Asa Gray.

Gray's lessons in botany and vegetable physiology online

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axillary or terminal racemes, often panicled, and 2 or 3 from each bract, purple
or purplish, often turning green in withering. Stipules and bracts scale-like,
often striate. (Name from Setr/ioy, a bond or chain, from the connected joints of
the pods.)

$ 1 . Pod raised on a stalk (stipe) many times longer than the slightly toothed calyx
and nearly as long as the pedicel, straightish on the upper margin, deeply sinuate on
the lower; the 1 -4 joints mostly ha/f-obovate, concave on the back : stamens mona-
delphous below : plants nearly glabrous : stems erect or ascending : raceme terminal,
panicled: stipules bristle-form, deciduous.

1. D. iilldifloriizii, DC. Leaves all crowded at the summit of the sterile
stems ; leaflets broadly ovate, bluntish, whitish beneath ; raceme elongated, on a

prolonged ascending leafless stalk or scape from the root, 2 long. Dry woods ;
common. Aug.

2. I>. acil Illi II sktll 111, DC. Leaves all crowded at the summit vf the stem,
from which arises the elongated naked raceme or panicle ; leaflets round-ovate, taper-
pointed, green both sides, the end one round (4' - 5' long). Rich woods. July.

3. D. pailCifldrum, DC. Leaves scattered along the low (8 1 - 15' high)
ascending stems ; leaflets rhombic-ovate, bluntish, pale beneath ; raceme few-
flowered, terminal. Woods, W. New York and Penn. to Illinois and south-
westward. Aug.

2. Pod short-stalked, of 3-5 joints : calyx-teeth longer than the tube : stipule i
ovate, striate, pointed, persistent : stems prostrate : racemes axillary and terminal,
small, scarcely panicled.

4. I>. Immifusum, Beck. Smoothish; leaflets ovate or oval; stipule*
ovate-lanceolate ; pods slightly sinuate along the upper margin, the joints obtusely
triangular. Woods, E. Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, rare. Aug. Re-
sembles the next.

5. D. rotunclifolilim, DC. Hairy all over; leaflets orbicular, or the
odd one slightly rhomboid ; stipules large, broadly ovate ; pods almost equally
sinuate on both edges ; the joints rhomboid-oval. Dry rocky woods. Aug.

4 S. Pod slightly if at all stalked in the calyx ; the teeth of the latter longer than tht
tube : racemes panicled.



100 LEGUMINOSiE. (PULSE F AM FLY.)

w Stums tall and erect ; the persistent stipules ami (deciduous) bracts large and con-
tpicuou8,1tvixte or ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed: pods of 4- 7 unequal-sided rhom-
bic joints, which are considerably longer than broad, about $' long. (Flower*
ratlier large.)

6. D. caiiescens, DC. Stem loosely branched (3 -5 high), hairy;
leaflets ovate, bluntish, about the length of the petioles, whitish and reticulated beneath,
both sides roughish with a close-pressed fine pubescence ; joints of the pod very
adhesive. Moist grounds, Vermont to Michigan, Illinois, and southward.
Aug. Branches clothed with minute and hooked, and long spreading rathei
glutinous hairs.

7. D. CUSpidatum, Ton-. & Gray. Very smooth throughout; stem
straight ; leaflets lanceolate-ovate and taper-pointed, green both sides ; longer than
the petiole (3' -5') ; joints of the pod rhomboid-oblong, smoothish. Thickets
July. The conspicuous bracts and stipules |' long.

* # Stems (2 -5 high) erect: stipules as well as the bracts mostly deciduous, smaR
and inconspicuous : pods of 3-5 triangular or half-rhombic or very unenual-sidea
rhomboidal joints, which are longer than broad, ' or less in length. (Flowers mid-



8. D. krviKatiim, DC. Smooth or nearly so throughout ; stem straight ;
leaflets ovate, bluntish, pale beneath (2' -3' long); panicles minutuly rough-
pubescent. Pine woods, New Jersey and southward.

9. D. Viridiflorilin, Beck. Stem very downy, rough at the summit,
leaflets broadly ovate, very obtuse, rough above, whitened with a soft velvty doum
underneath (2' -3' long). .S. New York and southward. Aug.

10. D. Dilleilii, Darlingt. Stem pubescent; leaflets oblong or ol>lcng-orafe t
commonly bluntish, pale beneath, softly and finely pubescent (mostly thin, 2' -3
long). Open woodlands, common. Aug.

11. D. panicillatUHl, DC. Nearly smooth throughout; stem slender ,
leaflets oblong-lanceolate, or narrowly lanceolate, tapering to a blunt point, thin (3'-L
long) ; racemes much panic-led. Copses, common. July.

12. I>. Strictlim, DC. Smooth; stem very straight and slender, simple,
leaflets linear, blunt, strongly reticulated, thicki&k (l'-2'long, tf wide) ; panicle
wand-like ; joints of the pod 1-3, scmi-obovatc or very gibbous (only 2" long)
Pine woods of New Jersey, and southward. Aug.

* * * Sti/niles small and inconspicuous, mostly deciduous : pods of few roundish or
oMiqualy oral or sometimes roundish-rhomboidal joints, l$" to 2" lono.
Stems erect: bracts before flowering conspicuous: racemes densely flowered.

',3. D. Caiiadcnse, DC. Stem hairy (3 -6 high); lifl<ts oblong-
Itincwkite, or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, with numerous Btraightuh vrius, much
lunger than the petiole (l'-3' long) ; flowers sJiowy, larger than in any other
species (' - 1' long). Dry, rich woods, common, especially northward. Aug.

14. I), srssilifoliuiii, Torr. & Gray. Stem pubescent (2 -4 high);
leaves n << irly .srW/r , It-nflrts lhiir or linear-oblong, blunt, thickish, reticulated,
rough above, downy bi-ncath ; branches of the panicle long , Jh'trrs small.
Copses Pcnn.and Michigan to Illinois and southward. Aug.



LEGtJMINOS^E. (TULSK FAMILY.) 101

-*- Stems ascending (l-3 high): bracts small; racemes or panicles elongate*
and loosely flowered : flowers small.

15. D. rigifllllll, DC. Stem branching, somewhat hoary, like the lowei
surface of the leaves, with a close roughish pubescence ; leaflets ovate-oblong,
blunt, thickish, reticulated-veiny, rather rough above, the lateral ones longer rtan
the petiole. Dry hill-sides, Mass, to Michigan, Illinois, and southward. Aug.
Intermediate, as it were, between No. 16 and No. 10.

16. D. Cilittrc, DC. Stem slender, hairy or rough-pubescent ; haves crowded,
en very short hairy petioles ; leaflets round-ovate or oval, thickish, more or less hairy
on the margins and underneath (|-'-l' long). Dry hills arid sandy fields;
common, especially southward. Aug.

17. D. Mariliilldicillll, Boott. Nearly smooth throughout, slender;
leaflets ovate or roundish, very obtuse, thin, the lateral ones about the length of the
slender petiole^: otherwise as No. 16. (D. obtusum, DC.) Copses, common.
July - Sept.

- -i - t- Steins reclining or prostrate; racemes loosely flowered.

18. D. lincatuin, DC. Stem minutely pubescent, striate-angled ; leaflets
orbicular, smoothish ('-!' long), much longer than the petiole; pod not
stalked. Virginia and southward.

18. L.ESPEBEZA, Michx. BUSH-CLOVER.

<Jalyx 5-cleft, the lobes nearly equal, slender. Stamens diadclphous (9 & 1) :
anthers all alike. Pods of a single 1 -seeded joint (sometimes 2-jointed, with
the lower joint empty and stalk-like), oval or roundish, flat, reticulated.
Perennials with pinnately 3-foliolate leaves, not stipcllate. Stipules and bracts
minute. Flowers often polygamous (Dedicated to Lespedez, the Spanish
governor of Florida when Michaux visited it.)
fc Flowers of two sorts, the larger (violet-purple) perfect, but seldom fniitful, panicled

or clustered; with smaller pistillate and fertile but mostly apetalous ones intermixed }

or in subsessile little clusters.

1. !< procuifilfoeilS, Michx. Soft-doivny, except the upper surface of
the leaves, trailing, slender; leaflets oval or elliptical ; peduncles slender, mostly
simple, few-flowered. Sandy soil, commonest southward. Aug. The apet-
alous fertile flowers, as in the rest, have short hooked styles.

2. E. re peilS, Torr. & Gray. Smooth, except minute close-pressed scattered
hairs, prostrate, spreading, very slender; leaflets oval or obovate-elliptical ('
long); peduncles slender and few-flowered; pods roundish. Dry sandy soil,
S. New York to Kentucky and southward. Much like the last.

3. It. violiYcea, Pers. Stems upright or spreading, branched ; leaflets
varying from oval-oblong to linear, whitish-downy beneath with close-pressed
pubescence; peduncles or clusters few-flowered ; pods ovate. The principal vari-
eties are, 1. DIVERGENS, with oval or oblong leaflets and loosely panicled
flowers; this runs into, 2. SESSILIFLORA, with the flowers principally on pe-
duncles much shorter than the leaves, and clustered ; and a more distinct form
ie, 3. ANQDSTiFtiLiA. with closely clustered flowers on straight branches






102 LEGUMINOS^E. (PULSE FAMILY.)



crowJcd leaves, and narrowly oblong or linear leaflets, which are often silky.
Dry copses, common. Aug. - Sept. Pods ripening from both sorts of flowers.

4. L,. Stlkvei, Nutt. Stems upright-spreading, bushy, downy ; leaflets oval
or roundish, longer than the petiole, silky or white-woolly beneath (and sonu^
times above); clusters many -flowered, crowded; pods ovate, downy. Dry lulls,
and sand, Plymouth, Mass, to Virginia, Michigan, and southward. Appear-
ing intermediate between No. 3 and No. 5.

* * Flowers all alike and perfect, in close spikes or heads: corolla whitish or cream-
color with a purple spot on the standard, about the length of the downy calyx: stems
upright, wand-like (2 -4 high).

5. L. liil'f a, Ell. Peduncles longer than the leaves ; petioles slender : leaflets
roundish or oval, hairy ; spikes cylindrical, rather hose ; pods nearly as long as
the calyx. (L. polystachia, Michx.} Dry hill-sides. Aug., Sept.

6. L.. capftata, Michx. Peduncles and petioles short; leaflets elliptical
or oblong, thickish, reticulated and mostly smooth above, silky beneath ; sjrike*
or heads short ; pods much shorter than the calyx. Varies greatly, most of
all in var. ANGUSTIF6LIA : slender; leaflets linear ; peduncles sometimes elon-
gated. Dry and sandy soil ; the narrow variety only found near the coast and
southward. Sept. Stems woolly, rigid.

19. STYLOSANTHES, Swartz. PENCIL-FLOWER.

Flowers of two kinds intermixed in the clusters ; one sort complete but un-
fruitful ; the other fertile, and consisting only of a pistil between 2 bractlets.
Culyx with a slender tube like a stalk, 2-lipped at the summit ; upper lip 2-, the
lower 3-cleft. Stamens monadelphous : 5 of the anthers linear, the 5 alternate
ones ovate. Fertile flowers with a hooked style. Pod reticulated, 1 -2-jointed ;
the lower joint when present empty and stalk-like, the upper ovate. Low
perennials, branched from the base, with pinnately 3-foliolate leaves ; the stipules
united with the petiole. (Name composed of orvAos, a column, and avdos. a
flower, from the stalk-like calyx-tube.)

1. S. Clatior, Swartz. Tufted, low, often bristly, wiry ; leaflets lancco
late, strongly straight-veined; heads or clusters small and few-flowered. Pine
barrens, Long Island to Virginia and southward. Also Illinois. Vasey. July-
Oct. Flowers small, yellow.

2O. YICIA, Tourn. VETCH. TARE.

Calyx 5-cleft or 5-toothed, the 2 upper teeth often shorter. Style threaa-
ghaped, hairy all round the apex or down the outer side (next the keel). Pod
2-valved, 2 - several-seeded. Stamens diadelphous, 9 & 1. Seeds globular.
Cotyledons very thick, remaining under ground in germination. Climbing
herbs. Leaves abruptly pinnate, the petiole terminating in a tendril. Stipules
usually half arrow-shaped. (The old Latin name.)

* Annual : flowers 1 - 2 in the axils, nearly sessile, large, violet-purple.

\. V. SAtlvA, L. (COMMON VETCH or TARE.) Somewhat pubescent;
f**nr Dimple ; leaflets 5 -7 pairs, varying from obovatc-oblong to linear, notched



LEGUMINOS^E. (PULSE FAMILY.) 103

ftnd mucronate at the apex ; pod linear, several-seeded. Cultivated fields an J
waste places; both the common form, and the var. ANGUSTIF6LIA, with longer
and narrow leaflets. (Adv. from Eu.)

# # Annual: peduncles elongated: flowers small. (Species of Ervum, L.)

2. V. TETRASPERMA, L. Peduncles 1 - 2-flowered ; leaflets 4-6 pairs,
linear-oblong, obtuse ; calyx-teeth unequal ; pods narrowly oblong, ^-seeded, smooth.

Waste or open places, near the coast. An insignificant plant, 6' -12' high,
with whitish flowers. (Nat. from Eu.)

3. V. HiRstiTA, Koch. Peduncles 3 - S-flowered ; leaflets 6-8 pairs, trun-
cate ; calyx-teeth equal ; pods oblong, 2-seeded, hairy. (Ervum hirsutum, L.)
Massachusetts to Virginia. A slender straggling plant, with small purplish-
blue flowers. (Nat. from Eu.)

* * * Perennial: peduncles elongated; calyx-teeth very unequal: pod several-seeded.

4. V. Crtacca, L. Downy-pubescent; leaflets 20-24, oblong-lanceolate,
strongly mucronate; peduncles densely many-flowered; calyx-teeth shorter than the
tube. Borders of thickets, New England to Kentucky and northward. July.

Flowers blue, turning purple, ' long, one-sided in the spike, reflexed. (Eu.)

5. V. Caroliniana, Walt. Nearly smooth; leaflets 8-12, oblong, ob-
tuse, scarcely mucronate ; peduncles loosely flowei'ed ; calyx-teeth very short. -
Kiver-banks, &c. May. Flowers more scattered than in No. 4, whitish, the
keel tipped with blue.

6. V. AmericilBia, Muhl. Glabrous; leaflets 10-14, elliptical or ovate-
oblong, very obtuse, many-veined; peduncles 4 - 8-flowered. Moist thickets,
New York to Kentucky and northward. June. Flowers purplish-blue, 1'
long.

21. L. A THY KITS, L. VETCHLING. EVERLASTING PEA.

Style flattish, not grooved above, hairy along the inner side (next the free sta-
men). Otherwise nearly as in Vicia. (Aatfvpos, a leguminous plant of Theo-
phrastus.) Our wild species are perennial and mostly smooth plants.

1. JL. marifinius, Bigelow. (BEACH PEA.) Stem stout (1 high);
leaflets 4-8 pairs, crowded, oval or obovate ; stipules broadly halberd-shaped,
noirly as large as the leaflets; peduncles 6 - 10-flowered. Sea-coast, from New
Jersey northward, and shore of the Great Lakes. June - Aug. Flowers large,
purple. Leaflets very veiny, as also are those of the other species. (Eu.)

2 L.. veildsus, Muhl. Stem climbing (2 -5 high); leaflets 5 - 7 pairs,
scattered, oblong-ovate, often downy beneath ; stipules very small and usually slen
der, half arroiv-shaped ; peduncles many-flowered; corolla purple. Shady banks,
Michigan, Wisconsin, and southward. June.

3. 1.. ocliroleucus, Hook. Stem slender (1- 3 high); leaflets 3-4
pairs, ovate or oval, smooth, glaucous, thin ; stipules half heart-shaped, about half
asla.rg- as the leaflets; peduncles 7 - 10-flowered; corolla yellowish-white. Hill-
sides, W. Vermont to Penn., and westward and northward. July.

4. l<. palttstris, L. (MARSH VETCHLING.) Stem slender (l-2
high), often wing-margined ; leaflets 2-4 pairs, lanceolate, linear, or narrowly

10



104 LEGUMINOS^E. (PULSE FAMILY.)

oblong, muoronate-pointed ; stipules small, lanceolate, half amnv-sh ape 1, sharp
pointed at both ends ; peduncles 3 - 5-flowered ; corolla blue-purple. Aloisl
places, N. England to Perm., Illinois, and northward. July. (Eu.)

Var. myrtifoliiis. Taller, climbing 2 c -4 high; leaves oblong or
ovate-elliptical ; upper stipules larger: corolla pale purple. (L. myrtifolius,
3/M/i/.) W. New England to Penn., and northward.

L. LATir6Lius (EVERLASTING PEA) and L. ODORATUS ( SWEET PEA)
arc commonly cultivated species.

PISDM SATivuji, the PEA ; FAuA vuLG\Ris, the HORSE-BEAN , and ClcER
ARIETINUM, the CHICK-PEA, are other cultivated representatives of the same
tribe.

22. PIIASEOLUS, L. KIDNEY BEAN.

Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft, the 2 upper teeth often higher united. Keel of the
corolla, with the included stamens and style, spirally coiled or twisted, or curved
into a ring. Stamens diadelphous. Pod linear or scythe-shaped, several -
many-seeded, tipped with the hardened base of the style. Cotyledons thick
and fleshy, rising out of the ground nearly unchanged in germination. Twin-
ing or prostrate herbs, with pinnately 3-foliolate stipellate leaves. Flowers
often clustered on the knotty joints of the raceme. (The ancient name of the
Kidney Bean.)

# Pods scymetar-shaped : racemes long and loose, panicled.

1. P. pereiinis, Walt. (WILD BEAN.) Stem climbing high; leaflets
roundish-ovate, short-pointed ; pods drooping, strongly curved, 4-5-seedcd. \\.

Copses, Connecticut to Illinois, and southward. Aug. Flowers purple,
handsome, but small.

* # Pods long and straight, linear, rather terete : flowers few in a short clustered ra-

ceme like a head. (Strophostyles, Ell.)

2. P. divci'Sif Olilis, Pcrs. Annual ; stem prostrate, spreading, roagh-
hairy ; leaflets ovate-3-lol>ed, or angled towards the base, or some of them oblong-
ovate and entire ; peduncles at length twice the length of the leaves. Sandy
fields and banks, Massachusetts to Illinois and southward. July, Aug. Corol-
la greenish-white tinged with red or purple. Pod thickish.

3. P. lie I vo I US, L. Perennial, hairy ; stems diffuse, slender ; leaflets
orate or ol>long, entire or obscurely angh-d ; peduncles 3-6 times the length of the leaves

Sandy fields, S. New York to Illinois and southward. Aug. More slender
than the last: pods narrower: flowers as large and similar.

* * Pods straight and linear, flat: peduncles 1 -fnc-flowered at (Jte summit : flowers

small : keel slight 1 1/ twisted.

4. P. pauciflorus, Bcnth. Annual ; stems diffuse, but twining, slen-
der, pubescent; leaflets varying from oblong-lanceoJate or ovate-oblong to linear.
^1'. lri<]>ermus, Torr. fr Gr.) River-banks, Illinois (^fcad) and sonthwoso
ward. July -Sept. Flowers 3" long, purple. Pod 1' long, pubescent.

P. VULOXRIS is the common KIDNEY BEAN or HARICOT.
P. I.UNATOS is the LIMA BEAN of our gardens.



LEGUMINOS^. (PULSE FAMILY.^ 105

23. A P I O S , Boerh. GROUND-NUT. WILD BEAN.

Calyx somewhat 2-lippcd, the 2 lateral teeth being nearly obsolete, the lower
ime longest. Standard very broad, reflexed : the incurved scythe-shaped keel
at length coiled. Stamens diadelphous. Pod straight or slightly curved,
linear, elongated, thickish, many-seeded. A perennial herb, bearing edible
tubers on underground shoots, twining and climbing over bushes. Leaflet*
5-7, ovate-lanceolate, not stipellate. Flowers in dense and short, often branch-
ing racemes, clustered. (Name from ainov, a pear, from the shape of tho
tubers.)

1. A. tutoerosa, Moench. (Glycine Apios, L.) Moist thickets, com-
mon. Aug. Flowers brown-purple, fragrant.

24. RIIYNCHOSIA, Lour., DC. RHYNCHOSIA.

Calyx somewhat 2-lipped, or deeply 4 - 5-parfed. Keel scythe-shaped, not
twisted. Stamens diadelphous. Ovules 2. Pod 1 - 2-seeded, short and flat,
2-valved. Usually twining or trailing perennial herbs, pinnately 3-foliolate, or
with a single leaflet, not stipellate. Flowers yellow, racemose or clustered.
(Name from pvvxos, a beak, from the shape of the keel.)

1 . It. tomciitosa, Torr. & Gray. More or less downy ; leaflets round-
ish ; racemes short or capitate ; calyx about as long as the corolla, 4-parted,
the upper lobe 2-cleft ; pod oblong. Very variable.

Var. monopliylla, Torr. & Gray. Dwarf and upright (3' -6' high);
leaves mostly of a single round leaflet (l'-2' wide). S. Virginia and south-
ward, in dry sandy soil.

Var. volllbilis, TOIT. & Gray. Trailing and twining, less downy; leaf-
lets 3, roundish ; racemes few-flowered, almost sessile in the axils. S. Virginia
and southward.

Var. c recta, Torr. & Gray. Upright (l-2 high), soft-downy; leaflets
3. oval or oblong. Maryland and southward.

25. GAL.ACTIA, P.Browne. MILK PEA.

Cal/x 4-cleft; the lobes acute, the upper one broadest. Keel scarcely in-
curved. Stamens diadelphous. Pod linear, flat, several-seeded (some few of
them are occasionally partly subterranean and fleshy or deformed). Low.
mostly prostrate or twining perennial herbs. Leaflets usually 3, stipellate
Flowers in somewhat interrupted or knotty racemes, purplish. (Name from
yaXc, -OKTOS, milk ; some species being said to yield a milky juice, which is un-
likely.)

1. O. glabella, Michx. Stems nearly smooth, prostrate ; leaflets elliptical
or ovate-oblong, sometimes slightly hairy beneath ; racemes short, 4 - 8-flowered ;
pods somewhat hairy. Sandy woods, S. New York and New Jersey to Virginia
near the coast, and southward. July -Sept. Flowers large for the genus,
rose-purple.

2. G. mtillis, Michx. Stems (decumbent and somewhat twining) and



106 LEGUMINOSJE. (PULSE FAMILY.)

leaves beneath soft-downy and hoary ; leaflets oval; racemes mauy-flcweied ; pod
very downy. S. Pennsylvania, Maryland, and southward. July.

26. AOTPIIICARPJEA, Ell. HOG PEA-NUT.

Flowers of 2 kinds, those of the racemes from the upper branches perfect, but
seldom ripening fruit ; those near the base and on creeping branches imperfect,
with the corolla none or rudimentary, and few free stamens, but fruitful. Calyx
about equally 4- (rarely 5-) toothed, with no bractlets. Keel and wing-petals
similar, nearly straight ; the standard partly folded round them. Stamens dia-
delphous. Pods of the upper flowers, when formed, somewhat scymctar-shaped,
3 - 4-seeded ; of the lower, obovate or pear-shaped, fleshy, ripening usually but
one large seed, commonly subterranean, or concealed by decaying leaves.
Low and slender perennials; the twining stems clothed with brownish hairs.
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate : leaflets rhombic-ovate, stipellatc. Flowers small,
hi clustered or compound racemes, purplish. Bracts persistent, round, partly
clasping, striatc, as well as the stipules. (Name from a/x^>t, at both ends, and
<ap7ros, fruit, in allusion to the two kinds of fruit, one at the summit, the other
at the base of the plant.)

1. A. inoiiolca, Nutt. Racemes nodding; bracts each supporting 2 or
more flowers, shorter than the pedicels ; subterranean pods hairy. Rich wood-
lands. Aug., Sept. A delicate vine.

27. CL-ITORIA, L. BUTTERFLY PEA.

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed. Standard much larger than the rest of the flower,
iunded, notched at the top, not spurred on the back : keel small, shorter than
the wings. Stamens monadclphous below. Pod linear-oblong, flattisli, knotty,
several-seeded, pointed with the base of the style, the valves nerveless. Erect
or twining perennials, with mostly pinnately 3-foliolate stipcllate leaves, and
very large flowers. Peduncles 1 - 3-flowered : bractlets opposite, striate. (Deri-
vation obscure.)

1. C. Mtiruma, L. Smooth; leaflets oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate ;
stipules and bracts awl-shaped; peduncles short; 1 -3-flowcrcd. Dry banks,
Long Island to Virginia and southward. r uly. Low, ascending or twining ;
the showy pale-blue flowers 2' long.

28. CENTROS^UIA, DC. SPURRED BUTTERFLY PEA.

Calyx short, 5-cleft. Corolla, &c. much as in Criteria, but the standard with
a spur-shaped projection on the back. Pod long and linear, flat, pointed with
the awl-shaped style, many-seeded, thickened at the edges, the valves marked
with a raised line on each side next the margin. Twining perennials, with 3-
foliolato stipellate leaves and large showy flowers. Stipules, bracts, and bract-
lets striate, the lat*r longer than the calyx. (Name from Ktvrpov, a spur, and
i the standard.)

1. C. Virgiiimiiiini, Benth. Rather rough with minute hairs ; leaflet*






LEGUMINOS^E. (PULSE FAMILY.) 107

varying from oblong-ovate to lanceolate and linear, very veiny, shining
peduncles 1 - 4-flowered ; calyx-teeth liuear-awl-shaped. Sandy dry woods,
Virginia and southward. July. Corolla 1' long, violet. Pods straight, nar-
row, 4' -5' long.

29. BAPTIS1A, Vent. FALSE INDIGO.

Calyx 4 - 5-toothed. Standard not longer than the wings, its sides reflexed :
keel-petals nearly separate, and, like the wings, straight. Stamens 10, distinct.
Pod stalked in the persistent calyx, roundish or oblong, inflated, pointed, many-
seeded. Perennial herbs, with palmately 3-foliolate (rarely simple) leaves,
which generally blacken in drying, and racemed flowers. (Named from /3a7rria>,
to dye, from the economical use of some species, which yield a sort of indigo.)

1. B. tinctoria, R. Brown. (WILD INDIGO.) Smooth and slender
(2 -3 high), rather glaucous; leaves almost sessile; leaflets rounded wedge-
obovate (f long); stipules and bracts minute and deciduous ; racemes few-flowered,
terminating the bushy branches ; pods oval-globose, on a stalk longer than the
calyx. Sandy dry soil, common. June - Aug. Corolla yellow, %' long.

2. 15. australis, R. Brown. (BLUE FALSE-!NDIGO.) Smooth, tall
and stout (4 -5); leaflets oblong-wedge-form, obtuse; stipules lanceolate, as
fang as the petioles, rather persistent ; raceme elongated (l-2) and many-flowered^
erect ; bracts deciduous ; stalk of the oval-oblong pods about the length of the calyx.

Alluvial soil, from Penn. westward and southward: often cultivated. June
Flowers 1' long, indigo-blue. Pods 2' -3' long.



Online LibraryAsa GrayGray's lessons in botany and vegetable physiology → online text (page 46 of 112)