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pursued, by being obliged to vindi-
cate himself from misrepresenta-
tions made by his opponents m



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JKPCaUa on Gftmttan Bofiiaimu



111



pvblicatioBs prteeding his own— by
showing what was the real course
and tenor of the argnnieDt* daring
the controversies to which his pab-
lications refer. Had he been left
at liberty to treat the litigated sub-
jects simply on the strong grounds
of the roilitattng opinion%» we think
he would have avoided many of the
unimportant details to which we
have referred* and by so doing, have
produced works more acceptable^
and more useful to the general
reader. That Mr. M«Calla is an
acute, learned^ and thorough dis-
putant, no one can doubt, who is
acquainted with his publications.
His knowledge of his subject, in all
its relations, appears to be accurate
and extensive* And his writings
give evidence, that he is a patient
and laborious student. His refe-
rences are very numerous, and ap-
pear to be made with much fidelity
and accuracy. Indeed, Mr. M*Calla
appears to us to be a strictly con-
scientious disputant. He seems to
be folly convinced of the force of
his own arguments. He is some-
times severe and sarcastick in his
retorts ; but it must be remember-
ed, that he had an adversary of un-
common effrontery, and apparent
want of candour. Perhaps, how-
ever, Mr. M'Calla has something of
the caustick, in his natural tempera-
ment ; but however this may be, he
has, in all his publick controver-
sies, preserved an imperturbable
composure. He never appeared, as
eye-vritnesses have informed us,
on any occasion, disconcerted, or
much ruffled. Our opinion of Mr.
M'Calla, however, is, that he excels
more in minute accuracy, than in
comprehensive views of the subject
before him. He is often occupied
with a critical and laborious dis-
cussion of things of very inconsider-
able importance. And it is partiv
io consequence of this, that his book
swells- to such a si2«. We are per-

In the preceding review, the ancient names of certain places have been retained.
Our readers may, perhaps, wish to be informed what are tne present names ef these
We accordingly give them from Hoffman's Dkttonsry.



suaded, that if Mr. M«aHa would
reduce his ara;uments into one-
fourth part of the space which they '
now occupy, while they would lose
nothing of their intrinsick force,
they would be read by four times
the number of persons who are now
likely to peruse them. Upon the
whole, we are of opinion, that the
argument for infant baptism, as far
as it has proceeded in this volume,
is ably handled, and ds therefore
recommend the work to the careful
perusal of all who may have occa-
sion to engaee in this controversy.
And m the West and South, every
preacher of the gospel most expect
to have to contend for this part of
the faith once delivered to the
saints. Our missionaries should,
therefore, be well furnished with ar-
mour of proof; and it will always
be found safest, to learn in these
matters, from those who have had
experience in this species of war-
fare. It seems to be reduced to a
certainty, that the An tipfiedobaptists
will never consent to a truce with
their Psedobaptist brethren, on this
point. And now they seem in-
clined— 4t least the followers of
Campbell, who are increasing every
day — to consider baptism as a sav-
ing ordinance. This man seems to
be spreading desolation among the
Baptist churches in the Western
Country. He denies alto^ther, as
we are informed, the auUiority of
the Old Testament; and, for con-
sistency, he ought to reject the New
Testament also.

We have spoken of this publica-
tion of Mr. M*Calla in reference to
our own section of country. Per-
baps in the Western Country,
where the dispute occurred, manv
things may be interesting which
are not so to us ; but we still thinks
Chat an abridgment would be a great
improvement of the work, wherever
it may circulate.



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LUenury and PhilMophioal tntdligtMx*



AfbUii



Coiie or Cbur, the Capltml of the Canton of the
Grenoble. [GriaoM.

Augsburg.
Strasburg.



Ana^nU wxmea.

Curia,

GratianopoliSy

Augusta,

Argentum or Aiigentoratum,

We may alto remark, that what was originally called the Auguutan Confestion, is
now commonly denominated the Avgsburg Confettion,



Xtceratp attH ^^^^ilo^op^ital 3[ntellt0ence, ttu



JStev MetaL-^A new metal called Plu-
raniuro, has lately been discovered in an
ore of platinum brought from Russia.
This is the fifth simple metallic substance
found in these ores, vis. — Pol]adium» Bho-
dium, Osmium, Iridium, and Pluranium*
From the quantity of platinum found in
Russia, and its intrinsic value, the empe-
ror haa ordered coins to be struck from
this metal. A few plalinQm coina were
in circulation in Russia some years 8ince»
but they were all bought up for the cabi-
neta of the virtuosi.

London ITmverjt/jf.-^This institution
haa been represented by its enemies to be
an iiffidei one. From the tone of the
London magazinea, however, we infer
that pwii dissenters generally are its
warm friends. Dissenters are excluded
from Oxford and Cambridge { the Uni-
versity of London was intended to be
open to all alike, and to aiford Dissen-
ters» Catholicks, Jews^ and Churchmen,
•qual advantafes. This the Council sup*
posed could not so well be dpne, were
theology to be included in the course of
instruction, and they therefore leave the
religious education of the students to be
otherwise ' provided for. The Council
have, however, sanctioned several of the
Professors, Churchmen, and Dissenters,
in communicating religious instniction,
without the walls of the University, to
such students as may wish it.

Bees. — A new manual, for the proprie-
tors of bees, has been published at Paris,
by a M. Martin. It treaU successively of
the natural history of bee^ of their mala -
dies, of their different forms of govern-
mcnt, and of the construction of their
hives. It collects the most striking ob-
servations that have been made upon
these industrious republics by preceding
writers ( and finishes by a summaiy of the

{>rinciples of education which U. Martin
ays down, and by a bibliography of bees!
Annexed is sn abridged treatise, on the
culture of sainfoin ana buclkwheat, which
M. Martin considers to be the two plants
most favourable to the production of
honey.



The thirty-three miles between J-iver-
pool and Manchester are performed by
coaches in two hours and three-quarters !
Half a minute is allowed for changing
horses, at which eight persons are. em-
ployed, four to remove the horses, and
four to place freah ones to the coach.^
Leedt Mercury,

JRoman P/o«^Af .— Few classieal readers
are probably aware, that the ploughs still
in use in Spain, are accurately described
by Virgil in the Geologies. Yet, such is
the fact. The instrument has been sta-
tionary in that country, ever since the
days oif Sertorius.

According to an experiment repoKed
in the Journal of Coamierce, with a given
arooupt of light, the expense of sperm
candles is to that of tallow candles, as i
to 1 ; and to that of oil, aa 2 19-20th8 to 1 <
while the expense of tallow candles is to
that of oil, as 1 19.20ths to 1.

Important to Cotton Growert, — It hss
been known that cotton seed yields a con-
siderable portion of cnl, of excellent qua-
lity. The difficulty of e^^ressing it, in
consequence of the quantity and absorb-
ing quality of the integuments of the
kernel, has been so great, that heretofore
no great quantity of the oil has been
made. We are happy to announce that
a highly respectable gentleman of Pe«
tersbuigh baa invented a machine, by
which the seed is completely hulled, and
prepared for the easy expression of its
oil. The importance of this invention to
the southern country, may t>e appreciated
from the fact, that the mventor ia pre-
paring a cotton gio, aad will shortly be
prepared to |;in cotton for the seed
only. We believe the present price of
{finning is eveiy tenth pound. Bo that
m feet the eottoa jg^roiwer will hatve an ad.*
dxtion made to his ccep of one-tenth of
the whole, by the inUroduction of this
valuable machine. When it is borne in
nrind thst the seed at present is of little
or no value, it is apparent that the inven-
tion adds greatly to the resources of the
southern states, and must, we should



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Literary and PhUoiophieal IntdHgence^



183



think, exert a finendly mfluence on their
prosperity.

The &aMn.— March, twehre months
ago, was a fine pleasant spring month.
Vegetation about this time was very for-
ward, and if we mistake not, many of the
fruit trees were in bloom; the conse-

guence, however, was, that the young
■uit was nipped by the killing frosts of
April, and there was a scardty of that ex-
cellent article during the summer. On
the contrary, March of the present year
has been a cold, raw, blustering month,
presenting^ quite a wintry appearance.
Vegetation, thus far, has been completely
checked — not a blossom has yet put forth
—not even an iris, we beUeve, has shown
itself above the earth. From the lateness
of the spring, however, we may justly an-
ticipate an abundance of fruit, of which
we are generally deprived by a prema-
ture bloom.

The Conemtngh Tunnel, on the west-
em division of the Pennsylvania Canal,
has been excavated through its whole
length, and a passage is now open through
the mountain, 815 feet. The breadth of
the tunnel is 25 feet, and the height the



It is calcukted that, should the manu-
facture of sugar in the United States con«
tinue to increase as it has fiv the last four
vears, it will in one, or at most two years,
be equal to the consumption.

A Jfew Cave in Petern Trwrnhip,^^
Among the many curiosities with wnich
nature is so beautifully diversified, in al-
most every part of our country, as well in
tile bowels of the earth, as on its surface,
there has none ever come under my ob-
servation so worthy of our admiration and
wonder, as the on^ which I am about to
attempt a description of; nor are there
any or the works of convulsed nature, yet
<fi90overed, in this country, bo singukr and
BMuestick in appearance as this cave; and,
although one of the many wonderful
works of nature, it would appear as if art
and natnre, had there both made a ffene-
ral display of their talents respectively,
in the formation and furnishing of this
beautiful cavern; for there are certainly
many very nice imitations of ait, among
the myriads of its aiiy concredons which
present themselves to the astonished be-
holder, who, with wonder and delight stops
abort at ^e entrance of this subterranean
grove, to feast his opticks on these inimi-
table works of nature. I have siud imi-
tations of art, but I i^rehend th^re are
many of these concretions that would
even defy the nicest artist to imitate.

This corioQs production of nature waa
never diaeorered till a few days ago.



when the owner, (Mr. Reece, of Peters
Tcnimsbip, living on the basis of the North
mountun,) was about to dq|^ for water;
and as there is a very large .spring issuing
out of the rocks, at the fbot of a hill 3i
considerable height, and a kind of sink
hole some distance above the spring, he
thought he probably could come on the
stream: accordinglv he commenced dig-
ging in the sink hole, and had proceeded
but a few fieet, when he could plainlv
hear the water running, seemingly with
great rapidity; and at the distance of
about twelve feet from the surfiice, came
to the water, at the lower extremity of
a fissure in the rock, whioh immediately
expanded into a large and beautiful, ca-
vern, the entrance of which is partially
obstructed b^ loose rocks, which, after
advancing a little distance, entirely disap-
pear, ana instead of loose rubbish, solid
rocks appear, enamelled with spar of differ-
ent colours. In eveij direction are to bo
seen the most beautiful icicles, suspended
from its noble, and in soine places, ma-
jestick ceiling. Concretions, without
number, and of almost every colour, size,
and dimension, are seen pointing down-
wards from the ceiling, and inwards fbom
the sloping walls— some white, some red,
some brown, some green, and others trans-
parent as glass, and all solid as marble.
They threaten the curious adventorer
with being torn in pieces by their craggy

Roints, if he attempts penetrating any
irther into it; and indeed in some places
he is obliged to proceed in a stooping
position, in order to avoid them.

In proceeding up this subterraneous
passage, you are obliged to walk in the run
nearly all the way. The run is in some
places dry at this time, owing to the sea-
son of the year. Yet it is evident from the
bed of the run, and other visible marks of
the water, that some parts of the year
the water must flow through the differ-
ent channels, in bu^ quantities. Even
at this time, there is a great deal run-
ning through it, but mostly through
channels alongride of the principal one,
as is evident from the g^t noise it
makes in falling over the craggy rocks,
which impede its progress. There are in
the principal channel, several falls which
might very property be denominated
cataracts. The extent of the cave is as
yet unknown, as it has been but partially
explored. The greatest distance any per-
son has been up it yet, is about 800 feet, at
which distance there was no appearance
of its termination. In ascending this cave,
the eve is most agreeably struck with its
grandeuF— at every step new wonders
present themselvesf— here b the spar
formed into trees, shrubs, &c., which
make it have the appearance of a petrified



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^[roye^ii flome plMM the'sptr is formed
into the likenesses of aien» birds, beasts»
organs, fiic.» and in one place, raised on
a pedestal, is a striking resemblance of a
half unfurled flag. Besides these, there
are hundreds of other likenesses, which I
shall not here attempt a description of.
When we first saw them, we were oidy



surprised at their diTeraty and beautyi
but on a more minute eiamination, we
were struck with amszement, knowing
them to be mere productions of nature;
who, hitherto^ in solitary silence, had,
in her playful moments, unseen and un-
heard, dr^sed the scene, as if for her own
amusement. M.



Heltgtou^ ^[tttentgettce.



Sn^SIOVS OP THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
OF THE PREfrBTf ERIAN CHURCH.

{ConUtwedfromp. 142.)

The state of religion in the Presby.
terian church in Indiana is, at this time,
more promising than at any former pe-
riod. During the summer and autumn,
many congregations have been favoured
with the special influences of the Holy
Spirit. More than 500 persons have been
added to the Presbyterian church in this
sUte, on confession of their faith, during
the past year, and it is believed a more
fively interest is manifeafing it^U in the
benevolent and religious operations of the
day, than heretofore. Periiaps there is
ao part of our country in 'which there is
a greater diversity of religious sects, than
in this; and with regard to the Presby-
terians it may be said, "every man's hand
"fa against them." But they have little to
Ibar from the ravings of ignorance, or the
ebullitions of envy. Presby terianism will
doubtless progress as intelligence pro-

Sresses, and though her gains should be
ow, they will be substantial. The Bap-
tist denomination, which is one of the
most numerous in this state, b much agi-
tated with intestine divisions. The licen-
tious and disorganizing principles of
CampbeU meet with a pretty ^neral re-
ception among them, and will probably
lesult in the destruction of that church.

Very much good may be done in this
countiy, bv the circulation of religious
Tracts. I have circulated all I could ob-
tain, and they have been cordially re-
ceived. I have frequently during my mis-
sion felt, that it would l>e veiy desirable
to have a series of tracts, in which the
distinguishing doctrines of our church
should be more prominently set forth.
These cannot be issued by the American
Tract Society, and it is not desirable that
fhey should be. But that such tracu are
called for, especially in this western coun-
tfy, I am fully pei^uaded. I am &r from
desiring to promote a sectarian spuit, but
I am desirous to promote the truth, and
to correct nuBrepieseiitation, and ttat perw



version of what are eaQed the doctrines ctf
CtUtitium^ which is so common, and so
deleterious to the cause of truth, to say
nothing of the cause of Fre9dyterittnitm,
The Episcopalians, the Methodists, the
Baptists, &c. all have their Tract Socie-
ties; and their publications, desigpied
chiefly to set forth their own peculiar
tenets, are widely circulated. 1 sliould
therefore like to see some good Preslnf-
terian Tractt, on such subjects as Predet-
Unation, PerKverance^ infant BapUwii^
Pre9byterian Church Oovemment, (if it
could be treated hriefy,} and the duty of
BuUng JSUdere, Could not a series of
tracts on these, and other like aubjects^
be publiahed by the Assembly's Board of
Missions? Should some Bookseller in
Phibulelphia or New York, take the re.
sponsibility of pubhsUngsuch tracts^ there
is no doubt that thousands of them might
be sold.*'

One of our missionaries reportinjg^ his
labours for two months, in the interior of
Pennsylvania, says, concerning three con-
tiguous places, and the people in them—

** They have the Lonl's supper admi-
nistered once in the year, by some person
appointed by the Prtsbyteiy. The peo-
ple are indeed a mixed muldtnde ; a/w
of almost every denomination, and many
of no one; and amongst the different
sects, there exists a good deal of party
feeling,— not much Christian love and
forbearance. The people at S ■ , ap-
pear sensible of the importance of having
a church, and called a meeting a few days
since, to take measures to erect one dur-
ing the ensuing summer.

<' My heart has been cheered to see the
serious attention given by the people, to
the word of God. To many it was new,
they having never heard a missionary be-
fore, and many of them never any Pres-
byterian minister. In the minds of many,
I found strong prejudices sgainst our
church i and on inquiry into the grounds
of th^m, soon found that they arose from
the misrepresentations which had been
made of our doctrine^ by those who dif-
fer from us in sentiment: yet these are
easily orer^pne by friendly conversation.



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185



and ft 9iin]de itat^ment of the true doc-
trines, held by the Presbyterian Church.
I hare preached Qn two months) about
35 times,* spoken iii several prayer meet-

X; and visited and addressed Sabbath
ols three times. They have two
schools in S— > and one in 1*. C— ,
which are too much on the plan of com*
mon day schools, and suffer greatly for
want of tuitable teachers. Christians are
scarce here; yet there are a few, here
and there, who love Jesus, and delight in
senring bim. These expressed much jov
at the prospect of hearing the gospel.
The people will all attend preaching, and
I have found the number increasing the
longer 1 remained. Several times the
bouse would not bold the people who as-
sembled. They appeared very desirous
for me to remam, and spend my life with
tfaem» and when I told them 1 could not,
their next plea was, .*do your best to
send us another missionary.' The man
who comes here, must put up with a rough
country, but he will find the people re-
markably kind and affectionate. They
are willing to do all ia their power to make
him comfortable. As to the prospect of
usefulness herci I think it nuiy safely be
called /aMertiy'. The eamett atieniion
which is seen in nearly every countenance,
and the anxiety of the people, I think,
will warrant the term. Were it ia your
power to send a man here, who would
spend bis life with this people, they could
easily be gathered io* and would soon as-
sume the appearance of a regular church
^rf" Christ. They want faithfuL instruction
very much. In a moral point of view, this
is indeed one of the dark comers of our
land, in which the gospel is aeldom bcaj*d,
and even then, is generally united with
so much abuse of other sects, that the
people will not hear it with pleasure.
They want the gospel, — they want a cru-
cified Saviour, and not slanderous abuse."
The following letter and enclosure from
Judge Fine, are so well calculated to re-
commend our Jifty cent cwuributiom that
we deem it expedient to publish them{
with this remark in confirmation, that we
hare not found any difficulty in promot-
ing' any benevolent pecuniary subscrip-
tioD of a moderate sum^ in any congrega-
tion, in which the minister and elders
were willing to lead and animate their fel-
low communicants.

Qgdauburgh, M York, Dec. 30, 1823.
new, E. S. Ely, D.D.

Dear Sir,— Seeing that you are busily
engaged hi your new missionary plan, I
evimot deny myself tlie pleasure of en-
couraging you, in your good work. In
the aotumn of 1834, 1 a£he8sed the en-

Vot.VIL— Cft.Jrfv-



closed circular to every Minister and EU
der in the county. My plan was new.
It was of my own suggesting, and it had
nothing to support it, but the reasons
urged m the letter. In this church, and
a few others, we executed the plan, and
continued it for a yc^ar or two. But in
mo9t of the churches, it was never at-
tempted, owing to the dislike to it of the
ministers snd elders; — the former think-
ing it too great a burden on their people,
and the latter not wishing the trouble of It.

Having made a fair trial of it here, I
am able to say, that the poorest commu-
nicants, are the most wilhng and ready ta
give ; and that the difficulty of the plan
will arise, not from indisposition to give,
but from want of time, with the officers
to collect.

I would suggest as the easiest mode of
collectiott, that the communicants bring
their contributions at the sacramental sea-
sons. This is a suitable time to think of
the feeble and destitute churches, and of
the heathen. ^

Your stiptdated sum is too small, but
this you can alter hereafter.

Your principal hindrance, will be the
backwardness on the part of the ministeiB
and elders.

We have collected of our communicants
the last two years, for the Western Do-
mestiok Missionary Society.

I thought mudi on this subject fbm*
years ago, and have often reflected on it
since; and •! am strongly persuaded, that
the church, as a church, should do some-
thing more efficiently for the great ob-
jects of Christian enterprise.

Wishing you much success in your la-
bours, believe me yours truly,

Jonir ¥iwe,

[The circular mentioned above will be
given in our next number.]



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF LIBERIA.

A Bittwcal Sketch of its Origin^ extracted
from the Secorda of the Seaeion Book,

The Presbyterian church, of whiefa this
book contains the records, was organizod
on Ifoard the ship Harriet, Captain John-
sun, then ?ying in Norfolk Hari>our, U. 8. A .
oY) the 2d Februaiy, 1829, under the fol-
lowing circumstances :^-

Mr. Joseph Turner, formerly of the fa-
mily of the Uev. James Turner, Bedford
County, VirginiSf being about to emigrate
to Africa, and having been for several
years a licentiate preacher, under the
care of the Presbytery of Hanover, it was
thought of much importance that before



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bis deptrtofe from America, be sbould
reoeiTe ordiiuttion to the whole work of
the mpel ministiy. For this purpose a
PreAyteiy was called, and convened on
board the Hairiet, conaisting of three mi-
niatersi the Rev. William J. Armstrong,
Jamea W. Douglas, and Joseph Niromo.
Several Ruling Elders of the Presbyterian
church of Noifolk were also present. Mr.
Turner having passed a satisfactory exa-
mination before the Presbytery, was so-
lenmlyaet apart to the whole work of the
ministry, by praver and the laying on of
bands. A certificate of his ordmation was
given by the Presbytery to Mr. Turner,
of which the following is a copy : —

On b9ard the ahip Hornet, Norfolk
Harbour, V. S. A, Feb. 2, 1829.

The subscribers, regularly ordained mi-
nisters of the Presbyterian church, in the
United States of North America, belong*
ing to the Presbyteries of Hanover in Vir-
ginia, and Orange in North Carolina, hav-
ing received ample testimonials in fUvour
of Joseph Turner, a licensed preacher of



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