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and several cities were, at the last accounts, in fear of bein^ pillaged and plundered.
The native Spaniards, persecuted elsewhere, have been invited by4he province of
Yucatan to assemble there. The congress of Jalapa is reported to have been dissolved
by the militaiy commander, Santa Anna^ and our own country is charged with having
made encroachments on the Mexican territories, both on the eastern and western bor-
ders—Where, and when, will be the end of this confunon and misrule !

Colombia. — ^This republick is in a state of war with Peru, but no important new.s
has reached us in the month past.

CxHTBAL AxamicA - €oatintte8 to be torn by the most violent and sangiunary civil
cooUQtiona.

Bytbvos Atbss.— We stated in our last number that in this republick there bad been
a revolution, and that the late governor and his adherents had been driven from the
capital It now appears that the governor, whose muqe was Uorrego, after some inef-
ficient rcaistanoe, was taken prisoner by a Colonel Juan Lavalle. The Charge des
AfiTaiit of our country, Mr. Forbes, in concert with the British Cfaai^ des Affairs, ear-



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Qcttlj eotfeMed of i\ifi utw and .«^««zadlt6d authorities th^ be ifei|;fat not be pat to
deaths but be permitted to retire to the United Sutea; and tbey receiTed an urn-
nuice that their requeat should be nanted. Tet Colonel Lavalle ordered him to be
shot, with only an hoor'a warning of his destiny. During this hour, he wrote the fol-
lowing most affecting letter to his wife : —

** M T BBLOYBD Ahosuta.— It has been just intimated to me that within an hour I
roust die. I am ignorant for what cause, but Divine Providence, in whom I confide in
this critical nnoment, has so determined it. I pardon all my enemies^ aiid beseech my
friends not to take any step to avenge me. My life-^educate those amiable children :
be happy» which you have not been able to be in the company of the unfortunate

HurvEL DoBSLZoo.'*

It is said that the pf^ople are quiet under the usurped authorities. But the heart
sickens, in the contemplation of the fearful and uncertain state of a community, in
whicli such things can be done, whenever a powerful faction chooses to do them.
How thankful should we be that the population of tlie United States was prepared for
republicanism, by principles, education, and habits, which prevented such atrocities:
and how paveiiil should we be to preserve the virtue, and promote the intelligence,
on which^ under God, oar future safety must depend. Let our Sabbath-breaking
legislators think of this !

BBAziL.^The finsnces of this state are greatly embarrassed, and the expectation
that they would be relieved by peace has not been realised— a debt to the Bank re-
mains undiminished, and the depreciated paper money has not increased in value. It
is, however, supposed, that our commerce will be greatly benefited at Bio de Janeiro,
by being put on the same footing, as to impost, with the most favoured nations. It
is yet uncertain what measures the emperor will take to regain his authority in Por-
tugal,

IJ^iTXB States.— A London paper of the 3rth of January sa^ that letters from
Constantinople sUte **that the Treaty of Commerce with the United States had been
a^rreed upon by the Sultan, and had excited a great sensation among the European
diplomatists, which had been much increased by a current rumour that an American
squadron would appear in the waters of the Archipelago in the Spring/*

At the inauG^ration of the President, an immense multitude was collected from dif-
ferent parta of the country-*-the estimates of the individuals that ooropoeed it, vary
from ten to forty thousand. The President's inaugural speech was short, pithy, and
excellent. It turns out that the late Post Master General, Mr. M'Lean, ia not to be a
member of the cabinet — He haa received the appointment of an assoetate judge on the
bench of the Supreme Court of the United States. The President, it appears, has
been surrounded and annoyed by a host of greedy office hunters. We hope be will
displace n6 able and fiiithfal officer, who has not been a virulent partisan against him.
With the excepttop of the cabinet, there wouU be magnanimity in retwning a de-
cidedly good publick servant, even if known to have been actively hostile, provided
he had acted with fairness, and without malignity, in lus opposition. We belong to
no party in pofiticks, except the party, which we hope ia a large one, that wishes and
prays for the prosperity and happiness of our beloved country, be its legisdator^ and
governors who they may. But on this occasion we think proper to remark, that
there is no doctrine more antirepublican, than that which teaches thert ihould 6e a
corulant rotation of •jfice. It is a fundamental republican principle, that the publick
interest should be preferred before every interest that is merely privme. Now,
when a man in office has accjuired the knowledge— not readily acquired— -which qua-
lifies him to serve the .pubbck with the greatest eifect, and has moreover proved
that he possesses both talents and integrity — to displaee such a map, and substitute
in his room an uq tried novice, for the ^e of rewarding the latter, as a partizan or a
favourite, — this is manifestly to sacrifice publick to private interest It is as anti-
republican an act as can be performed : And it is, beside^ attended with this evil con-
sequence, that the men best qualified to. serve the country, will not seek nor even
accept an office, from which they foresee that they may be ejected, on eveiy
change of an administration. We hope our present Pnesident, to whose administra-
tion we most cordially wish all possible success, will use his great popular influence,
to put down the error to which we have adverted, and to sanction a system of pro-
cedure, the effecu of which wHl be lastingly and extenaively salutary .«-In making
these remarks, we have had no other object in view than to sustain the character of a
CkmfionMwQQU.



XXXATfTX VS OVR PBXSSXT VUXBSB,

Inpsge 146, the fa^tword of 3doohimii,lor Jcamiail r^l^ira. •

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THE



(O^^Bssii^aii^ ii^DT^^iivX;



MAT, 1829.



fidtgtott^ Communkation^.



I^OTURILS ON THE SHORTRR OATE-
OHISM OF THB WESTMINSTER AS-
SEMBLY or DIVINES^-ADDRSSSED
TO YOUTH.

UGTUmX TU

The subject of the present lec-
ture 19 the second command ment,
which is— -<*Thou shalt not make
unto thee anj graven image* or anj
likeness of anj thin§ that is in hea-
ven above* or that is in the earth
beneath* or that is in the water Under
the earth: thou shalt not bow down
tbjself to them, nor worship them ;
for 1 the Lord thj God am a jealous
God, visiting the iniquity of the fa-
thers upon children, unto the third
and fourth generation of them that
hate me; and showing mercy unto
thousands of them that love me and
keep my commandments."

Xhis precept of the decalogue,
although found in the Vulgate trans-
lation of the Holy Scriptures, which
the church of Rome holds to be of
higher authority than the Hebrew
ongitfal itself, is, notwithstanding,
excluded by the rulers of that church
from all their popular books of devo-
tion ; and to make the number of the
commandments tkn, the last is divi-
ded into two parts. What more pal-
pable evidence could there be, of a
consciousness thait a part of their
worship is in direct hostility with
the moral law of God, than this
fraud of withholding a ]>art of that
law, as laid down in their own ver-



sion of the Bible, from the view of
the people^ many of whom never
know even of its existence. No
wonder that the Pope should be hos-
tile to Bible societies, and to the
unrestricted possession and perusal
of the Sacred Scriptures.

The difference between the first \
and second precept of the revealed
moral code, oueht to be distinctly
noted. You wiTl observe then, that
the first commandment relates to
the object of worship, and the se-
cond to the mode or manner of that
worship; the first forbids the wor-
ship of any other than the true God, ,
the second forbids the worshipping
even of the true God by the use of
images, or an j other visible symbols ;
the first impliedly req^dires all rig^t
worship of Jehovab/tne second pro-
*hibi ts all that is even drcuinstantiallu
wrong in his worship. Thus careful
has our Creat6r been to preserve the
purity of the homage which is due
to him from his creatures, by giving
two commandments, and these form-
ing the first and fundamental part
of his moral sydtem, the one relat-
ing to the nature, the other to the
expression, of the worship and ser-
vice which he requires: and this
has been done with perfect proprie-
' ty, because genuine reverence, love
and obedience, to the Sovereign of
the univet-se, are the first of all
moral duties and the proper foun-
dation of everjr other; and be-
cause there fs, in corrupt human

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194



Lectures en the Shorter Catechism*



Mat,



nature^ a strong and awful propen-
sity to refuse wnat is due to God,
and to pollute and degrade his wor-
ship b^ human inventions.

Having thus shown the difference
between the first and second com-
mandment, let us now a littlemore
particularly consider, according to
the statement of our Catechism, —
I. What the second commandment
requires; 11. What it forbids ; IIL
The reasons by which its observ-
ance is justified and enforced,

I. « The second commandment re»
quireth the receiving, observing and
keeping pure and entire, all such
religious worship and ordinances as
God hath appointed in his word."

That we may have a clear under-
standing of the requisitions here
specified, we must nrst place dis-
tinctly in view, " the religious wor-
ship and ordinances which God has
appointed in his word," since these
are the objects to which the require-
ments mentioned in the answer re-
late. « Religious worship," says
an excellent expositor of our Cate-
chism,*^ "is that homage and re-
spect we owe to a gracious God, as
a God of infinite perfection ; where-
by we profess subjection to, and
confidence in him, as our God in
Christ* for the supply of all our
wants; and ascribe the praise and
glory that is due to him, as our
chief good and only happiness."
" O come," says the holy Psalmist,
** let us worship and bow down ; let
US kneel before the Lord our Maker;
for he is our God, and we are the
people of his pasture and the sheep
of his hand."

"The ordinances which God has
appointed in his word," and through
several of which, religious worship
is to be oifered to him, are accu-
rjitely stated in our Larger Cate-
chism to be — " prayer and thanks-
giving in the name of Christ; the
reading, preaching and hearing of
the word; the administration and
receiving of the sacraments ; church

• Fi»her.



government and discipline; the mi-
nistry and maintenance thereof; re-
ligious fasting; swearing by the
name of God ; and vowing; to him."
The nature of these ordinances I
shall have occasion particularly to
explain, if spared to lecture on a
subsequent part of the catechism.
In the mean time, their general na-
ture has been made known to you
by education and reading, sufficient-
ly to enable you to understand what
1 shall say, in showing that they
are to be " received, ol^rved, and
kept pure and entire."

1. The worship and ordinances
which God hath appointed in his
word are to be received; that is, we
are to take them simply on the au-^
thority of God, as he has delivered
them to us in the oracles of truth,
without cavilling or objecting to
any of them, on account of our not
seeing in what manner they are fit-
ted to du us good. There has al-
ways been a strong disposition to
this cavilling spirit, ever since the
transgression of our first mother,
when she yielded to the suggestion
of Satan that she would not be in-
jured, but benefited, by violating
the ordinance of God, in eating
the fruit of the interdicted tree
in the Garden of Eden. Naaman
the Syrian, you may remember,
was, in like manner, for a time,
a caviller of the same description.
W*hen directed to go and wash in
the river Jordan, for the cure of his
leprosy, (instead of receiving that
cure in a way which his proudmind
had led him to conceive would be
the most suitable) he, at first, indig-
nantly refused to comply with the
prescription. "Are not," said he
in anger — "arenotAbanaand Phar-
par, rivers of Damascus, better than
all the waters of Israel, -may I
not wash in them and be clean?"
In the use, doubtless, of habitual
bathing, he did not see how wash-
ing, in whatever manner applied,
was to remove the leprosy; and if
it might possibly produce that ef-
fect, he thought the streams of his



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Lectures on the Shorter Catechism.



195



own coantrj were, for that purpose,
far preferable to the waters of the
Jordan. He however received no
healing, tilt he vielded to the kind
solicitations of attendants wiser
than himself, anc| strictly complied
with the divine prescription, as an-
nounced by the prophet of Jehovah;
and then, immediately, his cure was
complete. Now, my youne friends,
there are those in our days, and
within our own observation, who
make objections to the ordinances
and appointments of God, in the
very spirit of transgressing Eve and
angry Naaman. What use, say they,
can there be in prayer, since God
knows and is wilting to supply all
our wants? What advantage can
there be in baptizing infants with
water, and in eating bread and
drinking ivine, in remembrance of
Christ? Cannot you devote your
children to God, and remember
Christ, as well without these exter-
nal rites as with them? What pos-
sible benefit can be derived from
fasting? Can abstinenee from food
be pleasing to the God who gave it,
or a refusal temperately to gratify
the bodily appetites, be helpfulto the
soul ? Thus, my dear youth, I might
go through the whole of the ordi-
nances of God which have been
enumerated, and state objections
that may be made, and have been
made, to every one of them. But
the specimen I have given you must
suffice — And now hear and remem-
ber my reply/ To the objections
that hav€ just been mentioned, and
to all of a similar kind, satisfactory
answers may be made, and have
often been actually made, in a de-
tail of reason and argument But
is it not enough — I ask you, to put
the inquiry candidly and closely to
your own minds — is it not enough,
and flihottld it not always be esteemed
enough to satisfy anjr rational crea-
ture, to know that his Creator, infi-
nitely wise and ^ood, has made an
appointment, or instituted an ordi-
nance, for the benefit of his obe-
iUnt offspring? What though tht



shortsighted creature cannot see in
what manner he is to receive benefit
from the appointment of his Maker?
ought he not to be perfectly satis-
fied that there is a good reason for
it, and that benefit will result from
regarding it, since it comes from
the wisest and best, the most pow-
erful and faithful of all beings?
Nay, is it unreasonable to suppose
that our heavenly Father may leave
some things which he requires, with-
out a full explanation, at least for a
time, on purpose to see if we have
faith enough to trust him barely on
his word? Did he not adopt this
method of procedure with Abraham,
and honour him as the father of the
faithful, for his implicit obedience?
Did not our Saviour say to Peter,
in reference to one appointment,
" What I do thou knowest not now,
but thou shalt know hereafter?"
And when Peter absolutely refused
compliance, did not our Lord say
to him — ** If I wash thee not, thou
hast no part with me?^* You can-
not fail, if you refiect, to answer
these interrogatories so as fully and
freely to admit, that when God
speaks, it is infinitely reasonable
for us immediately to obey, whether
we do, or do not, see the grounds
or reasons of his command. We
may be assured that the best of rea-
sons exist for all that he requires,
although for the present we do not
perceive them. I do not indeed
dissuade you from endeavouring to
understand, as far as you can, the
nature and design of all the ap«
pointments and ordinances of God.
You ought to do this: and you
ought, by ail means, to examine
well whether institutions which
claim to be divine ordinances, ap-
pear to be such by the unerring
word of God; but as soon as this is
apparent, on a careful and candid
examination — as soon as you see
a '< thus saith the l^ord^' for an ap-
pointment, then yott have the best
of all possible reasons, in ihe known
diaracter of God, for an immediate
compliance. With prompt and un-



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Lectures an tlie Shorter Catechism.



Mat,



reserved obedience, therefore, re^
ceive every ordinance, which ap-
pears from the revealed will of God
to have him for its author.

2. We are not onlv to receive
the ordinances of God, but to ob-
serve them. It is one thing to ac-
knowledge or admit an institution
to be of divine appointment, and
another practically to treat it as
such. How many are there, for ex-
ample, who admit that the sacra-
ment of the Lord's Supper is an or-
dinance of our blessed Saviour, in-
stituted in the most affecting cir-
cumstances, and for the most im-
portant purposes, and intended for
perpetual observance in his church
— and yet, year after year 'passes
away, without their coming to this
sacrament. Or feelins much uneasi-
ness on account of their neglect.
Far be it from me, my young friends,
to urge you to a rash or unprepared
approach to the table of the Lord.
But would to God that both you,
and all who receive the messages of
the gospel, mightvbe made to feel
most sensibly that the command,
** Do this in remembrance of me,"
is binding upon you ; and that you
are chargeable with a guilty neglect,
so long as a cordial obedience to this
command is not rendered. But I
specify this neglect at present, only
because it is a common one, and
therefore well adapted to illustrate
the general subject. Recollect the
enumeration of the ordinances of
religious worship, given in the first
part of this lecture, and remember
that you are bound to observe them
all — That every one of them was
given bv their divine author to be
used; that no one of them can be
set aside or neglected, .without a
practical and criminal disregard to
a divine institution ; in a word, that
the conscientious observance of them
all, at the times and seasons proper
for them severally, is a duty so-
lemnly binding on all who bear the
Christian name.

S. The ordinances of God's wor-
ship are to be kept pure. All mere-



ly human additions to the institu-
tions of the Most High, are a usur-
pation of his prerogative ; they are
a reflection on his wisdom and
goodness, as if what he has done or
commanded could be improved, or
have some deficiencies supplied by
man's sagacity. To this there has
been a wonderful proneness in every
aee of the church. A very large part
of all the corruptions of the wor*
ship of God that have ever debased
and dishonoured it, has proceeded
from this cause. To this origin may
be traced all the will worship of the
Romish church, and all " teaching
for doctrines the commandments of
men," and all that admixture of hu-
man inventions with divine appoint-
ments, which still exist in churches
less corrupt than that of Rome.
God's work is perfect, and all that
we presumptuously add to it is an
impurity which he abhors.

4. The worship and ordinances
of the Lord are to be kept entire —
As we are to add nothing to them,
so we are to subtract nothing from
them. ^Ti^reness in the observance
of divine ordinances is obligatory
both on churcherand individuals;
and yet it is too often violated by
both. Disciplines for example, is
an ordinance which God has ap-
pointed in the order of his ho«se»
and for the benefit of all who be-
long to the household of faith : and
when the church neglects disci-
pline — and she does often neglect
it even in the grossest manner —
she most criminally disregards one
of the ordinances o^ her Lord and
head — She does not keep those or-
dinances entire. In like manner,
when an individual Christian per-
mits one duty to displace another,
or gives such an attention to cer-
tain duties as almost wholly to ne-
glect others, he does not keep the
ordinances of his God entire. It is
a high commendation which the
word of inspiration bestows on Za-
charias anu his wife Elizabeth,
when it tells us that **they were
both righteoas before God, walking



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1839.



Memoir of the Rev. James H. Stuart.



197



in ALL the ordinances and torn-
tnandmeots of the Lord blameUss,^^
This it is which at once adorns
and promotes religion — silences its
enemies, encourages its friends, and
fills with the sweetest consolations
ef divine grace, those who exhibit
this lovely example of entirenesst in
their observance of all God's ordi-
Dances*

(7*0 be continued,)



won Tin CBBItTIAH ASVOCATB. *

MEMOIR OF THE REV. JAMES H.
STUART.

The subject of the following obi-
tuary reminiscences was the child
of James and Martha Stuart, of the
city of Philadelphia; born on the
d4th of .April, A. D. 1803, and de-
voted, by the prayers of his pious
parents, to the work of the Chris-
tian ministry, from the very day in
which God gave them this only son.
Far was it, however, froiA their
thoughts and desires, that the fond
partialities of a father, and mere
education for the sacred office^
should be considered a sufficient
passport to it. Well they knew«
that except a man become the sub-
ject of that great spiritual revolu-
tion in all the moral operations of
the soul, which is figuratively called
tiie new births he cannot be a Chris-
tian in the sight of bis Maker, much
less a truly Christian minister.
They determined, nevertheless, to
seek the grace of God for their
child, and telt persuaded that it was
not presumption to expect from Him
whose glory it is to hear and an-
swer prayer, the gift of his Holy
Spirit in his renewing influences ;
that by the washing symbolized in
baptism he might attain to purity of
heart.

With a view to his future useful-
ness in the church, he was weU
taught the rudiments of the arts and
sciences in this city, and subse-
quently entered the college of New



Jersey. During his residence in
Nassau Hall, he experienced the
power of godliness, and made a
profession of experimental ac-
quaintance with Christianity. This
circumstance peculiarly endeared
the academic groves to him; and
we need not wonder to find him
writing in his missionary journaU
while in the state of Indiana, " The
loveliness of the heavens and the
balmy air produce sensations alto*
gether indescribable, and associa-
tions correspondent. They were
verv pleasant, but not a little tinged
with melancholy. The days of
former years rolled over my soul,
and while I felt happy I could
scarcely refrain from tears. I was
transported to those delicious days
which I passed in College. I felt
that if it were possible, I would
gladly live them over again. Hap-
py juvenile days, free from care
and sorrow !"

Having graduated at Nassau
Hail, our young friend spent one
year in this city, in the study of
the Hebrew ianeus^e, under the
tuition of that distinguished lin-
guist, the Rev. Dr. Banks, of the
Associate church; and of mental
science and theology, under the di-
rection of his pastor. To each of
these instructors he appeared to be
a student of unusual promise; and
to acquire knowledge with more
than common facility.

His next scene of study was in
the Theological Seminary at Prince-
ton, New Jersey, in which he con-
tinued for the space of two years
and six months, rsepected and be-
loved both by the professors and
students of that important school of
the prophets.

In April, 18S5» Mr. Stuart was
licensed to preach the gospel by the
Frei^ytery of Philadelphia, and in
OctobNer following commenced a
missionary tour ofduty in the State
of Ohio and Indiana. A few brief
extracts from his private journaU
written while engaged in that ser-
vice, will exhibit something of his



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Memoir of the Rev. James ff. Stuart.



May,



humility, ff^ilj jealousy over him-
8elf, and desire to build up the Re-
deemer's kingdom. Under date of
Nov. 12th, 1825, he thus writes:
«« Are my labours here of any user
This is a question I can scarcely



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