Klnnoul, on account of the <
liindlord not being able to raife hay for his own borfcs ; :
but the improvement of fainfoine has fo v.-ond-rtully ,
changed the cafe, that hundreds of loads, mere than I
ncccltary for home wfe, have fince been grown.


ias I have never heard of any perfon that
pradifed It. He tranfplants white-thorn
hedges, of any growth, even to 30 or 40
years old. In winter, he grubs up the old
hedge, after cutting, in the common man-
ner, and without giving any unufual at-
tention to the manner in which it is done.
The ftuhs are not at all tender, or liable to
fail of growing : He has known them left
out of the ground a week, without any da-
mage; and, if there is a little water at the
bottom of the ditch, he apprehends they
would lie there fafely a month : but the bcft
way, undoubtedly, infuch cafes, is to move
it from one hedge to the other, as foon as is
convenient. The bank, or place, where the
new hedge is to be made, fhould be marked
out with a line, and a proper trench cut to
fet the ftubs in : they fhould be buried ra-
ther deeper than they were in the earth be-
fore. Mr. Hall has found, that not one ftub
in an hundred will fail of growing, and the
fhoots are fo vigorous, that a new hedge is
formed much quicker than in any other

B b 4 Experiment^

376 THE farmer's TOUR

Experiment^ No. i.

I viewed a very long hedge of this gen-
tleman's, tranfplanted fix years ago, when
thirty years old. In live years it fprouted
14 feet in many places, and 12 feet on an
average. It was then cut and plalhed, and
is now as thriving and fine a hedge as can
be feen. Another hedge, planted in the
common manner, 15 years ago, did not equal
this when only five years old.

This difcovery is very important ; for I
have more than once known old hedges grub-
bed up and levelled, and new ones planted
with great care and attention, to raife a fence
as foon as poiTible; by which condud:, above
ten years are abfolutely lofl in height, and
many more in flrength. In the grubbing up
of old hedges, planted with variolas forts of
wood, it is very ufeful to know, that th^
white-thorn flubs may be preferved to planj:
in the gaps of other hedges. The whole
proccfs of the vvork alfo is fo extremely plain
and eafy, that none can find any difiiculty
in executing it.

Let me here likewife obferve, that Mr

Hail'is remarkably attentive to all his hedges:

he keeps them quite clean from weeds, and

z trims


trims the horizontal flioots off in fuch a
manner, that the hedge is left wide at bot-
tom, and narrowed gradually to the top, that
the latter may not drip on the reft, and de-
Ihroy or damage it. The hedge 'alfo, by
this means, is rendered ftronger, and no
land is loft by the ihade ; but the fhoots,
chat grow up in the center, are not fliort-
ened : they rife their natural height. In
plafhing, Mr, Hall cuts out all the old, large
branches, and lays thofe only, which are
young and pliant. This is contrary to the
Hertfordjhire method : but, as he does not
want fences fo ftrong, the neatnefs of his
method makes amends for that clrcum«
ance. In moft countries, the feeding clover
with hogs is the moft profitable application
of that crop ; but, with hedges done in this
neat manner, hogs could not be confined
an hour: they would break through in many
places near the ground.


'Experiment^ No. 2.
Mr. Hall has cultivated this plant for feed,
to great profit. He fowed ten acres of it,
the foil a fandy loam, inclinable to c^ay,



with barley. He fed the firft crop, till thd
beginning of '^une^ with all fotts of cattle,
and then kept it for feed. Mown the be^
ginning of ^«^w//. The product, 2487 /^i
fold for 96/. 9 J", befides four quarters of tre-
foil, at 10 J-., 2/. The ftoTcr amounted to
17 loads, worth 10/* a load. The feed in
April and May was during feven weeksj \\
value 1 4 J". 3 ^. a week.
Seed Clover, - - ^. 96 9 o
Ditto Trefoil, - -200

Seventeen loads hay, at ioj. 8 io o

Feed, - - 500


III 19 o

ThraOiing and drefling the \tt<\y 6 6 o

Clear product, - 1 05 1 3 o

Or, per acre, - 10 lo o

The clover flraw is here under-valued ;
for Mr. Hall obfervcd, that the cattle pre-
ferred it to good common hay.

A field, fown by Mr. Micklethwate^ a
farmer adjoining, of three acres, produced.
1400/^ which, proportioned to the above
produce, amounts to 63/. or 21 L per acre;
which is certainly a vaft profit.




Experiment y No» 3.

A rood of good loamy fand was fallowed^
and fown with 4/^. of bur net Teed, in Aprils
with barley. In the autumn following, it
was cleaned with hand-lioes ; and horfes,
beafls, and fheep, were turned into it ; but
none of them would touch it. The year
following it was feeded, and produced 60/^.
after which it Vv^as ploughed and fown with
wheat: the crop as good as after red clover.

Experiment^ No. 4.

In the year 1764, Mr. Hall {owed half
an acre of good loamy land with lucerne,
broad-caft, among barley, which facceeded
turnips ; the reft of the field was clover.

In 1765, it was cut once, and yielded
better than the clover.

In 1766, it was cut twice: the produce
-at the rate of two tons of hay per acre.

In 1767, as many weeds had arifen, it
was ploughed with a blunt fhare, and then
harrowed till it had the appearance of an
abfolute fillow : this was done in MarcJ\


38o TrtE farmer's TOUR

It was that year cut three times for foiling-
horfes in the ftable, and maintained at the
rate of four horfes per acre through the

' In 1768, It was harrowed in the fpring,
and that year kept three horfes per acre.

In 1769, it was again harrowed quite
bare, which made it yield better than the
year before : maintained at the rate of four
horfes per acre. \

In 177O5 harrowed again in the fpring,
and eat down with flieep till Mny, Cut the
beginning of yuly an exceeding fine crop^
which, made into hay, would have been
full two tons an acre ; and the fecond growth
came very thick and quickly. This year,
upon the whole, is {o very favourable, that
Mr. Hall calculates the produce at leaft to
equal the fummer feeding of five horfes.
The third year it produced two
tons of hay per acre, wliich
may be calculated at 45 s, a ton,
or, - - £.4 ID o

The fourth, it kept four horfes
through the fummer; 16 weeks,
at 2 J". 6 d. per horfe per week,
comes to, - - i;> o o

Carry over, 1 7 i o o


Brought over, ^.1710 o
The fifth, three horfes, 26 weeks,

at 7J-. 6d, are, - -9150

The fixth, four horfes, 26 weeks,

atiox. - - 1300

The feventh, five horfes, 26 weeks,

at I2J-. 6^. - - 16 5 o

Total produce, - 56 10 o

Or, per annum, - 1 1 6 o

I viewed this crop attentively, and found
it in fo rich and luxuriant a ftate of vegeta-
tion, that I have ho doubt, but that this pro-
dud: would rcgularlybemddefrom any quan-
tity of land fo cropped. The two firft years
arc never to be expected to equal the fucceed-
jng ones; for lucerne is in its infancy during
that tim£,

Kxperlmenf, No. 5.

In 1763, half an acre of well fummer-
fallowed land was filled with tranfplanted
lucerne. It Vv^as fet in March^ in rows, two
feet afunder, and one foot from plant to
plant: the roots were fevcn years old. They
were cut once ; but the .crop very frnall.



All the land was kept perfedly clean from
weeds by hand-hoeing.

In 1764, it was hand-hoed , twice, andil
maintained at the rate of three horfes per \
acre, through the fummer..i9V3woiJ .

In 1765, it was again hand-hocd twice, i-
and kept two horfes through the fumI^er^
that is, four />6'r acre, JUi f^

In 1766, the fame culture was giten, and
the produce was equal.

In 1767, it was harrowed "acrofs, and the
crop as good as in 1766 : in 1768, 1769,
and this year, 1770, it has proved the famet

1764, Three horfes,

£-9 15


1765, Two ditto.

r- . 6 10

1766, Ditto,

-T - 6 10

1767, Ditto, -

6 10

1768, Ditto,

* -»■ 6 10


1769, Ditto, -

- - 6 ID

J 770, Ditto, -

*. « 6 10

Total produce,

48 15

Or, per annu7n^

6 19


Mr. Hall, from his general experience of
this plant, recommends the broad-caft hw^-
)3andry for the practice of common farmers,



being lefs complex and confequenlly much
more adapted to their notions. But he
p. -thinks that the tranfplanting or drilling
V- methods would yield larger products : they
jnuft, liowcver, be cut with Tickles, to pre-^

• vent the lucerne licking tip the dull of the
intervals, which would be the cafe if it fell
on the ground, as it mud do in mowing.

* I ihall beg leave to remark on thefe ac-
counts, that they prove in the cleareft man-^

) ner imaginable, the uncommon value of the
crop. The produdl per acre per annum of
7 /. and 11/. il^ew that very few crops equal
it ; and prove how expedient it is for every
farmer to have at leaft as much of it as is
neceflary for feeding his teams : he will in
no other way be able to keep them near fo
cheaply *,

"* Lucerne has been cuhivated fome time by a neigh-
bouring gentleman, the Rev. Mr. Crtpps. I defigned
\q the pleafurc of waiting on him to view it, hut was
unfortunately called on a fudden another way. H^"^
told me that he had tried it drilled, transplanted, rtnd
' broad-caft ; but that the latter was much the bell,
"^ He mows it for hay, and finds, contrary to the gcne-
*) ral opinion, that it is of very great ufe fo aj-plied :
He has had great crops ; and one in particular that
had near a fortnight's rain upon it after cutting. It
loli its fine c«lour, but not its fccnt, nor did th'.-




Experiment^ No. 6.
In 1769, two acres of a rich loam were
well fallowed, and manured as for turnips,
and planted with the great Scotch cabbage
in June^ in rows 4 feet afunder, and the
plants 2 feet. The feed was fown in Fc^
bruary. They wefe kept quite clean from
weeds throughout the feafon by horfe and
hand-hocing. They were begun to be cut
in OHober for fatting fheepv and given ia
a pafture field ; the iheep throve Very well
Oil them ; but Mr. Hali thinks they did
not equal turnips in the confumption ; they
came to the average weight of \ per
cabbage. An acre of good turnips he
reckons worth 3 /. i o j. ; the cabbages in
proportion were 3 /.

leaves fall offj ?nd fufFereJthe wet with much Icfs
damage than clover would' have done. Upon the
whole, it makes imcomparable hay, and is as ufcful
for that purpofc as for any other'.

Cabbages A(tr. Crlpps has tried with much attention,
and thinks them not comparable to turnips, either
in weight of' produce or value in feeding cattle: and
they make butter ftink,




Experiment^ No. 7.

Four acres of good loamy foil were
ploughed for the firft time in 05lober^ '^1^9'*
and again in February, upon which earth
two acres and a half were drilled in March
with rouncival peafe, in rows equally dif-
tant, 1 8 inches afundcr ; 3 bufhels per acre
feed. The other acre and half in February ^
with horfe beans in the fame manner, 3
bulhels per acre. I viewed the crops with
the utmoft pleafure, and found them clean
as any garden, and as fine as any I remem-
ber to have feen : the peafe in particular
were an aftonilhing crop, much the greateft
I ever faw — they were perfedly entangled ;
like a regular lev^l, broadcaft crop, without
a weed to be feen. Both peafe and beans
had been horfe and hand-hoed : The drill-
plough and horfe-hoe taken from lord Rock-
inghani'^, of which I gave plates in Hhe
Tour through the North of England.

Some years ago Mr. Hall had many ex-
periments on drilled wheat, barley, and
oats, fown with 7z///'s drill ; but from
repeated trials, and the minuteft attention,

VoL.L C c he


he was convinced that the pradice would
never do — that it would never nearly equal
the broad-caft fowing,


Experiments No. 8.

One year in which Mr. Hall mowed his
lucerne for hay, he tried clover for foiling
his horfes ; and 2 acres of it kept 6 from
the \^\}cioi May *till the end of Septejnber„
They were confined day and night to a
fmall farm-yard well littered with ftraw for
making dung, with an open fhed to run
under, and water conftantly at command,

1 9 Weeks, at 2 j. 6 d. per horfe
perwtok, for 6, are, >C' ^4 5 ^

Ov per acre, « j z ^

Which is a much greater produce than
could be made of clover by any other me-
thod of ufmg it. Mr. Hall allured me that
the fame horfes turned out, would have
required 9 acres to eat, tread on, and wafte.
He gives them neither corn nor hay ; and
they are in as perfedt health as any horfes
in the field.
Another very great advantage in this



tnethod is the quantity of dung made. Mr.
Hall raifed 60 loads of dung by the above
6 horfes — which alone, more than paid the
cxpence of the clover.


'Experiment^ No. 9.

One hundred loads of tanner's bark four
years old, were purchafed at 9^. a load,

: and formed into a heap, and fome yard
dung and lime added to it ; it was turned
once; and when rotten carried on to 8

lacres of a cold fpringy foil, for wheat. It
much ameliorated the land ; prevented the

iloo great adhefion, and was vifibly of be-
nefit to the crop : But Mr. Hall thinks the

♦virtues of the bark but fmall ; and that it is
of ufe in opening rather than enriching the

He has tried various mixtures of lime,
earth, alhes, &c. «Sic. and finds that fuch
compofts are more efficacious than laying
the forts on the land fmgly.

Adjoining to Swaith is Wombwell, a

I large eftate w^hich was in the pofleffion of

a family of that name from the conqueft;

it came at laft to two co-heireffes, the mifs

C c 2 Womb"

Z^S THE farmer's TOUR

Wombwells ; one of whom married Charles
Tiurner^ Efq; of Kirkleatham^ and the other
Colonel St, Leger of Park Hill: the whole
now belongs to the former, who has pur-
chafed the other half. It confifts of 3000
acres of rich land, within a hedge ; the
country beautifully varied with hill and
dale, and nobly fpread with wood. The
hufbandry and crops of this trad: of land is
much worthy of obfervation.

Farms rife from 20/. to 260/. a year, the
average about 90/.

The foil is a fine rich fandy loam ; fomc
of it inclining more to clay than fand ; but
in general good mixed land. The average
rent is 16 s. an acre.

The courfes of crops chiefly purfued are,

1. Turnips 3. Clover

2. Barley 4. Wheat.




















is very bad.


1 the ftiffeft land

it is,


1. Fallow. 3. Beans

2. Wheat 4. Wheat.

Their clover land they plough but once
for wheat, but the fallows from 4 to 6
times. They fow 2 "^ to 3 bufhels per acre,
and reckon the average produce about 3
quarters. — ^They fbw fcarcely any rye ; but
IVIr. Birh, the principal tenant on the eftate,
Iiad once 108 bufhels from an acre and half
of garden mold, which is 9 quarters j^tr acre.

They plough but once for barley ; fow 3
bufhels and an half, and gain 6 quarters in
return. Very few oats are fow n ; but the
tillage is one ploughing ; 5 bufhels of feed;
and the crop not more than 5 quarters.

For peafe they flir but once ; fow 3
luifhels, never hand-hoe themj and gain
upon an average 3 quarters. They give
but one earth for beans, fow 4 bufhels ptT
acre; don't hoe them ; the crops from 20
to 60 bufhels ; average about 32.

Rape is much cultivated ; the hufoandry
is to pare and burn old turf for it ; then
plough once, and harrow in the feed : the
crop on a medium is half a laft. Wheat is
always fown after it.

For turnips they plough from four to fi,\:
C c 3 times ;


times ; hoe them twice ; generally feed
them on the land with Iheep, but fome few
are drawn and carried off for fatting beafts
or young cattle. The mean value per acre
47 J-. 6 d.

Their clover they mow twice for hay ;

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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 18 of 23)