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has recently been occasioned by the publick avowal on the part of the government,
of its dispomtion to grant the Cathohck claims. It appears that the King and bis
ministry are decidedly in favour of this measure. Mr. Peel, who has heretofore bean
openly and actively hostile to any further concessions to the Catholicks^ has changed
bis opinion, and become their warmest advocate. In concert with the Premier, the
Duke of Wellington, he arranged the whole plan of the chan^ contemplated, before
the meeting of Parliament, and announced the chance of his sentiments to Uie Uni-
versity of Oxford, and rerirned his seat in the nationiu le^slature, as their represent-
ative. On a new election, his rival, Sir Robert Inglis, obtained a decided majority over
him, but he still went forward, as one of the ministers of the crown. He brought the
projected plan before the Commons, on the 5th of March, explained its nature and
probable effects, and stated, with great apparent frankness, the reasons which had
uifluenced him, at the expense both of private friendship and publick trust, to change
his former sentiments on this important question, ana to tsdce the course he was
then pursuing^. He was frequently interrupted by the cheering of the members, and
on the following evening, the 6th of March, the resolution which he submitted was
carried by the overwhelming majority of 188 votes^for the resolution, 348, against it,
160. The resolution went to the bringing in of two bills^ one for repealing all the acts

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aninfll the RoiiitnC«lhttB^f» tiid spedfyingtheir future privileges; the other fbrrtififii^
tae pecunJMy qualification fortbe elective franchise of freeholdeza in Ireland, from forty
duUings to ten pounds. Mr. Peel's speech on this occasion, continued for four hours;
and to such perfeetioD is stenography and printinff carried in London, that in less
than an hoar al^er he finished, a complete copv, from the press, was put into his
hands, while yet in the bouse. We have caremlly penised the whole of this speech.
It is certainly able and convincing; but it is heavy in the reading, and far inferior in
perspicuity and point, and indeed in every other attribute of a masterly speech, to that
of lir. Cook in the Synod of Ulster, the conclusion of which is inserted in our pre-
vent number.

On the 17tb and 18th of March, when the second reading of what was now deno-
minated The CathoHck ReHefBiU, was moved by Mr. Peel, a very animated and pro-
tmcted debate took place. The King^s attorney general came out against the bill, in
a speech of great length and great acrimony. He doubted whether be could consider
himself as the King's attorney general or not ; as it was known by the speedi from the
throne, as well as from the ministry in Pariiament, that his Majesty was in favour of the
bill. But he avowed his opposition, be the conseauences what they might, to the
whole of •* this atrocious bilf.'^ He declared that he bad refused to draft it, and that
he should consider himself as having viohited his official oath, if he had penned a sin-
gle line of it$ and he broadfy intimated that, in his judgment, the King would viohtte
his coronation oath, if he should approve the bill The applause of the attorney gene-
nl, by his side of the bouse, at the close of his speech, waa lon^ and loud; and when
Mr. Peel rose to reply, the cheering of his party chimed in with that of their oppo*
fients^ so that for some time the respondent could not proceed; and the house of
Parliament must have very much resembled what takes pbice when two of our op-
posing street mobs happen to meet and Aarra, one for Adams, and the other for JacK-
son. We hope that this hurraing^ or cheering^ (c'm le mane choBe^) will always be con*
fined to our streets, if it must exist any where, and never be adinitted into our halls
of legishtion. It is a disgrace to any grave assembly. The Catholick relief bill was
carried for the second reading, by a majority of 180— Ayes, 353— Noes, 173. The
next evening, the second rea£ng of the elective franchise bill was carried by a major-
ity of 206— Ayes, 332— Noes, 16. The noted Mr. Huskisson refused to give any vote
on this bill. There is not a doubt that both these bills will be carried most trium- .
phantly through the Commons House of Parliament. We believe they will also pas%
tiioiigfa with great opposition, the House of Lords. In that house the Duke of Wel-
lington has already aefended the first with considerable ability, and explicitly declared
that it has the cordial approbation of the King. The Duke, doubtless, understands
fitting better than debating; but his talenu seem to be versatile, and he appears
with great advantage as a statesman, as well as a warrior. We extremely regret that
he has lent his example to countenance the detestable and murderous practice of duel*
ling. It appears that the Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham addressed a note on
the 14th of March, to the Secretary of the Committee for esUblishiog the Kind's Col-
lege, London, and caused it to be published, in which he charges the Duke with
having played the hypocrite, in a speech which he made about a year ago, in rela-
tion to this college^ and in which he spoke with earnestness in iiivour of religion, and
of the English esUblished church. He did this, says the Earl, that •* he might the
Bwre effectually, under the cloak of some outward show of zeal for the Protestant

siandfer, he would probably have recovered some fifty or a hundred thousand pounds
tteriing, which he might have presented to the languishing funds of Kmg's College;
and surely no one would have imputed this proceeding to cowardice, in the Duke of
WeUington. But, no— nothing but a duel could settle this affair of honour. The
Eari appears to have been sensible, before he fought the Duke, that he had done
wrong; for he carried in his pocket his written acknowledgment to this effect, when
he went to the combat. He received the Duke's fire, and narrowly escaped with his life;
the ball discharged at him having struck the lappel of his coat. Theh he fired his pis.
to! in the air, drew out his written acknowledgment, and sent it by his second to the
Duke, who accepted it as sufficient, and thus the matter ended.— What a contempti*
hie fiffce ! ! If schoolboys should thus egregiously and wickedly play the fool, they
would receive both scorn and chastisement. The Duke of Wellington foigot that in
fifi^htinsf this duel, he gave fiir greater evidence that he had no sincero regard to reli-
gion, than was to be £rived from the Earl of Winchelsea'a charge, although he had
never retracted it.— A rush, indeed, for the religion of any duellist!

Meetings have Uken place in Scotland, to express their approbation of the deter-
mination of the British nunistiy to remove the disabilities of the Catholicks. t At one

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238 l^ttw ijf Pviliek Jtffmt. Mat,

of tli€fe in Edinbufvlit Dr. Cbalnien is stited to litve made % ipeech wl^dl outdid
all hU former outdoing*. He ooiwidered the subject, however, oikly under its reU-
gious aspect, and endeavoured to sbow-^and from what we hare seen of his speech
we think he did show most concIasively - 4faat the abominations of Popery will be
met and correoted with unspeakably greater advantage and effeot, when the State
abstains Irom persecution, than they ever were, or couhl be, while that penecution
lasted. The billin question places the Roman Catholics^ in regard lo civil rights and
privileges, entirely on equal ground with the Protestantf, saving cnly some provi-
lions intended to secure the Protestant succession to the crown, and the claims of the
established church. Tbe Jesuits are to be registered, and no accession to the number
now in the kingdom is to be permitted.

We have allowed ourselves to go into more than usual detail on this subject, because
it accoida with the nature of our work, and because we thought it would be giatily*
ing to those of our readers— and we undersund they are not a few— who seldom pe-
rase secular newspapers. For ourselves, we sincerely rejoice in tbe prospect that
the Papists in Britain are hereafter to be free from persecution. We rejoice in it
because we think that all persecutipn for religioos opinions is wron^ in itself and
directly hostile to the entire spirit of the Gospel: and we rejoice in it too^ because
we firmly beheve, with Dr. Chalmers, that the errors of Poperr wtU be combatted
with tenfold effect, when those who hold them are not led to defend them as a mat-
ter of pride, and from a spirit of resistance to a force to which it would be cowardly
and di^faceful to yield, and from dreading the imputation of being influenped, in
changing their relirton, hj a regard to worldly emolument Thie Christianity hss
always best retained iU purity, and flourished most, when worldly power and policy
have had nothing to do with it. The infidels of our country are trying to propagate
an opinion that the church to which we belong is seeking to obtain a secular establjsb-
ment. But we can tell them, and aU who have been so lar misled as to believe them, that
if such an establishment were offered to our church, we shoidd consider its acceptance
as the greatest calamity and curse that could befall her.-*Yes, and we solemnly believe
our church would spurn any such offer with the utmost abhorrence, convinced that
its acceptance would work her ruin insimd of advancing her interest. We shall risk
being thought to assume unduly, so fiff as to say, that from age and good means of
observation, we know as much of the Presbyterian Church aa any other indivi.
dual in it, or out of it i and we explicitly and unequivocally dedare, that we do not
know of an individual in this church who wishes- that the State sliould do more for
her than for any other church in the land ; nor do more for any, or aU, than consints
in protecting the rif^hts of conscience, and not inftinging those sscred institationi
which are equally beneficial to all denomination^ and essential to tbe presemUioQ of
dvi! liberty, and the happiness and prosperity of the whole cooimuni^.

Since writing the above, an arrival mm London brinn intelBgenoe to the Slat of
March. It states that *«the Roman Catholick Helief Bill wu taken up on the third
reacting in the House of Commons on tiie 30th, and after a long and warm debate^
was pMsed by a Tote of 320 to 142— majority, 178, and sent to the House of Lor&
for concurrence.— The Irish finty shillings Disfranchisement BiU was also read a
third time, and passed."

Fraitgs is tranquil; the speech of the Monarch at the late opening of the Legisladve
Chambers, is matly laude^ and the measures he recommended are, we suppose, likely
to be adopteo. Among other things the King promised to punish the Algerines ; and
it is now stated that he is making arrangements with other EuApean courts, especially
with England, to obtain the consent of the Grand Turk to suppress all the Barbary
powers.— Time onljr can show how this will eventuate. We were glad to observe an
article in the pubhck papers, myinjr that all the private theatres in Paris are sup*
pressed by authority, on account of their unfriendly influence on morals. Such is
notorious^ the influence of ail theatres, both pubFick and private, and it were weU
for the world if they were all closed, and never again to be opened.

8riJir,-^adiz, by a decree of the King, is declared to be a firee PoK; and the
inhabitants, as an expression of gratitude, have agreed to present to tneir monarch,
what he veiy much needed, a large sum of money, as an acknowledgment for tbe

PoaroeAK is still subject to the tymnny and oppression of the usurper Don Migud ;
whose sanguinary thifst seems to be insatiaUe. The coantnr* however, is not quiet,
and Don Pedro» it is sakl, is deteimined yet to make good hia chdm to tbe Earopean
possessions of his ancestors.

Bom.— Pope Leo XII. has paid the debt of nature. The dftrdinals, at the last ac-
counts, were in conclave, but no election of a successor to Leo had been made. As

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URial, the eoortoof Atifttrift and France were intriguing^, each for its ftvourite candidate
— >a Pope who shall &vour the nation tbar secvred his election. What soK oiin/alUlnHiy
in spintual concern oniat that be» which is obtained in this manner ! Some insurrec-
tionary novemenu in Borne are announced as having occurred on the death of the Ute
Pontifif but they were easily put down.

Gaiici is slowly advancing to order, and, we hope^ to, happiness; but we have
nothing of much tntereat to report, that could be esteemed novel. Education is encou-
nged; nany captive^ carried away by the Turks, have returned; piracy is nearly at
an end ; and there appears at piiesent, a real disposition in the Allied Powers to
fender Greece an independent country.

RessiA, it appears^ is folly bent on prosecuting the war against Turkey ; and a
treaty is said to nave been negotiated with Prussia, not merely for neutrality, but for
ttd, to the amount of some twenty or thirty thousand troops, if they shall be needed.
Two Turkish fortresses, of considerable importance, have been compelled to capitu-
late during the winter; a Turkish flotilla has also been captured, and some other ad-
vantages have been obtained on the shores of the Black Sea. Count Wittgenstein, at
his own request, and, as he states^ solely en account of his advanced are, haa
resiimed the chief command of the army employed against the l^irks. He published
bis farewell sddress at his head quarters, at Jassy, on the 27th of February. He tells
his fellow soldiers that he had served in the Russian armies forty years, extols their
bravely, speaks highly of the services rendered and the conquests made in the last
campaign, and recommends his successor to their confidence and support. That sue*
cessor. Count Diebitsch, published his addresa on the same day. He speaks in warm
cooimendatoi^ language of his predecessor, remarks of himself that he had been
** brought up m the ranks" of the Russian army, and in reference to the chief com-
mand, says^^ I feel the importance of this trust, and hope to execute it successfully,
with the aid of Divine Providence.** fie concludes his address in these words:—
^ May God aid us, and we will then prove that nothinff is impossible to the brave sol-
diem of the Russian army, when, that army is contending for the &ith, the Emperor»
and the country.'* Whence does it happen that the Russian generals, and monarcha
too, more frequently and ezplicitiy acKnOwledge their dependence on tlie God of
Providence* than any others of whom we have knowledge ? Is the marked success of
the Russian arroa attributable, in any measure, to this f We leave these questions for
the conaidemtioQ of our readers.

TirmKXY.— The Sultan perseveres in preparing for war, with the utmost activity and
energy; and ^et we gather from what transpires, that he is really alarmed at his situ^
Ation, and deaooua or peaces if he could obtain it without making sacrifices wounding
to his pride, and perhaps hazardous to his throne and his life. The Russiana seem
likely to aucoeed m cuttii^ off supplies of provisions to Constantinople, by water
conveyance. It ia ssid that a severe scarcity is already experienced: and as not only
the capital, but other towns and regions of the Turkiah Empire in Europe, have here-
tofore been dependent on foreign supplies, especially on tne bread stuffs that came
Irom Egypt and the Crimea, if theae sources fail, as it seems probable at present that
they waip the suffering roust be intense, and at length intolerable. A bloody conflict,
however, seems unavoidable in the opening campaign, and Ha who ruleth in the
heavena alone knowa how he idll award the issue.

From Asia and ArmzcA we have, at present, no communications to make.

Bvairoa Anas.— The civil war which is now carried on in the United Provinces, of .
which Buenoa Ayres is considered as the chief, is occssioned by a difference of opi-
nion in regard to the form of government. Heretofore the system established has
been, like our own, a federal government. To this form the present dominant party
in Buenos Ayres, of which General LavaUe is the head, are decisively opposed. It is
maintained that one and the same government ought to be extended over all the pro-
vinces ;— that diere should be but one legislative body, and one set of executive officer^
for the whole. LavmHe is triumphant in Buenos Ayres, which is represented as tranquil
rince the death of the late governor Dorrego, mtntioned in our last number. Some of
the other provinces, however, particulariy Santa Fe, are decidedly opposed to the Vm-
tatiatiM, as the party of LavaUe are denominated. Lopez is the governor of Santa Fe,
and the opponent of LavaHe. The latter, however, seems likelv to prevail, and we fear,
from hiflf proceeding in the ease of Dorrego, that he is a man or blood. -Some overtures
for negotiation have been made, but it is to be apprehended that the sword alone
will decide the oontR>versy.«~Tbe paper cnrrency of Bueitos Ayres is greatly depre-

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240 Vierv qfPubUck Affavrs. May,

Bbavii«— *The Emperor Don Pec}ro has the pmq^eot of a vir ifil|i Porlu^ for
which he tfeeois but badly prepared. His finances are veiy low, occasioned. It is sud,
'not only by his late war with Buenos Avres, but chiefly by the exportmtion of the pre-
cious metals, in carnrme on the horrible slave trade. The number of slaves brought
from Africa has nearly <toubled within a few years— in 1828 it amounted to forty-four
thousand. Will a just God award prosperity to suph a natbn as this!

CoxovBiA.— The Oaceia de Cartagena of the 22d of March, says : ■* We have
the aatisfiiction to state that Colombia is perfectly tmn^iK and that there is nothing
now to apprehend fit>m internal enemies. I%e province of Pasto is entirely under
Uie protection c^ the liberatok*; and according to letters fitHB Bogota, even Obando
had repented and followed the commisnoners of the Liberator, who were charged
with settling the terms of pardon granted in Popayan to the revolutionists. Every
body has ;^elded to the generosity of the Liberator, and Colombia, now essts by her
magnanimity, wisdom and prudence, and by her constant wAtchfiilhess."

The ssme psper of the 8th, says, that official information had at length been received
from Bolivia and the South of Peru, that the inhabitants had come out openlv against
the faaion directed by Gen, Lamar, and that peace would be the inevitabk conse-

We learn that Gen. Santander still remuned in confinement at ftoca Chica.

The foregoine article, containing the most recent intelligence firom Colombia, is
from a New York paper of the 16th of April.

Msxico.— We extract the following article finim Poukon's American Daily Adver-
tiser, of the 38th of April.^« llie British Packet Skylark, sailed from Vera Cruz on
the 8th of March, bound to England, having on boanl Gomez Pedraza, who was re-
cently elected President of the l&publick of Mexico, but had been impelled to leave
the country, b^ Gen. Guerrero. He had leave of absence for four -years, the sum of
240,000 was given to him, and he is to be entitled to pay as cotlTmander of four regi-
ments of cavaliy. The day after Pedraza's leaving the country. Gen. St. Anna entered
Vera Cruz, amid the shouts of the multitude. Com. Porter was invited to meet him,
but refiised, giving as s reason that St. Anna had been declared an outlaw, and until
that law Was annulled, he must look upon him as an outlaw. Vera Cruz was healthy
00 the 33d March.''

UirrrsD States^— -Every look which we cast toward the southern part of our conti-
nent, or indeed on the world at Urge, is calculated to impress our minds with a grate-
ful sense of the Divine goodness to our favoured Und. Where do we find another
people enjoyin|^ in an equal deg[ree with ourselves, the blessings of civil and reli^oua
liberty, domesttck peace and quiet, an abundance of the firuits ^ the earth, a healthful
climate, and all the means and opportunities that can reasonaUjr be desired for agri-
cultural, commercial, and mechanical improvement and enterprise, and for advance-
ment in useful knowledge of every kind. Take the aggteg|ate of these blessings, and
compare it with that to which any other people can lay dum, and our decided supe-
riority must at once be admitted. Do we say this for the purpose of boasting? Wo
say it for the purpose of producing shame and humiliatbn before God, for our base
ingratitude to him as a nation. While he has thus distinguished us by his goodness,
we have in certain respects distinguished ourselves by our sins — by sins which raise a
fearful cry to heaven ag^nst us as a people — Slavery, Intemperance, and Sabbath
breaking, are among the abominations to which we particularly refer. We do not
say that any one of Uiese is as yet carried to as great an extent amon^ us, as it is in
some otli,er states. But we do say, that considering the light and privileges against
which these sins with us are comnutted, our guilt in the commission, however less in
quantity, so to, speak, is awfully aggravated, and lies upon our nation with greater
weight, we fear, than thati^ro^emng from the same causes, which burdens any other
nation under heaven. The vices we have mentioned, with many others, are cherished by
a krge part of our population, and some of them are openly defended Sabbath break-
ing especially, is in the strictest sense a national tin^ because it is not only allowed,
but enjoined, by the national legislature. In these circumstances, it is some relief to
the minds of the pious and reflecting, to observe the exertions that are making by co-
lonization societies, temperance societies, and associations for promoting the better
observance of the Sabbath, to correct the evils to which we hsve referred. Let the
friends of these institutions know, that they are labouring to save their country, as
well as to serve their God. Let them know that they are acting both as patriots and
as Christians. Let nothing discourage or dishearten them. I^t them unite, and la-
bour, and prav; and then.Siey will have reason to hope that* under the Divine bless-
ing, the population of tliis heaven favoured land will be turned to the Lord, and his
di^leasure be turned away from them.

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(Continued fiom pa^e 197.)

We DOW proceed to coosider
more particularly

II. What the second command*
ment forbids. "The second com-
mandment,'' sajs our Catecbismi^
*' forbiddeth the worshipping of God
bj images, or anj other way not ap-
pointed in his word.*' It majgr be
proper at entering on the conside*
ration of the prohibitions in this
commandment, to remark that thej
relate exclusively to the making,
and use of images for religious pur-
pooeo. *' It is lawful,'' sajs Fisher
m bis Catechism, ** to have images
or pictures of mere creatures, pro-
vided they be only for ornament ;
or the design be merely historical;
to transmit the memory of. persons
and their actions to posterity."
The tabernacle of Jehovah made by
his order in the wilderness, and
especialljr the temple erected for
bis worship and with his approba-
tion by Solomon, callcM into exer-
cise, very extensively, many of
those which are now aenominated
"the fine arts." Your perceive
then, that the statuary, the painter,
the engraver, the worker in metals,
or any other artist, who employs
his skill, on sensible and created

Vol. VII— (a. Mv.

objects, or even on objects of fancy
—if fancy do not intrude on the pre-
ro^tives of God, or cause his wor-
ship to be desecrated by the pro-
ductions of his art — is not to be con-
sidered as violating this command-
ment in any respect or degree—
The command relates only to
images, made for, and employed in
the worship of God.

We have already, in explaining
the import of the first command-
ment, considered at some length
the sin of idolatry; and I had oc-
casion then to remark, that if wor-
ship be paid to an image of any
kind, there is, in every such act, a
violation of the first precept of the
decalof ue, as well as of the second.
Now if images be used at all in re-
ligious service, all experience shows
that they will be worshipped. Ad-

Online LibraryAshbel GreenThe Christian advocate → online text (page 35 of 93)