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vited to attend. The forenoon was
devoted to player and praise, and
reading certain portions of Scrip-
ture. After one or more prayers



had been offered, in which no notice
was taken of seamen, the venerable
father Eastburn arose, and with an
angel ick countenance, and a face
flushed with holy zeal exclaimed—
*0 Moderator, mieht I request that
some notice would be taken of the
poor seamen!' A thrilling sensa-
tion pervaded the Assembly, and it
is unnecessary to say, tliat the poor
seamen were taken notice of in the
remaining prayers."



From UtteWs " Rememh^r Me."
IDLE WORDS.
I HAYS a high lenie of the virtae and
dignity of the female character; and would
not, by any meani, be thought to attribate
to the ladies emphatically, the fault here
■poken of. But I have remarked it in
•ome of my friends, who, in all but thie,
were among the loveliest of their sex. In
■ueh the blenush is more distinct and strik-
ing, because so strongly contrasted with
the superior delicacy ana loveliness of their
natures.

" Mt God !" the beauty oft ezclaim'd,
With deep impassioned tone —

Brt not in bumble prayer she named
The High and Holy One !

Twas not upon the bended knee,
With soul upraised to Hearen,

Pleading, with heartfelt a^ony,
That she might be forgiven.

Twas not in heayenly strains to raise

To the great Source of good,
Her daily offering of praise, .

Her song of gratitude.

But in the gay and thoughtless crowd,

And in the festive hall,
'Mid scenes of mirth and mockery proud,

She named the Lord of all !

She called upon that awful name,
When laughter loudest rang —

Or when the flush of triumph came, —
Or disappointment's pang !

The idlest thing that flattery knew.

The most unmeaning jest,
From those sweet lips pio&nely drew

Names of the Holiest !

I thoughts— how sweet that Toice would be,
Breathing this prayer to heaTen—

" My God ! I worship only thee,
O, be my sins forgiven !"

W. C.



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M^CaUa on Christian Baptism^



t5



A D18OV8SIOK ON Christian Bap-
tism, as to Us stdrject, its mode,
Us history, and its effects, upon
qml and religiotis society. In
opposition to the views of Mr*
AiexandeT Campbell, as expressed
in a seven days^ debate with the
author, at Washington, JKsn-
tucky, October, 1823, and in his
spftrious publication of that de-
bate, and of a previous one, of
two days, inth the Rev. John
Walker, of Ohio. And in oppo-
sition to the views of the cele-
hrated Mr. Bobinson, and other
Baptist authors. In two volumes.
By W. L. M'Calla, Pastor of
Hie Eiehth Fresbuterian Church,
FhilaSslphia, and author of '*Jt
Discussion of Universalism.^^
VoLL Philadelphia. Published
by Qearge M'Laughlin* 1828.
pp. 398.

This work is understood to con-
tain the substance of the arguments
used by the Rev. Mr. M'CalLa, in a
seven dajs' dispute with one Alex*
ander CampbelU in Washington,
Kentucky. It appears that, after
settling preliminaries, the parties
met ; and, in the presence of a vast
multitude of people, discussed the
sobject of infant baptism, during
the space of seven days, in alternate
speeches, of a limited length.

From the work now under re-
view, and from other sources, we
learn that Mr. Campbell had been
before engaged in a controversy, on
the same subject, and . conducted
in a similar manner, with a Mr.
Walker^ of the state of Ohio; and
that, at the close of the dispute, he
had openly challenged any Peedo-
baptist to meet him, and publickly
discuss the subject. This challenge,
it seems, was the occasion of bring-
ing about the meeting between
M'Calla and Campbell. The cor-
respondence which took place, and



the events which occurred previ-
ously to the time agreed upon for
the dispute, were published by Mr.
M'Calla, in a pamphlet, some time
since. Mr. Campbell has also ffiven
to the publick a narrative of the
controversy, with a view of the ar-
guments on both sides. His book
we have not seen ; but Mr. M'Calla
has made us, in some measure, ac-
quainted with its spirit and con-
tents, by his citations from it; and
bj his animadversions on the par-
tiality of the author, in represent-
ing the arguments of his opponent *
Before we proceed to make an^
remarks on tne work before us, it
may not be amiss to inquire, whe-
ther this mode of controversy is
useful and expedient? And the
answer to this question must be
made out, b^ a comparison of the
good and evil, which commonly is
the consequence of such disputes in
the presence of the multitude. For,
to the most superficial observation,
it is evident, that the eflfects are
neither unmixed good or evil. Some
of the benefits are, that the atten-
tion of the publick is strongly
drawn to the consideration of the
points in dispute; and, if the dis-
cussion is conducted with any de-
cree of ability, there must be a
large increase of knowledge to
many among the auditors. The
great bulk of the people are in such
a state of apathy, in regard to the
doctrines and institutions of the
Bible, that unless their attention is
aroused by something of an exciting
nature, in the midst of the means of
instruction they will remain nearly
as ignorant as the heathen. Be-
side, it aifords to those who have
been misled by viewing only one
side of a subject, an opportunity of
knowing what can be said on the
other side: And, although preju-
dice and sectarian feelings are,
with the most, sufficiently strong



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to shield them against conTiction;
yet there will always be found some
candid, impartial persons, who are
sincerely seeking for truth; and
these, often, have had no favourable
opportunity of weighing the evi-
dence, for and against the point in
dispute. Moreover, as evidence is
always On the side of truth, it is for
its advantage that every subject
should be thoroughly discussed;
for the probability is, that in such
a conflict, truth will prevail. Be-
sides, many persons who hoUl
opinions which are disputed, main*
tain them hesitatingly; because they
are afraid that possibly those who
oppose them, may have arguments
sufficient to overthrow their opi-
nions: but when they are permitted
to hear a publick discussion, in
which all the ingenuity and learn*
ing of an able oppoaent are ex-
hausted in assailing them, without
effect, their faith becomes irm,
when before it was wavering. This
scene, also, furnishes a severe test
of the moral temperament of the
disputants. We t;an scarcely con-
ceive of any situation, in which a
greater combination of qualities are
requisite to enable a man to act as
becomes the Christian character.
Some of these, indeed, belong to the
natural constitution; but the most
important qualifications for a Chris-
tian polemick, are of the moral or
religious kind. *' Meekly to in-
struct those . who oppose them-
aelves," is no easy task. To ^ con-
tend earnestly for the faith," and
yet employ no •• carnal weapons,"
requires a heart disciplined m the
school of ^race. To feel that an
advantage is gained over an adver-
sary, and yet experience no vain
self-exultation, is not the attain-
ment of even every good man.
Some disputants seem to think they
have attained th« point of excel-
lence in publick controversy, when .
they keep clear of anp;er, and the

gerturbation of mortified pride;
vt, while they shun one evil, they
fell into anolfaeK They vanifett



to all, that their good nature is the
effect of consummate, over- weening
vanity.

But the evils which attend this
species of controversy, are also nu«
merous. Among the chief, we may
reckon the an^ry and malevolent
feelings which it is apt to generate,
in the minds of the partisans of the
respective disputants, if not in
themselves. These feelings are
commonly so strong, that no argu-
ments employed in the refutation
of error, have the least effect in
producing conviction. How sel-
dom has it been known, that the
opinions of any one were changed
by hearing a publick controversy?
The victory is commonly claimed
by both parties, if the abilities of
the combatants are any how equally
balanced. Moreover, it is certain,
that the majority of a^lcrge promis-
cuous assembly, in no country, are
capable of understanding and ap-
preciating the force and bearing of
arguments brought forward in con-
troversy. A satirical stroke, or a
lively sally of wit, or happy repar-
tee, produces on the multitude*
much greater effect than the strong*
est reasonings. Much depends also
on the acuteaess, promptness, and'
self-possession of the disputants.
Often, a man by a happy constita-
tional temperament, united with
quickness of conception, and readi«
ness of utterance, and an imposing
air of confidence, will, in the judg-
ment of a promiscuous assembly,
gain the advantage over an antago-
nist greatly his superior in abilities,
and who has truth on his side.

Another evil of controversy so
conducted, is, that it generates and
exasperates tlw spirit of disputation
among the people; so that not only
is Christian affection obstructed in
its exercise, but social harmony,
among oeigbboiirs, is interrupted.
And whatever may be said of the
benefits of well-conducted cootro- ^
versy, to the intelligent and think-
ing part of the community, it is oti-
vious, thnt n spirit of eontrsv^rsy



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among the people comraonly, is a
great evil; which is not compen-
sated bj any increase of knowledge
which some of them may, bj this
■leans* obtain*

Oar answer to the question pro-
posed then, is, that, in general, the
evils of such controversies, before
the multitude, overbalance the ad*
vantages: but there are doubtless
occasions and exigencies, when thej
become not onlj expedient, but oe-
cessarj, for the vindication of truth.
There are in the world, vain, arro-
gant, dogmatical polemicks, who,
unless their moutns are stopped,
will do much to subvert the truth,
and to unsettle the minds of the
people f" for their word will eat as
doth a canker," "and overthrow
the faith of some." Such men be-
came verj troublesome and pesti-
ferous in the primitive churches,
before the death of the apostles, as
we learn from the latest writings
of Paul and Peter, and from the
eprstle of Jude.

Now, when such disseminators
of error, and disturbers of the
peace of the church, appear, it is
expedient for those whom God has
endowed with the talents requisite
for the publick defence of the truth,
to stand forth, and resist the tor*
rent of heresy and disorder, which
threatens destruction to the heri-
tage of the Lord. fFhen the exi-
gencj exists, which calls for this
8])ecies of warfare, must be deter-
mined by the circumstances of the
case; and every man, with the ad-
:vice of pious and judicious friends,
must determine for himself, whe-
ther he is qualified to support the
honour of divine truth, in such a
publick contest. And, although
" the servant of the Lord must not
strive,** without just cause, or about
things of small consequence; yet,
he ** must contend earnestly for the
faith;'* and is not at liberty, in the
indulgence of his own feelings, or
Vol yiI^Ch.Mv.



25

to gratify the fastidious taste of
others, to shrink from the contest,
in which the cause of God and
truth is involved.

The author of the book, now un-
der review, has already published
the argument of a controversy, held
in Philadelphia, with a bold adversa-
ry of the truth; and however the pru-
dent roieht have disapproved of the
undertaking; vet, it must be now
apparent to all the friends of truth,
that in this instance, the result of
publick controversy was very fa-
vourable; for it had the effect' of
checking the progress of a pesti-
ferous error, and of silencing the
arrogant boasting of a man who
had, for a long time, defied the ar-
mies of the living God. Let those
who, in all cases, disapprove such a
mode o&discussing theological sub-
jects, inform us how the same ef-
fect could have been produced by
other means; or let them acknow-
ledge that there are occasions when
such controversy is lawful.

Publick controversy, viva voce,
was so much in vogue, in every
part of Europe, in the period pre-
ceding the Reformation, that it is
not surprising that all the reformers
were frequently engaged in dis-
putes of this kind, with their ad-
versaries of the Romish church.
And, indeed, when the art of print-
ing was in its infancy, there was a
much stronger reason for resorting
to this method of vindicating the
truth and refuting error, than exists
at present, when books and tracts
can be so easily put into circula-
tion. As it may serve to give the
reader some idea of the state of re-
ligious controversy at that period
and afterwards, we shall briefly
mention some of the principal po-
lemical discussions, which have
been held by eminent men, in dif-
ferent places.

(7^ be continued,)



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IMerary and FhHoMphk&L MdUgence.



Javt.



Xtttrarp atiti f^j^tio^Ojpgual ^nteliigetice, etc.



Tke Uvd of the 5etf/— Therak, perhaps,
nothing which illiutcates in a more etrik-
ing manner the exact accordance of Na-
ture 'a phenomena with the few ^neral
expreMions or laws which descrilw them
al1,^ban the perfect level of the ocean aa
a liquid surface. The sea never rises or
falls in any place, even one inch, but in
obedience to fixed laws, and these changes
may generally be foreseen and allowed for.
Tor instance, the eastern trade winds and
other causes force the water of the ocean
towards the African coast, so as to keep
the Red Sea about twenty feet above the
general ocean level ; and the Mediterra-

^ nean Sea is a little below that level, be-
cause the evaporation from it is greater
than the suppl^ of its rivers^-causinff it to
receive an additional supply by the Strait
of Gibraltar; but in all snch cases the ef-
fect is as constant as the disturbing cause,
and therefore can be calculated upon with
confidence. "Were it not for this perfect
exactness, in what a precarious state would
the inhabitants exist on the sea-shores and
on the banks of low rivers ! Few of the in-
habitants of London, perhaps, reflect, when
standing close by the side of their noble
river, and gazing on the rapid flood-tide
pouring inland through the bridges, that
although sixty miles from the sea, they
are placed as low as persons sailing upon
its face, where perhaps at the time there

, may be tossing waves, covered with wrecks
and the drowning. In Holland, which is
a low flat, formed chiefly bv the mud and
sand brought down bv the Rhine and neigh-
bouring rivers, much of the country is re-
ally below the level of the common spring
tides, and is only protected from daily in-
undations by artificial dykes or ramparts of
great strength. What awful uncertainty
Would hang over the existence of the
Dutch, if the level of the sea were subject
to change ; for, while we know the water
of the ocean to be seventeen miles higher
ftt the equator than at the poles, owing t'o
the centrifugal force of the earth's rota-
tion, were the level now established, from
any eause to be suddenly changed but ten
feet, millions of human beings would be
the victims. — Sc&t&man,

Light of tke GloW'Skea.^The animals
which inhabit shells of the genus Pholas,
have the property of emitting a phosphor-
escent liquor which shines with brilliancy,
and illuminates whatever it touches. This
was observed, even by the ancients ; and
Pliny tells us, that the Pholas sliines in
the mouth of the person who eats it, «nd
renders the hands and clothes luminous
when brodght in contact with them. —
Manjr interesting experiments were made
on this Inroinous matter by the Academi-



cians ofBologna, and the celebrated French
naturalist, Reaumur. It was found that ita
brilliancy was in proportion to its fresh-
ness; but even in a dry state, the phos-
phorescence may be revived bv the appli-
cation of frei^ or salt water, though bran'
dy or ardent spirit of any kind immediate-
ly extinguishes it; and all the acids de-
stroy it entirely. The luminous water,
when poured upon fresh calcined gypsum,
roek-crvstal, or ^aigui, becomes more vi-
vid. Milk rendered luminous bv the li-
quor loses its phosphorescence when mix-
ed with sulphuric acid, but recovers it on
the addition of carbonate of, potash. A
single Pholas renders seven onncesof milk
so beautifully luminona, that it makes all
the surrounding objects visible in the darkv.
But, when the milk is excluded |rom the
air, the light is extinguished. Differently
coloured substances are powerAiUy aflbct-
ed by this kind of light. Whit* appears t9
imbibe and emit the greatest quantity :
yellow and green in less proportions. Red
will hardly emit any light, and violet the
least of all, when the Pholas is put into
glasses tinged with these several colours.

Growth of Oseton.—Cotton grows in the
forests of the torrid regions of Africa and
America, on tall thorny trees, in India on
a lofly shrub, and in Malta and the islands
of the Archipelago, on an herbaceons
plant. '< In Qoxerat," as related in Forbes'
Oriental Memoirs, the '* rice and cotton
fields are both planted at the commence-
ment of the rainy season in June. The
former is sown in fbrrows, and reaped in
about three months; the cotton shrub,
whioh grows to the height of three or foor
feet, and in verdure resembles the currant
bush ; requires a longer time to brinff its
delicate produce to perfection. — Triese
shrubs, planted between the rows of rioe,
neither impede its growth, nor prevent it
being reaped. Soon after the rice harvest
is over they put forth a beautiful yellow
flower, with a crimson eye in each petal;
this is succeeded br a i^een pod, filled with
a white string:y pulp ; the pod inms brow«
and hard as it ripena, and then separatee
into two or threo divisions containing the
cotton. A luxuriant field, exhibiting at
the same time the expanding bloesom, the
bursting capsule, and the snowy flakes ef
ripe cotton, is one of the most beautiful
objects in the agriculture of Hindostan.
Herodotus says, the Indians in his time
possessed a kind of plant, which instead of
ftoit, produced wool, of a finer and better
quality than that of'sheep, of which the na-
tives made their clothes. This plant was
no doubt the same as the modem cotton of
India."

OmUkologiemi FenfyOefMist.— The oele-



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bratflA MiNMieiir Alenndre, whoM powert
of VMitnloqonin iMiTe been ao much ad-
mirod, Mems to be oatdooe id his art by
an AoMrican bird, the vellow-breaited
oiiae (Piprm Polyg^lotU). When the haunt
of thii bod is approachedi be scolds the in*
trader in an endless yariety of odd, un«
oottth monosyllables, difficult to describci
but easily imitated so as to deceive the
bird himself, and draw him onwards to a
good diatanee. In this ease, hie responses
are eonstant and rapid, strongly eipressive
of anxiety and anger ; and, wnile the bird
ia always naaeen, the vcice shifts ftt>m
pbiee to plaee amon^ the bashes, as if pro-
oeeding from a spirit. First are heard
aiMrt notes, like the wfaistlinir of a dock's
wings, befinmnf loud and rapid, and bo>
coming lower and slower till they end in
detached notes. Then anooeeila aome-
thing like the barking of young poppiea,
felkwad by a vaiiety of anttoral sounds
like those of the same qoaoiupc^, and end-
ing like the mewing of a cat, bat nocb
hoarser. All tkeae are given with great ye-
hemenoe, and in difibrent keys so as to. ap^
pear eometimae at a great diatanee, and in-
atantly again quite near you. in mild, ee-
rone moon-light nights,«it codtinues this
motley medley of ventriloquiam the whole
night kmg, reaponding to its own echeea.
jjhnsr. OmttMagy.
JMmal ChmrcomL — Some yeara ago, the
newspapera gave an account of an eetab-
lishment at Copenhagen, in which the
charcoal made from bones was used with .
great success in the purification of eonmoo
oils, whilst the gas which was generated
eejved to light a great part of the neigh-
iMurhood. An establisnment of this kind
IS being formed at Stockholm. It is said
that tlSe most rancid fish oils are made
conal to the finest sperm oil by the use
or this charcoal; and that in consequence
of the profit resulting from its employment
in that way, the gas which the bones give
out in great abundance can be supplied at
a much eheaper rate than the gas obtained
from eoab. It is rather singular, that the
experiment has not been UiSd in this coun-



qnaaCity of gold that was thrown away
with it* Of^late, a peraon poaaeaaed of



aome chemical knowledge, is aaid to have
made an handsome livehhood, by bstroct-
ing jewellers, at the rate or five guineas
each, in a method of recovering gold con-
tained in the washings. This method con-
sists simply in adding a folotion of coppe-
ras, which precipates the gold, and then
fitting the residuum with nitre, by which
the iron in combination is oxydated, and
the goM left in a pure state.

In boring for water on the island, at the
upper end of this village, owned by Mr.
Sewell, a vein of water was struck at the
depth of 160 feet, which emits an inflam-
mable gas in large quantities. It is so per-
fectly free from the nauseous smell of the
oil gas, that its existence was discovered
only by the casual introduction of a light
into the mouth of the well.— ^eeertoien
Register.

Gtiiger.— A specimen of the growth of
native ginger, has been left with us bv Mr.
Raiford, wno has raised it succeasfuUy for
four veara oast, on common land, and ex-
posed to all the variations of our climate.
That in ouroffice, was planted in February
last, is now in full vigour and luxuriancsi
and in a few weeks would ripen. From
several experiments made in its culture on
a small scale, it might, it is thought, be
made a profitable article, considering the
demand for it. — Savannah Georgian.

Gas Spring.— The Utica (N.Y.) Senti-
nel gives an account of the discoverv of a
Gas Spring near the Universalist Cfhurch
in that village. It bums with great inten-
sity, and afibrds a brilliant light. Mea-
i are taken to confine it, wita a view of



"^el



i Paris Journal do Cemmeroe of the
ISth of Oetober, announces that a young
Fkanehmanf M. CaiUet, had penetrated to
Timkmetaa in Africa, and was soon to be in
Paria firom Toulon, where be bad arrived
ett hie relnru. He waa ad dr e aa ed to the
Cteagraphieal Society of Pane by the
French Conanl at Tangiem.

€f0ld Watkingt, — Strange aa it may m-
pear, it is a ftct, that till very lately the
jewellers were in the constant practice of
throwing away the water into which they
4ip artielee of jewellery after they are taken
ent of the boil (a menstruum of nitro-mn-
ffiatie acid, employed to give them a high
iniih) withoai being at aU aware of Uw



- ascertaining its nature more particularly,
and exhibit its inflammable propertiea
mere readily.

There is now to be seen at the house,
formerly Kirkham'a Hotel, Hartford, the
head ofa aea serpent, fifteen feet in length
and seven feet in width, and said to weigh
laOOihs. It is indeed a curiosity.— Ccmn.
Mirror.

Dyspepsia.— This prevalent, and in many
cases, terrible disease, arising from a de-
ranged state of the liver, u characterixed
by an inordinate acidity of the stomach,
and until this be subdued, the process of
emaciation goes on with a steady pace,
biddipg defiance to all the nostrums and
palliatives so plentifully prescribed.

Having been a severe sufferer, I feel it a
duty to others in my case, to communicate
a simple, safe, and effectual remedy for
the morbid and acid state of stomach al-
luded to. It is nothing more than a strong
tea of WOOD boot, drank freely, cold, at
the pleasure of the patient. Let the expe-
riment be fully made, and if ethers experi*
enoe the same happy result aa myself, theli^



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testimoiij may be given to the publick,
through the channel of your paper, and
prove an eztenaive benefit to the commu-
oity.— %Y. F. Daily Adv.

The potato was at first positively pro-
scribed in France. Baudin relatea* that
in his time its use was prohibited in Bur-
gundy, because il was supposed to eene-
late leprosy ! It was chiefly through the
exertions of the celebrated chymist Pai^-
mentier, that the prejudices of the French
people against it were removed, and that



Online LibraryAshbel GreenThe Christian advocate → online text (page 5 of 93)