Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) online

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vating than 5/. per acre/'tT annum.

In this cafe we often fee an extravagant
fon of W/jtie^ of ten times more ufe to his
country than the gentleman of regularity
and moderation : his rents fly with the
dice ; dov/n he comes into the country, and
raifes to the utmoft. No farmers will agree
for a rent they cannot pay, they are too
good calculators for that — the confequence
is, that his eftate is let at its highefl: value :
tiii^is but another word for good hufl^an-
iliV, for that which is bad will not pay great-
rents. Thus is the dice-box in this inftance^^
of ten times more value to the nation than^
the fleeping, dronifh ftate of vegetation
in which fo many landlords are content to
di'awl on, and not raife rents, becaufe their
grandmothers did not. ,^

Mr. Mundcy has been very curious in his
breed of cattle ; he has fold cows at 25/.
apiece ; and has at prefent feveral head of
valuable cattle ; but he remarks, that this
ciR-ious breed is by no means favourable to.

milking



I



THROUGH ENGLAND. i6?

iTiilkIng, 4 7 gallons per day being the uN
rnoft he has arrived at.

I fhould give the farmers of this neighbour-
hood credit for thr^e circumftances : they
buy dung, &c. at Derby at 2 s. 6 d, or 3 x.
a load ; they form comports of lime and
earth for grafs lands ; and a fpiky roller is a
common implement among them.

For the following particulars of the huf-
bandry about Radbourn^ the feat of Colonel
Pole^ I am indebted to that gentleman, who
took every meafure for procuring me the
beft intelligence.

The foil is a fine rich mellow clay, either
Ted or black ; falls in the weather in fuch
a degree as to fhew that it is not too adhe-
five ; and from the vaft crops of thiftles
yielded by it, on the fallows^ we may be
clear in its fertility.

Farms rife from 20 A to 150/. a year,
but generally from 70 to 109/. Thp
^ourfes of crops are,

I. Fallow — 2. Wheat — 3. Beans,

Alfo,
\. Fallow— 2. Barley — 3. Beans.

M 2 Likewiffy



j64 the farmer's TOUR

Likewifcj

1. Fallow 3. Clover, 2 years

2. Barley on ftrong land.

Andy

I. Fallow — 2. Wheat — 3. Oats or peafe.

They plough four times for wheat, fow 2
bufhels, and gain 23 on an average. For
barley they give the fame tillage, fow 4
bufhels before Lady-day^ and gain 5 4- quar^
ters on an average. They ftir but once for
oats ; fow 4 \ bufhels ; and reckon the
mean crop at 6 quarters.

They plough but once for beans, fow 4
bufhels an acre, never hoe them ; the crop
3 4 quarters.

They fow a few turnips, but, fhame ht
unto them, never ufe a hoe.

In refped to manuring, it is at a very
low pafs ; they never fold their fheep, know
nothing of chopping flubbles, and flack
mofl of their hay about the fields ; with
fuch management it is impoffible that this?
farm-yard fhould yield any thing confider-
able. Lime they feem moft to depend upon,
they lay from 2 to 3 waggon loads an acre,
at 1 4 J. a load the cofl, and 15^. carriage;



\



THROUGH ENGLAND. 165

{0 that the total expence is about 3 /. i o j,
or 4/. per acre. It lafts good 7 or 8 years.

Draining is very little known.

The hedges are done in the plafhing
method, and fome of them neatly, but their
ditches are contemptible.

Good grafs lets at i6j. an acre, and as
the tenant pays taxes, it amounts to near
20s, They apply it to mowing, grazing,
milking, and horfes.

My information ran that 2 i- or 3 acres are
neceflary for feeding a cow through fum-
mer ; but this is exaggerated ; I know from
viewing the fields that no fuch quantity is
requiiite. The breed of cattle is all the
long-horned Lancejhire. The average quan-
tity of milk about 2 gallons.

The profit of a good cow they lay as foU
lows ;

I Cow, 3 cw^t. cheefe, at 3 ox. 4 10 o
• Butter, - - - o 10 o

Calf, - - - 070

Per cow, ' - Cs 1 ^



In the breeding way, they ufually rear by

turning cow and calf to grafs together ; but

M 3 they



166 THE FARMER'S TOUR

they put two calves to one cow. The valu^
of ox hides vary, but are generally at 3 d. t'
a pound. Colonel Pole has fold them of*
i'^/^lb. being 2/; 14/. 8//.

The flocks of (heep are inconfiderable j
the profit they reckon at 3 s. lamb, and i sy
6 d, wool : but they keep them in winter en
grafs alone. The w^eight of the fleeces
from 2 7 to 6 II?. Refpeding the rot, it is
here obferved, that limeftone rots much ; it
is aflerted pofitively, that you may make
any land rot fheep by liming it : they haA'e
fheep fometimes rotted at home ; the land
ferfedly free from fpringS.

In their tillage they life 5 hoffcs in a
plough ; do 3 rood a day, about 4 inches
deep: the hiring price 7/. ati acre*. The
annual expence of a horfe they reckon at
about 9/. Cutting ftraw into chaff is very
well known. They never breik up their
nubbles till after fpring fowing, and ufe
only fwing ploughs ; rather too heavy, tut
of a beitei' conftrudlion than many in the
kingdom.

In the hiring farms, they reckon four
ihsiits neceflary to Aock.

i Land



THROUGH ENGLAND. 167

Land fells at from 35 to 40 years pur-

thafe.

Tythes are compounded per acre ; wheat

pays 5 s. barley 5 s. oats 2s.6d. grafs is. 2d,
Poor rates 9 d. in the pound ; the em-
ployment fpinning flax: All drink tea
twice a day. The farmers carry their corn
II or 12 miles.

LABOUR.

In harveft, i j-. 3 ^. and board*
In hay-time, the fame.
In winter, i s. and beer.
Reaping wheat, ys. to 8/.
Mowing barley and oats, i j". 6 d,

grafs, I J-. 6d. and beer.

Ditching, 7 ^. a rood.
Threfhing wheat, 2 s.
• barley, i /. 6d,

' oats, I s,

peafe, i x. to u. 2 d.

Amount of a year's earnings, 17/.

The rife of labour half in twenty years.

Head-man's wages, 9/. to 10 ^

Next ditto, 7/.

Lad's, 4/,

Maid's, 4/.

WomQnper day in harveft, i s, and beer.

M 4 Womea



i68 THE FARMER^s TOUR

Women per day, in hay-time, 8 d, and beer,
■ — — in winter, 8^.

IMPLEMENTS,
A waggon, 20/.
A cart, 8 /.

A plough complete, i /. i j.
A pair of harrows, i /. is,
A roller, 7 j. to 8 s,
Harnefs per horfe, 3 /.
Laying a fhare, 8 d,
"■ I ■ coulter, 8^.

PROVISIONS.

Bread, per lb. i d,
Cl^eefe, - - 4

Butter, - - 6
Beef, - - 34.
Mutton, - • 34.
Veal, - .3'
Bacon, - « 5
?^ilk, - - o 4 ^/. a pint.
Potatoes, - - 6 ^. a peck.
Candles, - - 6 a /($.
Soap, - . 6 (jitj-Q^
Labourer*s houfe-rent, 20j. to 40 j,
■ ! ■■' . ' - firing, I /. 10 J.

f!—- tools, 7 /. 6 ^.

BUILD-



THROUGH ENGLAND. 169

BUILDING.

Bncks per 1000, 12 s.

Tiles, 1 6 J.

Oak per foot, i J-. 4//. to is. 8^.

Afli, IS, 4^.

Elm, IJ-.

A carpenter a day, is, 4^, and board.

A mafon, ditto.

A thatcher, i s. and board.

The ;following are particulars of farms.



£■


100 Rent


7 Oats


■f-'


10 Horfes


20 Peafe and beans


t


27 Cows


20 Fallow


1


1 Young cattle


3 Men




40 Sheep


I Maid




12 Acres of wheat


2 Labourers.




6 Barley






Another :




6 Horfes


5 Barley




20 Cows


8 Oats




JO Young cattle


8 Peafe and beans




50 Sheep


I Boy




5 x\cres of wheat


I Maid.




Another :


C


240 Rent


100 Sheep




12 Horfes


20 Acres of wheat




50 Cows


30 Oats




40 Young cattle


20 Peafeandbeans




2


JO Fallow



170 THE FARMER'S TOUR

10 Fallow 2 Maids

9 Men 6 Labourers.

I Boy
Colonel Pole * has been for fome years
attentive to his breed of cattle : he keeps
only the fine Lancajloire long horned kind,
of which he has fome cows, and young
cattle of his own breeding that do him cre-
dit j-

* Radburn, the feat of that gentleman, lis
Very be::iitifully fituated on one of the higheft
grounds in the Ibuth parts of 'Derby fl)ire\ com-
manding very extenfive views into Letcejler-
Jloire-i IVarivick/hire, Staffordjhire, Chejhtre^ &c.
and from being well Iheltered by plantations,
and very fine woods, it is not at all bleak. -The
houfe is an excellent living onej remarkably
well contrived ; as will appear from the follow-
ing difpofition of the apartments. The body
of the houfe, exclufive of offices, forms an ob-
long of 90 feet by 6c,.

The hall (A) is 37 feet by 30, and 19 high; op-
polite the door are four Ionic pillars, which reduce
the area to 30 fquare. It is neatly fitted up in ftucco.

It opens on the left into a breakfafl room (B),
25 by 20 i and on the right into the library (C),
of the fame dimenfions ; thefe three rooms form-
ing one fide of the houfe.

The hall in front opens into the falcon (D)
or dining-room, o^c^ by 23, and that to the left
into a drawing room (E) 22 4- by 2o|: on the

right




-^0^4



Plaan.pa.2yo.YolJ.




THllOUGri ENGLANI). 171

dit ; lie keeps the cow calves for ftock, and
the others for oxen to fat, of which he has
generall)' feveral that are very fine ; but he
finds that this breeds lb much valued at
prefent, is by no means favourable to the
dairy, for the quantity of milk given by
the fineft cows is very trifiing. I mull

here



right it opens into Mrs. Pole*s drefling-room
(Jh), of the lame fize.

The ipace on the left fide, between the draw-
ing-room and breakfafr-room, is occupied with
the principal ftair-cafe (G), the area 27 by 15;
land that on the other fide between the library
and the drefllng room, by a back iiair-cafe (H);
and a bed-chamber (I), 124- by 154-.. From
hence it app.^ars that the difpofition of the rooms

renders the houfe perfe6lly convenient : the

hall communicates with every room on the floori,
The bed-chamber opens on one fide to the drelT-
ing-foom, and ori the other to the ftudy ; and
the former ahb to the dining-room, and fo to
the drawing-room.

The communication with the offices is by the
back-ftairs, which are clofe to the dining-room j
and the drefiing-room opens by a corridor at *
to fervants chambers, &c. &c. The annexed
plan will (hew this clearly ; I infert it for the
ufe of thofe who are at a lofs in the contriving
new houfes •, which may often be fuppofed the cafe,
from the numbers we fee that are full of faults.
See Plate II..



172 THE FARMER'S TOUR

here be allowed to obferve, that the Colo-.
nel's wheat crop was as fine as any I faw
in that part of Derbyjhirey and much better
than his neighbours : He is preparing for
4 acres of cabbages by much tillage and
plenty of manure ; and is determined to
take every m.eans for extirpating ant-hills
and thiftles, not only from his own fields,
but alfo from his tenants *.

At Longfordm this neighbourhood, the feat
oiWenmati Cooke ^ efq; I had the uncommon

fatis-



* It was an obfervation made in the laft century,
that the attention given to huftandry by the officers
who had led fo adlivc a life during the civil wars, was
what advanced the hufbandry of this kingdom in an
uncommon manner : fomething of this is obfervablc
in many military gentlemen, who made a confpicuous
figure in the late glorious war. A country life of idle-
nefs ill fucceeds the hurry and fpirit of fo many cam-
paigns i no employment more proper than hufbandry,
which in all ages has been the bufmefs of heroes.
Colonel Pole is an honourable jnftance of a change
from war to agriculture j he has long trod the field of
Mars with fpirit : I have little doubt but he will now
facrifice to Ceres with equal ardour. Six campaigns

in Flanders ; fix more in Germany : fhut up

with Lord Blakeney in the caftle of St. Phillip's^ and pre-
fent in the fuppreffion of the rebellion of 1745——
have been to this galant officer hot fcenes of adlion :
Shot through the head at Fontenoy ; and twice wounded
on the plains of Minden^ have left him the honourable
marks of bravery exerted in the fcrvice of his country^



THROUGH ENGLAND. 173

^atisfadion of feeing a team of oxen in har-
nefs. That gentleman, who is one of the
moft fpirited farmers in DerbyfJjirey is the
firft who has drawn them in this manner ;
he ufes fixteen ; and ^nds that they draw
with much greater power than in yoaks,
the method in which he firft tried them ;
they move much fafter, and are more handy
and convenient : he executes all his plough-
ing and home carting with them, at much
lefs expence than the fame could be per-
formed by horfes, or by oxen in yoaks : a
ftriking proof of this, is his ploughing as
much land in a day with 3 oxen, as the
farmers do with 4 or 5 horfes ; a difpro-
portion fo amazingly great that it decides
the point at once, and in the cleared man-
ner. He feeds them in fummer on grafs
alone ; and in winter on ftraw, on which
he works them moderately ; but if hard,
then they have hay, or feme turnips. The
harnefs is much the fame as that for horfes,
excepting the collars opening to be buckled
on, and alfo to their being worn in the con-
trary manner to horfes, that is, the narrow
end of the collars which open, being down-
wards, — and as the chains are faftened to

them



%j4 THE FARMER^s TOUR

them in the fame direcSbion as in horfe har-r
oefs, the beafts of courfe draw much higher
than horfes : the line of the chains is almoft
up to their backs ; but much above the
cheil ; this variation Mr. Cooke thinks
neceffary from the different Ihape of horfes
and oxen ; and it is a circumftance deferv-.
ing attention from all who may be inclined
to follow this very ufeful " example. I faw
a team drawing a heavy load of bricks ;
and obferyed that not one horfe team in ten
out-walked them. The drivers aiTured me
that they worked much better than yoaked,
drawed a greater v^^eight, and were far more
eafily managed. One great benefit of this
method, exclufive of the inereafed power,
is the placing them in a fmgle line inflead
of a double one, which in fomc forts of
ploughing ig extremely ufeful : Indeed, in
general, the nearer the team is to the weight,
the greater its power ; but this is not the
jcafe with oxen yoaked, owing merely to
that aukward untoward way of drawing ;
for it is well known to gill ox drivers, that
the beafts cannot exert their full force, from
the inequality between'the couples, as it is
i:piT]imon for one beafl to make jts fellow

dra^



THROUGH ENGLAND. 175

draw all ; an inconvenience totally removed
in Mr. Cookers method.

I cannot but earneftly recommend this
very great improvement to all who are de-
lirous of working oxen ; and particularly to
thofe who imagine, but falfely, that they
cannot move as fail as horfes ; that they
cannot draw an equal weight-— and that in
ploughing they trample the land more. All
which ideas, however true they might be in
refpedt to the yoaks, are undoubted mil-
takes if applied to the harnefled beads.—
Mr. Ccoke deferves much of his country for
the introduction of fo excellent a method ;
which I fhould apprehend fufficient with
unprejudiced perfons to give the preference
to oxen, notwithftanding all the common
ideas in favour of horfes.

Mr. Cooke has built a very convenient
farm^-yard ; and offices of all forts for win-
tering cattle : there are feveral diviiions in
it for different forts ; all furrounded with
open flieds, under which they have their
hay, or turnips ; and in the area draw is
given in cribs : by thefe means the quantity
of manure raifed is very great. His con-
vcniencies for hogs are alfo very ufeful ; a

ftream



176 THE FARMER'S TOtJR

ftream conftantly runs thro' the fties j and
the meat is given thro* the wall, without
going in among them, from a ciftern at
one end of the outward yard.

There is one circumftance worthy the
obfervation of all who build farm-yards ;
and which does not feem to have been per-
fedly attended to in the contrivance of this :
all the divifions are on one flope, for car-
rying off all water : but the urine of cattle
is the moft valuable part of their manure ;
rain will always prevent the keeping it
among the dung ; becaufe the refervoir will
run over ; but a yard fhould always have a
flope to the middle to retain much, and the
overflowings fhould be condudted to a well,
to be pumped at pleafure on to a large com-
pofl within the reach of a long trough turn-
ing under the mouth of a pump on a pivot*
Conduifting it by a kennel to a paflure to
overflow it is very infuflicient, for parts of
fuch pafture will have ten times too much,
other parts too little, and fome none at all.
it is a very good way to accelerate the pu-
trefadion of the yard dung to have one well
within reach of the compoft in the middle
of the yard fo as, at pleafure, to throw it

back



THROUGH ENGLAND.



17'



back through the mafs of dung ; this will
very much quicken the rotting ; and it will
be better ftill, if a layer of marie or turf
be fpread in the yard in autumn. — I may
alfo remark that the attention to the cleanli-
nefs of the hog-fties, of carrying a ftream
through them, wafhes away the beft part of
their manure j they may by plenty of flraw
be kept clean without it.

Mr. Cooke has given much attention to
the introduction of the Norfolk hufbandry
in Derby fmre ; and particularly to the cul-
ture of turnips, with proper hoeing : this
very important objed, he has taken the
proper method to render general ; he prac-
tifes it himfelf : fows large quantities, and
hand-hoes them perfedly, which is a flroke
much beyond the farmers of this part of
DerbyJJjire : but the vaft benefit this root is
of to their landlords, cannot fail of opening
their eyes by degrees.

The forming compofts this gentleman
attends particularly to ; he carts lime and
farm-yard dung into his marie pits, and
there mixes them with marie ; and after-
wards fpreads the heap on his grafs land ;
from which he finds great benefit : but I

Vol. I. N Ihould



178 THE farmer's tour

{hould obferve, that the excellence refults
principally from the dung and lime ; for as
to the red loam, here complimented with
the title of marie, it is a mere loam : it has
none of the qualities of marie ; has not the
leaft effervefcence with acids, and does not
crack or fparkle, when thrown into the fire .
not having fyrup of violets, I did not try it
in the changing of colour : but it is cer-
tainly mere loam. '

Mr. Cooke merits much of his country
from his conftant attention to thefe matters ;
which cannot fail of having by degrees a
beneficial influence on the hufbandry of
Derbyfiire,

Sir Robert Burdet, at Formark * fouth of
^renty has made fome experiments in huf-
bandry



* Sir Robert has lately built a large houfe
that place : It is an oblong •, the corners projei
ting enough to form bow windows, and ai
domed : in the center of the principal front, is
portico fupported by four Ionic pillars. It com-
mands an extenfive profpedl over the vale througf
which the ^rent runs ; and being well unii
with fome fine woods, has a good effedl. Th(
biick front (which is very light and handfome^
looks on fome hanging hills crowned by diftani

plantations



THROUGH ENGLAND. 179

bandry that deferve attention : He laft year
planted a rood of cabbages, on a rich gra-
velly loam, perfedly well manured with
lime and dung, and dug 2 fpits deep. They
were fet the firft week in April \ in fquares
three feet every way ; and kept quite free
from weeds by hand-hoeing : they came to
a very large fize, many of them to 50 lb.
and in general from 30 to Aplb. The ufe
of them proved the immenfe quantity. In

Odiober



plantations -, fome of them are young, but in a
few years will fhew themfelves to great advantage.
The hall is 52 feet by 26. It opens on one fide
into the principal apartments ; confifling of a
dining-room, 30 by 21 ; a drawing-room, 28 by
21 ; and another, 34 by 21 : on this fide of the
hall is likewife the great ftair-cafe. Thefe rooms
are handfomcly fitted up : the chimney-pieces

very elegant. On the other fide, the hall

opens into the common parlour, 30 by 20, and
;that into the library, 20 fquare. Here is a very
good piflure of the Holy Family of the fchool of
Raphael \ the colours are brilliant-, the group
good ; and the air of the old man's head fine.
Alfo fome Dutch pieces j the attitudes in which
jare very natural. It communicates with the
:bed-chamber of the fame dimenfions ; and that
opens into the lady's drefllng-room, 20 by 21,
united on the other fide to the hall by an anti-
room, 12 by 10, adjoining to which is another
N 2 itair-



i8o THE FARMER'S TOUR

OBobcr he began to cut them for eight
large oxen, that had been fatting through
the liimmer ; they were given in i. grafs
field, but fo bare of food that the cabbages
were the only fubfiftence ; they lafted them
two months ; nor did ever beafts finifh their
fatting quicker or better. Some fheep were
put to them, but they did not like them,
however, being afterwards put into the cab-
bage inclofure, they eat the fcattered leaves

clean,



ftair-cafe. The family apartment is therefore
diftinft on one i'lde the hall, and perfeftly well
contrived for convenience -, and the principal fuite
of rooms on the other. The height of all the floors
1 6 feet: over it are eight bed-chambers, 2C
fquare.

The pleafure ground (which is not yet com-
pleted) is very beautiful. A v/inding walk leads
from the houfe through a wood of very fine
oaks, down a falling valley to the banks of the
^rznt^ and turns up a cliff of rock and wood,
which is one of the greateft curiofities in this
country ; the river has nowhere fo bold and ro-
mantic a fhore. The rocks are perpendicular
and of a good height, and the intermixture of
wood extremely romantic ; hanging over the
cliffs in fome places in a ftriking manner, and
almoft overfhadovving the water. The walk is,
to be conducted along the edge of the precipice,|
and will look down on the river winding beneath,]
3 througl



THROUGH ENGLAND. i8i

;li ; clean, and pared away the very ftalks down
to the ground. We may calculate the

lis I value of the crop as follows :

?S' 8oxen, at 3.r.^frhead, ^t'r week, 9 12 o
Suppofe the fheep - - 050

Total, - - ^. 9 17 o

Which is /fr acre, - - jC- 39 ^ o



The vaftnefs of the produce made me
very felicitous to know the fort ; it is the

great



through the fcattered wood in a very fine Itile :
a noble profpedl of the furrounding country well
diverliiied by villages, will break upon the eye
through natural openings among the trees. . It
is to run quite through this woody precipice,
and leadingr along a vale at the end of it thicklv
planted -, will then mount a bold hill free of
rocks, and wind thro' a plantation thick enough
to exclude the view of the river, &c. until it
arrives at the fummit, which is a very fine pro-
Jeftion ; here it will open at once from the dark
wood into a temple, inftantly commanding, as
by enchantment, one of the richeu: views in the
world. Beneath you at a great depth, '".e Trent
makes a very'bold fweep, and winding ''. ough
the valley, all richly inclofed, and of a fine ,er-
dure, it appears at different fpots in the moit
pleafing manner. To the left you command a
fine ber^d of it, which leads to a village with a
N 3 white



i82 THE FARMER'S TOUR

great North American cabbage. Sir Robert\
crop was not near equal to feveral others
which he named ; who had them in com-
mon up to 60, 65, and even 70//^. weight
per cabbage. Among others, he mentioned
Mr. Milner, of SeckingtQn, Warwickjhire,
and I heard a fimilar account in Northamp~
tonfiire. Sir Robert has this year planted
the fame rood again with them ; which I
viewed, nor do I ever remember to have
feen fuch plants ; they were (the firft week
in July) quite joined, and fome of them fo
enormoufly large, and fpreading in immenfe
leaves, that they extended near 6 feet over ;
nor has he any doubt of many coming tq
70/^.; which, from the appearance of the
plants, I do not think improbable. What
an acquifition will this plant prove in huf-
bandry, to yield fo aftonifhing a quantity

of food ! But I fhould here remark, that

thefe



white church rifing from the midft of it : and at
fome diftp.nce beyond, it again is caught among
the inclofures, beautifully fringed with trees and
hedge-rows. You alfo look back on the rocky
lleep of wood, rifing pi6lurefquely from the
water's edge. There are few views finer than
this ; f'"om hence, the plantations unite with
c rher:: that conduft you again to the houfe.



1



THROUGH ENGLAND. 183

thefe very large cabbages were all in perfec-
tion the beginning of OJober ; nor will any
of the crop laft longer than 'January. This
in all probability is owing to being planted
fo early as April \ if fet at Midfwnmer^ it
would then be feen how late in the fpring
they could be had : of the Scotch fort, the
crops on fine land are nearly equal ; if fb
with the North American, the acquifition


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 1) → online text (page 9 of 23)