Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) online

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fometimes feed the firft crop, and mow the
fecond for feed, at others cut the firft for hay,
and the fecond for feed : Their crops are very
great, will yield at two cuts for hay, 4 tons;
and fome has been mown thrice in a fummer.
The beft wheat is allowed to follow mowit
crops: — mowing prepares better thanfeeding^

In refpedt to manuring ; none of theni
fold their fheep. — Paring and burningj
which is performed at i'] s. an acre, they
reckon a very fine improvement. — Lime
they ufe for wheat : they fow 6 quarters per
acre on the clover land wheat after it is
fown, and perhaps up; which they fay
kills all poppies and many other weeds;
and deftroys much of the twitch, if there
is any in the land.

Their hay they ftack about the fields for
fatting cattle and young flock ; nor do they
chop their ftubbles. They ufe much pi-
geons dung ; fow it for wheat or turnips ;

it



THROUGH ENGLAND. 391

It cofts 8 J-. a quarter ; and the quantity they
life is from 3 to 5 quarters : 5 they reckon
:qual to any common drefling of dung in a
wet feafon.

Covered drains are known here ; the beft
farmers dig them from 2 feet to 3 and a
.half deep, and fill them with ftone ; the
cxpence one fhilling per foot of depth per
acre.

The beft grafs land lets at 20 j-. an acre :
they apply it chiefly to fattening beafts : an
acre and an half will carry a cow through
the fummer. Their fat beafts they feed
on grafs, fometimes pretty late in the
vrinter ; the grazing or milking ftock will
leave much long grafs on the land ; which
with the affiftance of good"ftraw, will beat
the beft of hay in carrying the beafl: forward ;
but they muft lye in a warm yard at night.

The breed of cattle is various ; both long
and fhort horned ; but the baftard fort
between both they like beft. The fhort-
horned beafts they reckon better than the
long-horned ones ; think them equally
hardy ; and that a given quantity of grafs
will yield more profit fed with them, than
if eaten by long horned ones.

C c 4 Sir



392 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Sir 'John Annitage has fold oxen of this
mongrel breed at four years old fat for 20/.
apiece ; they came to 80 ftone : the hides
fold at 2 /. 1 3 J", each. They were out of a
fhort-horned cow, by Mr. Birkh long-
horned bull.

The beft cows will give 8 gallons of
milk per day ; but the average of them not
more than 4. The long-horned cows will
not give fo much milk as the fhort-horned
ones, but more butter.

The average produd of cows 61. 10 s.
They keep but few fwine, on account of
dairies, not more than 4 to 6 cows ; for
in fummer they feed them on the dairy.
They keep their covv's in winter either in
the houfe or farm-yard.

Refpeding the profit of grazing, they
buy in cows fome time between Cajidlemas
and Mdy-daj', from 4/. to 7/. each; and
put them to hay with a few turnips till the
grafs is ready : they fell fat from grafs at
various times as the beafts happen to rife,
from July till Chri/imas : the prices from

8/. to 16/.
Swine f^t to 25, and 30 (lone; and a.

few to 37.

They



THROUGH ENGLAND. 393

They have no flocks of fheep; their
management of them confifts only in buy.
ing wethers to fatten ; at Michaelmas they
put them to turnips ; the price from i /. i j.
to I /. 5 J-. ; and fell from the turnips with
about ']s. 6d. a head profit. They clip
from yearlings i3/<^. fleeces. They do not
think the rot in fheep is peculiar to wet or
low lands, but occafioned folely by a quick
growth of grafs, to whatever caufe fuch
luxuriance may be owing ; whether to
much warm rain, or floods. And it is the
opinion of fome farmers, that new laid
ground full of dung, will rot.

In their tillage, they reckon that 8 horfes
are neceflary for 100 acres of ploughed
land. They life two in a plough, and do
from an acre to an acre and half a day ;
they fl:ir 8 inches deep ; the price from 4
to 5 s. an acre.

They know nothing of cutting ftraw into
chaff.

Some oxen are ufed; 4 In a plough.
They are very fenfible of the difference
between the ond team declining in value,
(and the other improving, but yet horfes

gain



394 THE FARMER'S TOUR

gain ground much among them ; I appre-'
hend on account of breeding.

They break up their ftubbles for a fallow
in November, None but Kotheram ploughs
ufed.

In the ftocking farms, they reckon 500/.
neceflary for one of 100/. a year.

Land fells from 30 to 50 years purchafe :
fuch as is let at rack rents, at 33.

Tythes are both gathered and com-
pounded ; but generally the former. If the
latter, wheat and barley pays 5 s. \ oats and
beans 31.

Poor rates, is, in the pound.. The em-
ployment of the women and children fpin-
ning worded. All drink tea.

No leafes granted.

They carry their corn 4 or 5 miles. The
fituation is very favourable for markets— ^
the near neighbourhood of the manufactur-
ing towns, renders corn of all forts confi-
derably dearer than the rates of Bear^key,
or the eaftern counties.

LABOUR.

In harveft, as, 6^. a day.
In hay-time, 2s,



THROUGH ENGLAND. 395

In winter, is, 6d. — equal to it, in beer,

dinners, &c.
Reaping ^^r acre, yj. 6d. including beer.
Mowing, binding, and raking an acre of

fpring corn, ^s.
Mowing grafs, is. to 7.s. 6d. and beer.
Hoeing turnips, 5/. to yj.
Hedging and ditching, is, 6d^ to 2s, an

acre.
Thrafhing wheat, 8 ^. a load of 5 bufhels,

barley is. 6d. per quarter.

oats, 9 d, ditto.

Head-man*s wages, 10/. 10 J,

Next ditto, 8 /. 8 j.

Third ditto, 7/. 10/,

Lad's, 5/.

Maid's, 3/.

Women per day, in harveft, i s,

' in hay-time, 10^.

— in winter, 8 d.

Rife of labour in twenty years double.

IMPLEMENTS.

A waggon, 20/.

A cart, 9/.

A plough, i/. IOJ-.

Harnefs per horfe, i /. i o j.

Laying a fhare, 6 d,

2> Laying



596 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Laying- a coulter, 6d,
Shoeing, \s,id,

PROVISIONS.

Bread wheaten, and oat cake ; avera;gc



Bricks /^r looo, \\s.

Oak timber per foot, i s, id. to \5. \d^

Afh ditto, I J. 4^,

A carpenter a day, is. 8 ^,

A mafon ditto, i j*. 6^.

Dry ftone walls is. z. rood of 6 feet high;

getting the ftone 2 s. befides carriage : 6

loads 4o a rood.

Th(j



pyjce


-


I d, per pound*


Cheefe,




3v


Butter,


-


6 to Zd.


Beef,


-


3


Mutton,




3v


Veal, ■


-


Z^


Pork,


-


34


Bacon,


-■


7


Milk,


-


\ d. per pint.


Potatoes pi


T peck.


4


Labourer's


houfe-rent, soj-. to 25^.


. fir


ing, 8j-.


6 d, and hedge ftealing,




BUILDING.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 397

The general occonomy of the country
will be feen from the following particulars
of farms.



2S0 Acres in


all


60 Fatting beafts


70 Arable




4 Young cattle


• 210 Grafs




80 Sheep


jT. 260 Rent




3 Men


6 Horfea




I Boy


2 Mares




2 Maids


6 Cows




3 Labourers.




Another:


1 1 Acres in


tall


16 Fatting bcafls


40 Arable




4 Young cattle


70 Grafs




60 Sheep


£. 100 Rent




2 Men


6 Horfes




I Boy


2 Mares




I Maid


4 Cows




I Labourer.




Another :


50 Acres in


all


2 Cows


20 Arable




2 Young cattle


30 Grafs




I Boy


X.50 Rent




I Maid


4 Horfes




I Labourer.



398 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Another :

200 Acres in all 40 Fatting beads
70 Arable 4 Young cattle

130 Grafs 60 Sheep
£. 170 Rent 2 Men

6 Horfes i Maid

2 Mares 2 Labourers.

6 Cows

Another :

120 Acres in all 6 Fatting beads

50 Arable 4 Young cattle

70 Grafs 20 Sheep

^,100 Rent 2 Men

4 Horfes I Boy \
2 Mares i Maid

5 Cows 2 Labourers.

There is one circumftance in the manage-^
metit of this eftate, which is much too im-
portant to be pafled over. A few years ago,
it was let at 1300/. a year, and the tenants
were all as poor as rats : three fourths of
them were from two to four years in arrears
of rent. On being talked to pretty fharply
on fuch failures in payment, they pleaded
their high rents, and deli red to have them
lowered. Upon this, their farms were all

viewed



THROUGH ENGLAND. 399

viewed by a gentleman well {killed in land ;
and his report w^as, that, fo far from pay-
ing too much, they evidently paid too little —
much lefs than the land was worth. The
whole was very badly cultivated, quite over-
run with weeds, and much excellent land
almoft becoming wafte. He recommended
the raifmg the eftate 1000/. a year. .'His
advice was followed, and from that day the
rents were raifed to 2 3 00 /. a year. But one
tenant on the whole eftate quitted ; and,
from a year or two after, to the prefent
time, their culture has been conflantly im-
proving. No tenants have paid their rents
better, and they are now in general rich,
for the fize of their farms. I was perfectly
iatisfied of all thefe fa£ts ; for I had them
precifely from all concerned. William Marf-
tien^YSc^. oiBamJley, is the perfon who view-
ed the farms, and he confirmed the above
particulars to me, in prefence of Col. St,
Leger^ and of the principal tenant of the
eftate.

• If this inftance is not decifive, nothing
can be fo : it proves, in the cleareft manner^
that the firft flep to good hufbandry is to
'make the tenant pay as mucb> or nearly as

much,



400 THE FARMER'S TOUR

much, for the land, as it is worth. If they
have farms at ^s, that are worth lox. they
will treat them accordingly. Bad hufban-
dry will pay a low rent, but cannot anfwcr
a high one. The tenants of the Wo??jbwell
eftate employed half their time in carrying ^^
coals for the manufacturing towns ; but, in
their new agreements, they were very wifely
cut off from any fuch practice : their atten-*
tion has fince been given to their farms, and
they have found how much more profitable
it is, to employ their teams in ploughing,
harrowing and manuring. Raifing their
rents has really enriched them all : it has
created an induftry unknown before : they
cultivate thofe fields with attention now>
which formerly fatisfied them in the main-*
tenance of a few fheep.

Col. Pole-i of Radburn^ gave m.e a parat*
lel inftance. On coming to his eftate, one
tenant, the greateft lloven on it, complained
of his rent, and faid, he muft be lowered or
break. His farm was viewed, the rent i oo/.
a year. He was immediately raifed to 1 70/.
and fmce that has paid it without com-
plaining.

Mr, Mar/Jen above-mentioned has, for

fome



as
k

of



THROUGH ENGLAND. 401

fome years, fown wheat from November to

Marcby and without ever being able to de-

:ermine one time to be better than another.

I The 14th of March^ ^755^ Mr. Mar/ -

^ien bought two oxen for 20/. He put them

:o hay till grafs was ready : they were kept

Dn it all fummer, and then put to fog and

lay, and afterwards to turnips given under

1 fhed with ftraw. The 14th of Marchy

1756, he fold them for 40 guineas to Mr.

• Wallet y of Long-Button ; and the March

"ollowing, he fold them for 65/, after being

Qiewn in Smithjield as a Jight,

About Barnjley are feveral tra£ls of land,
IS rich as any in Englafid. In Warthjield
here are above 1 00 acres of wheat, that
yield 5 and 5 ~ quarters ^fr acre; and a part
)f a field, that has more than once pro-
duced, after turnips, 9 quarters of barley
Vr acre, and once 9 ^, Clover was fown
A'ith it, and produced an excellent crop.
After the clover, 5 quarters 5 bufhels per
'icre of wheat : then fown with beans ; the
produce 5 ^ quarters per acre : and after
them, wheat again, 5 quarters 5 bufhels per
acre. Thefe crops are very extraordinary ;
but a deduction remains to be mentioned.

Vol. I. D d which



402 THE FARMER'S TOUR

which is an overplus of meafure, which
amounts to 2 acres in 32. We may, under
thcfe data^ calculate the expences, produce, ,
and profit, as follow. The rent I fhall call
20 J. an acre, though much is let at 8 j. and

IOJ-.

I. TURNIPS.

This crop I fhall fuppofe juft to pay the
cxpence of culture, which is a very large
allowance, confidering the wonderful ferti-
lity of the land.

II. BARLEY.

Rent, &c. &c. - - £,' "^ S ^
Three earths and harrowing, 014 o
Seed and fowing, - - o 10 6
Reaping and harvefting, - 0100
Thrafliing, - - -00



o



3 8 6



m. CLOVER.

Seed and fowing, - - o 6 J
Mowing, making, carting, and r

Hacking twice, - - i i o

• Rent, &c. - - - 150



1



E:



C!



THROUGH ENGLAND. 405

IV. WHEAT.

[Plougliing and harrowing, 070

Seed and fowing, - - o 1 1 o

^Reaping and harvefting, - o 10 o

Thrafhing, - - - o 12 o

Rent, &c. - - -150



V. BEANS.


3


5











Ploughing, &c. thrice,





15





Seed and fowing,





8





Reaping and harvefting,





12





Thrafhing,





6





Jlent,


I


5





Z


6






VI. WHEAT.

Expences, as before, - 3 5 ^

Barley, »■ - 386

Clover, - - 316

■Wheat, - m 350

I Beans, - - -360

Wheat, - - 350



16 6 o



D d 2



404 THE FARMER'S TOUR
PRODUCE.

Barley, 9 quarters, at i /. jC« 9 ^

Clover, fuppofe 4 tons of hay,

at 40/. - - - 800

Wheat, 5 quarters 5 buihels, at 2/. 1 1 5 o
Beans, 54 quarters, at 2j. 6^. 7 3 o
Wheat, as before, - 1 1 5 o

Total, befides chaff and ftraw, 46 1 3 o
Total expences, - 16 6 o

Clear profit, - 30 7 o h

Or, per acre per annum^ 614

This is what may modeftly be called a
very entertaining fort of a country for far-
mers to live in.*

, I returned fouthwards by Reffordy where
I found feveral parts of huibandry carried
on with fpirit by Mr. yohn Moody^ and par-
ticularly the fatting of oxen in flails, on oil-
cake and other food. For this bufmefs Mr.

Moody



* Before I leave the JFeJi-Riding, that region of
manufaiStures, let me infert the following account of
the progrefs and prcfeiit ftate of the manufa61:ure of
broad-cloths in this county, with fome other VQty
valuable particulars, (See the Table annexed.)



I the Treafurer^s


g at PontefraB Seflions,




of the Cloths nu


Time.




■y Clerk of Ptacc.


LaivBufinefs,


J Totals of each


Broad


]S'arroio








yid-veriijemenis


Year.




Cloths.


Cloths.






. ' 1. s. d.


1. S. d


1. S.


d.








90 18 —


82 18 i:


2672 4


IIT


607051


68889


1749




j 7« 10 3


88 2 ic


2880 14


li


60447!


78115


1750




1 88 19 9


92 2 i(


1989 16


S\


60964


74022


175I




72 3 3


22 4 —


1849 13


lit


60724


72442


1752




90 4 6


64 10 (


2527 19


II


55358


71618


1753




1 01 17 6


16 3 -


2653 2


iii


56070I


72394


1754




74 14 4r


58 9 -


2130 2


6!


57125


76295


1755




^'3 4 5


14 6 i


2379 II


2i


33590?


79318


1756




i 73 9 10


41 II 2


2078 14


- 2


55777


77097


1757




: 58 10 —


68 2 IC


2734 9


I


60396


66396


1758




79 15 —


38 10 IC


2307 10


6


5i«77l


65513


1759




90 II 9


24 8 11


4423 II


7i


493621


69573


1760




- 4 1 1 6


32 7 ^


5871 5


3i


48944


75468


I761




,' ^'9 12. 3


5 5-


3345 9


4r


48621


72946


1762




77 4 —




3590 18


4


48038I


72096


1763




"' "


•r ^ ^


-27.-2 1 A.


7i


c:Ar,if\


nc\A c8


irfiA





E X P E N C E S of the Wejl-Ridmg of the: County of York, from the Treafurer''s Acconnts, diffinguifhing each Year, ending at Pontcfraa Seffions
reduced to tlie following Heads, with an Account of the Cloths manufadiu-ed each Year, ending at the fame Time. '





Surveying and re
fu.irg Bridge,.


r,gra.,..




P,4„„li,m ,f
Felm.


Ytrk CciJiU.


lk-4,cfC„-
refiiiit.


Morpatfea Sufferer, by
and King', Fire.
Bench Pr'fani.


Ckri


./ Peaee.


LavjBufmeU,
M-v,r„jm,n„,

ye.


TalT,^, '

Riding Charge,^

and Boot,.


Ciief CnjIMe,
Salarie,.


Or.!,,, alM dif-
temfer'd Catl't-


Inqui/itiant of


Mtii'i Fumtliti.


Tm,,/,


./™t


B„ad
Chib,.


tle,rre-,a

a„h,.





■749


1. S. d.
898 10 I


1. s. d.
984 6 6


1. s. d.
48 15 3


I. S. d.

92 5 —


1. s. d.

59 »7 "f


1. s. d.
100 15 II


1. s. d. 1. s. d.
,3 6 .


90


T. dT
18 —


I. 5. d.
82 18 U


1. S. d

34 17 6


1. s. d.
73 8-


1. S.

192 5


d.

10


1. S. d.


1. s. d.


1.
2672


s. d.

4 IlT


60705.
60447!
60964
60724
55358
56070I
57125

3359°!

55777
60396

518771
493625


688S91749
781.5:1750
7+022|i75i
724421I752
7.6.8,753

7239+'i754
762951755
7931811756
77097II757
66396I.75S

655i3|'759
69573'i76o


1750
1751


491 8 5


959 2 4


23 17 6


40 I 7


166 17 li


92 9 —


3 3 415 — -


78


10 3


88 2 10


3+ 10 —


g6 12 2


790 19


7





— —


2880


14 l!


5°5 17 -'


4+^ ' 4:


16 6 6


60 8 85


87 5 6


93 9 9


4 3 —15 — ■


88


19 9


92 2 10


34 10 —


75 '9 6


474 '2


6


— — —





1989


16 5I


.752
■75 J


5S2 10 4


337 1+ b.


22 16


58—6


144 7 ^t


92 19 7


- -|2°- ■


72


3 3


22 4 —


3+ 10 —


77 ■& 4


38+ 12


3





-^ — —


1849


13 Ilj
19 iJ


964 12 3


459 18 5


29 4 9


73 '^ 3


93 '5 4;


■53 6 3




go
81


4 6
17 6


64 10 6


34 10-


87 6 —


366 5


4


79 g 6


— —


2527


'75+


9+2 5 5


50+ 3 "i


30 8 3


149 8 8


107 7 05


99


22 — -


16 3 —


34 15 6


77 '6 4


4'3 5


4


174 II 6





2653


2 Ili


J 755


487 15 2


451 I 1


33 2 3


192 12 7


166 7 7I


98 5 '


— 16 1038 — -


74


14 aI


58 9 -


34 ■» —


78 a 10


265 9


6


150 16 3


_


2130


2 6i


1756


564 16 5


6S1 — 5


56 9 —


169 2 5


'95 IS 3f

■55 — 6s


93 '3 '


I 14 4


83


4 5


14 6 6


34 ■o —


74 8 -


222 I


9


188 g 61


_


2379


n 2j


1757
1758


640 7 10


614 — 6i


7 "3 °


loi 8 5|


95 16 4


17 -


''I


9 10


41 II 2


34 10 —


81 7 '0


7+ 4


5


'+2 3 7





2078


■4 -i


1007


860 2 I or


18 10 6


171 18 li


108 13 fi


III 15 —


5 7 955 10 -


58


10 —


68 2 10


34 'o-


70 ^3 —






163 IS Vi


_ _


2734


9 ■


■759


635 I2_ 6


794 4 7


16 15-


157 6 -I


171 10 si


no 14 9
106 18 7
gi 8 9




20 — -


79


'5 —


38 10 10


34 10 —


g8 18 8






■49 12 8





2307


10 6_


1760


2092 13' 10


615 2 3


42 I 9


'43 ' 2


149 10 4|
13Z II 64:





20 — -


90


II 9


24 8 II


3+ 10 —


8g 9 5






176 10 9


838 12 10


4423


II 7+


1761


US' 15 "


672 4 1


no 12 —


74 9 4


I 14 4


20 — -


104


II 6


32 7 8


34 '0 —


201 18 2






192 12 2


3050 9 10


5S7I


5 3i


48944
48621


7546S
729+6
72096
79458
77419
78893
788,9
74480


I-!6l


1762


561 4 10


610 6 5f


22 6 9


48 II 2i


104 15 9|


89 3 I
96 ig 9


3 9 4





89


" 3


5 5-


34 '0 —


126 17 5






185 8 61


1463 18 8j


33+S


9 Ak


1762
'763
1764
1765
.766
■767


763


1041 I 6


77° " ■'! 22 5 — 1


41 12 I


■49 5 "


3~5 6


25 — -


77


4 —


— — —


34 10 —


no 17 6






181 9 4'


1040 — 3}


3590


18 4


480381


764


858 16 7


1623 13 iij


39 4 3


70 2 8i


105 5 lol


94 18 gi


7 — "


7+


7 —


— 15 g


34 '0 -


■02 13 5


Regifler




191 10 3


24 10 2


3231


4 2}


5+916


765


1543 15 10


643 3 5l


20—3


.45 6 61


97 4 —


\ 'J '





10 — -


^s


15 6


7 2 —


3+ ■»-


97 5 5


Office.




185 18 9


n 17 6


2960


12 5


54660


766


2698 12 -i


486 2 Hi


23 7 6


326 4 4


"■^i 'I 'f


98 8 —


3 8 10


40 — -


128


17 —


14 II g


3+ ■o-


156 16 8


150 14


lOi


201 6 10





4597


13 n


72575;


1767


2580 6 II


598 5 9


44 -8 3


141 3 "


126 8 5{


554 II 3


_ — —




■35


16 g


21 II 9


34 10 —162 IS 9








142 14 -i


' 4 -


4644


6 lof


102428


1768


1703 7 10


421 12 9


40 3 3


99 6 21


79 6 — r '473 3 5


3 8 10


5 - -


■33


12 3


4 II —


34 10 —149 — 9








210 6 4-


I — —


4458


8 8


90036


1768


1769


3+5J 19 —


436 8 2


^9 'I ~1


i55 5 — i


262 12 71 994 17 g


_ — —


53


125


13 3


34 6 I'


34 10 —200 II —








243 4 —





6234


4 9


g2522


87762


1769


1770


3+35 3 —


410 14 9


31 18 6


290 14 s


■37 8 5J


324 4 9





35 — -


■34


3 I


15 II —


34 10 —


Ib7 3 II








182 14 31





5'99


6 2|


93074


85376


1770



C^



Number of Broad Cloths milled each Year at
the feveral FuUing-Mills in the IF'eJi-RIJing
of the County of Tork, from the Commence-
ment of tlie Afl:, viz. 'J tins, ■725, to the
1 2th oi March, nine Months; and of Nar-
row Cloths, from the Commencement of the
Aft, viz. from ift Augufi to 20th Jan. lygS,
being fix Months 20 Days, and from that
Time yearly.



No. of Yards (Pieces being now
of different Lengths) of Broad
and Narrow Cloths made in the
Years ending at Ponlefraa Sef-
Iians, 1769 and 1770.



1769 277



21440.9
1 2255625



[To front p. 404, Vol. I.]



From Ju„,


■725
1726


Broads.


1 Broad>.

1738 42404


Narr,^,.


To March


26671


■4495




1727


2899c


'739430861


5S84S




1728


25223J


I7404I44I


58620




1729


296431


'74146364


61196




1730


3i579i


17+2 4+954


62804




1731


33563


■74345'78i


63545




1732


355+8;


.7441546271


63065




173^


34620


■74550453


63423




17^+


3.123


■746,56637


68775




17:55


317441


1747,62480


68374




1736


38899


1748160765


68080




1737


42256


'





r



THROUGH ENGLAND. 405

Moody erected the moft complete ox-houfe I
remember to have feen. It contains 26
beafts, each in a ftall, which, for large oxen,
are 8 feet wide, and 6 feet for fmaller ones.
At the head of each ftall is a fquare manger
for the hay, which is put in through a
window in the wall, exadlly oppolite the
head of the ox ; and, as the hay-ftacks are
difpofed in a yard along the back of the
building, there is no lofs of time or hay,
by having far to carry it: the man takes it
from the ftack, and puts it, at one ftep, in-
to the manger. On one lide the hay is a
fmall ftone ciftern, by way of trough for
the ox to eat his oil-cake out of; and, on
the other fide, another ftone ciftern for his
water, which is fupplied in a very conve-
nient manner. On the outfide the building
is a pump, which raifes the water into a cif-
tern, exadtly on a level with all thofe which
fupply the oxen. A pipe of lead leads from
this ciftern to all the reft in the houfe ; fo
that the man can fee, by the height of the
water in the pump ciftern, how high it is in
all the reft. The houfe is not .open, like a
fhed, but fliut quite up : in the doors are
holes, to let in air ; but Aiding Abutters cor-
D d 3 relpond



fc»-



4o6 THE FARMER'S TOUR

refpond with them, to exclude it at pleafure.
At one end of the building is a fmall room
for the oil cakes, and alfo a ftove, with a
broad iron top, for laying on the cakes to
heat a little for breaking : a wooden anvil
flands by it, upon which they are broken
with much eafe when warm.

Mr. Moody generally puts up thofc beafts
that have had the fummer's grafs : a large
fort, from 80 to 130 ftone : they are taken
to the cakes about the beginning of Novem-
ber^ and are fold, quite fat, by the 20th of
March^ in a general way, but many before.
If the hearts are fmaller, they need not be fo
forw^ard : if they are only frefh in flefh,
they will be completely fat by that time.

The price of cakes vary much ; but they
have, of late, been about 4 /. i o j. a ton, be-
fides 5 s, carriage : this is an high price. Mr.
Moody thinks it will not bear, at the iitmofl,
more than 5/. he would never fatten, if it
was higher. ,

The cake is given regularly three times a
day : at feven in the morning, at twelve at
noon, and at half an hour after four in the
afternoon : this in ihort days ; but, in

longer>



THROUGH ENGLAND. 407

onger, it is at fix in the morning, at twelve
at noon, and at fix in the afternoon.

Mr. Moody is, in one particular, very fin-
gular : it is a general opinion, that oxen are
fo hot when fat, that they fhould be allowed
much air, and accordingly open fheds have
been recommended. On the contrary, this
gentleman is clearly of opinion, that the
hotter they are kept, the better they will
fatten. He keeps them {hut up, and, for


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 19 of 23)