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Suided hope of immortality; the
runkard immolates himself, in
spite of reputation, of friends, ahd
of heavenly bliss.

In the preceding list of victints,
are not included those who die in -
directly fro^ intemperance, and
yet these form the most numeroni
class. How many commit suicide ^
Or die from accidents occasioned •
by intemperance I Or take awaj \
the lives of others in their riots, ,
and in turn forfeit their own, as a ^1
penalty to violated law ! Disasters
and diseases of everv description,
take their station as «« body-guards
around the destructive Moloch, and
whom intemperance assails, these
faithful attendants, sooner or later,
seldom fail to despatch.

«< Ardent spirits induce severe
dyspepsia, obstructed and hardened
liver, dropsy, and more than half of
all our chronical diseases.*^ (Dr.
Paris.) ''In moderate doses thej
impart an unnatural excitement;
in excessive draughts, they sud-
denly extinguish life— thus resem-
bling in their effects a number of
deleterious vegetable substances,
such as stramonium, hemlock, the
prussick acid, and opium^ which we
label as poisons, and place beyond
the reach of the imprudent and the
ignorant" (Dr. Drake.) For de-
tails on this head, we must refer
the reader to such essavs of medi-
cal men, as treat the subject scien-
tifically. Stomachick diseases, he-
*patick, pulmonary, dropsical, op-
thalmick, scorbutick, nervous, epi-
leptiek, apoplectick, &c«— all, not



ters i^
ion, \



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SkeUA of the Life of Cyprian.



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ttQfreqiientljr. ar& occasioned by the
use of ardent spirits. ''It gene-
rates a bad kabU of bodj, which
renders the individual liable to vio-
lent attacks Df disease from slight
accidents, and causes various disor-
ders to terminate fatally, which
might otherwise be cured. The
greater mortalitv of their diseases
18 particularly observable in young
men, of which I might relate seve-
ral melancholy eiamples."* The
a^regate of deaths occasioned di-
rectly and indirectly by the use of
ardent spirits, is probably greater
than that arising from the combined
influence of wars and famines, pes-
tilences and earthquakes !

The domeatick concomitants of
intemperance are of yet more fright-
ftti aspect ** Houses without win-
dows, gardens without fences, fields
without tillaee, barns without roofs,
children witnout clothing, princi-
ples, morals, or manners"— Pa-
rents whose locks are like the
fleecy snow, deprived of their only
earthly solace; the itaif on which
they meant to support their totter-
ing steps serving but to pierce their
hands ! Behold the disunited head
of the family— A husband, noisy,
swaggering, profane, obscene; a
wife pale' and mute, too sorrowful
to weep, despairine! Her hard-
earned pittance laid aside to cover
her nakedness, and that of her chil-
dren, has been stolen by her !

and consumed upon his lust! Her
ra^ed and starving children are in
vain importunate tor bread ! How
changed from the sprightly and
blooming form which once shared a
tender father's fireside ! She was
allured away by the man of her af-
fections, who pled^d himself in
the most solemn manner to cherish
her as his own soul-«-now she is a
stranger to every social enjoyment,

* A Diicottrse on Intemperance, deli-
vered at Cincinnati, March Ist, 1828, be-
fore the Agricultural Society of Hamilton
County, by Daniel Drake. M.D., Professor
bi the Medical School at Cincinnati— This
pamphlet merits a careful perusal.



chilled by neglect and poverty, and
not unfrequently, perhaps, assailed
by curses and threats and blows!
Yet this man, who sets before soci-
ety such an example, who taxes the
community for his own support and
the support of his children, who
brings clown the grey hairs of his-
parents with sorrow to the ^rave,
who breaks his solemnly plighted
faith, and causes his partner's heart
to bleed at every pore^^ TAis man
thanks his Maker that he harms no
one but himself.

The domestick evils inflicted by
intemperance are in part uninten-
tional. They arise necessarily out
of the moral malady their subject la-
bours under. He has no positive de-
sign to beggar his wife, or to starve
his babes — perhaps he labours ear-
nestly in his sober moments to
ward off so dire a result: but in-
temperance adds to his expendi-
tures, and subtracts from his days
of profitable employment. It places
himself and family between an
''upper and nether millstone," which
grind them to powder. The death
of the drunkard ''spreads a solemn

§ ratification through society, and
le members of his own family can
scarcely conceal from themselves,
and from each other, how much
they are relieved."

{To b9 concludedin <mr nex$.)



VOB THB CHRlfTIAK ADVOCATE.

A SKECTH or THE LIFE OF CYPRIAN,

BISHOP OF CARTHAGE.

Of the early life of Cyprian we
have scarcely any information, ex-
cept that he was by birth an Afri-
can, and by profession an orator.
Lactantius and Augustine both
speak of his fame as a teacher of
Eloquence. Before his conversion
to Christianity, he was known by
the names of Cyprian and Taschius ;
but bein^ convinced of the truths of
the Christian religion, by the in-
strumentality of Ceecilius, a Pres-



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358



Sketch qftheJAJe of Cyprian.



Aug.



byter of Carthage, he asaamed hia
name for the remainder of his life.
The baptism of C jprian is supposed
to haye taken place about the year
£46 of the Christian era. While
he was a catechumen, be manifested
the sincerity of his profession, bj
givine to the poor the greater part
of a large estate. Not longafter
this, he addressed a letter to l)ona*
tos, which is still extant, and which
abounds more than bis later works
in the decorations of oratory.

About the close of the succeed-
ing year, he was made a presbyter,
and within a period Unusually short,
was called to the Episcopal chair of
Carthage. It is remarkable, that
we hear nothing of his haying pass-
ed through the degree of Deacon,
either in the memoir left by Pon-
tius, or in any of his own works. It
is equally remarkable, that we hear
no one named as his predecessor;
which the Bishop of Chester is con-
strained to acknowledge, although,
by an unwarrantable conjecture, lie
fixes upoh Don^atus as the person.
Whatever may have been the ex-
tent of his episcopal powers, he un-
doubtedly received the office, not-
withstanding the opposition of five
co-presbyters.

From the time of his accession to
office, he seems to have proposed it
to himself as an inviolable nile» to
take no measure without the coun-
sel of the clergy, and the consent of
the people. This is a fact too im-
portant to be omitted, or to be
stated without authority. In a let-
ter written during; his retreat from
persecution, he thus expresses his
opinion : *' A9 to the point concern-
ing which my co- presbyters, Dona-
tus, Fortunatus, Novatus and Gor-
dius have written, I can of myself
say nothing; since from the com-
n^encement of mj episcopate, it has
been my determination to do no-
tliing without your counsel, and
without the consent of the people.''
It was during the year in which he
was constituted Bishop, that he
wrote his book " De Habitu Virgi-



num." — f Concerning the dress of
Virgins.]

In the year d49 commenced the
grievous persecution under the em-
peror Decius, commonly known by
the name of the Seventh Persecu-
tion. Cyprian being a prominent
character, was selected as a signal
example; but deeming it more con-
ducive to the interests of the church
to save his life, than to commit him-
self to the hands of persecutors, he
retreated from the rising storm. On
this occasion, as on many others, he
declared that he had been directed
by a heavenly vision to the course
which he pursued. This seems, in-
deed, in every case» his ** ultima ra-
tio," his standing argument. He
appears to have been favoured, in
every difficult question, with some
divine intimation of diis nature.
Cyprian found it necessary, in more
than one instance, to enter upon a
formal justification of his conduct,
even when what he did appears
plainly to have been a measure of
prudence and duty.

During his retreat, be was by no
means unmindful of the interests of
the church. By frequent letters, he
exhorted his brethren to remember
the duties incumbent on them, and
to be faithful unto death. It was
at this time the more necessary to
stimulate the eourage of believers,
as many were induced by the seve-
ritjT of their torments, to relinquish
their Christian profession, and to
sacrifice to idols. Those who yield-
ed to their persecutors were known
by the name of Lapsi, [the lapsed
or fallen] in opposition to the firm
and resolute, who were called Skm-
tes [the standing or stable]. Such
as burnt incense, in token of syro-
bolizingwith the heathen, were
styled Tlturijicaih [incense offer-
ers*] and those who received instru-
ments of writine from heathen au-
thorities, for their protection, were
the Libellatici* [protected peti-
tioners]. Those who boldly pro-

* LtbeUadd-^Thoae ChristiaiiB, wbO,
that they might not be foiced to Idol wor-



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Sketch of the Life of Cyprian.



359



fessed their faith, even at the risk
of their Uvea, were universally de-
nominated Confessora. It was in
the year 250, during this Tolnntary
exile, that four of the presbytera.
whose names are mentioned above,
requested his opinion upon the ques-
tion—- whether the Lapsed should
be received again into the bosom of
the church, even upon their repent-
ance ? This is deserving of notice,
since it is the first mention of a
question, which afterwards rent the
Christian church.* This was like-
wise the question which he felt him-
self incompetent to answer, without
an appeal to the body of the church,
. laity as well as clergy. On another
occasion he says, in terms even
stronger, that he deemed it neces-
sary to consult, not only with the
clergy, but with the people at large,
'* cum universe plebe.'t [Withuie
whole congregation.3

This was a season of great com-
motion in the church* The ques*
tion had arisen whether the Lapsed
were not to be forever excluded.
Upon this subject, the people, in the
violence of their opposition, were
running to extremes. Novatus, a
presbyter of Carthaee, who had gone
to Rome, maintained that the Lapsed
were upon no conditions to be re-
ceived into the bosom of the church.
Felicissimus and his faction held,
on the contrary, that they were to
be received, without even waiting
for their penitence. Cyprian be-
came oflfensive to both parties, by
maintaining the moderate and cor-
rect opinion, that after well attest-
ed penitence, the Lapsed might be
admitted anew to the privileges of
the church. In this opinion he was
upheld by the decision of the Synod
or Carthage, which was held in the
yearSSl.

In this notable controversy, the
iMtrties seemed to be inflamed to the
highest degree of fiery zeal, so that

ship, gave up their names in petittonft; or,
perhaptf lubscribed their names to pay a
fine.— Aintworth's Dictionary.

• Bp. 15. t KP' 34.



scarcely any other subject engaged
the attention of the Christian church.
In the year 252, however, the wrath
of conflicting churchmen was check-
ed by a desolating plague. The
whole of the Mediterranean coun-
tries, were Tisited wit;h the scourges
of famine and pestilence. The ma-
lady had origina<;ed in Arabia,
whence, in a most destructive man-
ner, it pervaded Egypt and other
parts of Africa. To arm Christians
against the fear of death, and to
promote among them submission to
the will of God, Cyprian composed
his treatise De MortalUate, f Con-
cerning mortality.] It abounds in
lively exhortation, and slowing de-
scriptions of the heavenly state.

In the yeai* 253 peace was restored
to the Christian cnurch, and in con-
sequence of this, a synod was con-
vened at Carthage, consisting of
sixty-six bishops. Amon^ other

Juestions proposed for their consi-
emtion, we find one arising out of
a complaint lodged against a cer-
tain Therapius, who nad refused
baptism to infants before the third
day. From this it is most clear, that
there was an entir/i unanimity as to
the baptism of infants; and that the
disputes were only respecting inci-
dental circumstances.

Not long after this time, the trea-
tise De opere et Eleemownis [con-
cerning labour and almsj was com-
posed. It has been observed that
primitive piety was in nothing more
remarkable, than in the noble and
enlarged spirit of charity manifest-
ed in their alms-giving. Cyprian's
treatise is a synopsis of the Scrip-
tural commands and motives on this
subject.

About the year 255, the contro-
versies in the African church rose to
a great height Novatus and his co-
a^utor Novatian, were excommuni-
cated. Their doctrines were de-
clared heretical, and their body of
followers anti-christian. It now be-
came a matter of dispute, whether
persons received from their body
should be rebantized. or, in other

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360



Sketch of the Life of Chfprian.



Aug.



words, whether the ordinances ad-
ministered by them were valid. Cy-
prian warmly took part against the
Novatians; and upon this subject,
as one of vital importance, all his
powers were concentrated. In the
year £56, a council was held at Car-
thage, in which this question was
very solemnly discussed, and b^
which the opinion of Cyprian was
sustained.

The eighth persecution was in the
ensuing yeat commenced by Va-
lerian, and our good bishop was now
summoned to appear before the Pro-
consul Paternus. It appears strange
to us that his life should have been
spared; yet his immediate punish-
ment was nothing more than exile*
He was banished to Curubis, a town
of the province of Zeugitara, upon
a peninsula of the Libyanr sea, near
Pentapolis. He was accompanied
by his faithful deacon Pontius, from
whose narrative we glean these facts.
He appears to have departed wijth
cheerfulness from his church and
his Inime, to this dreary solitude.
The remark of his companion is
striking : — ** This whole world is but
one house to the Christian. Hence,
although he be banished to some se-
cluded and concealed place, still,
mingling in the concerns of his God,
he cannot be considered as in ex-
ile."* In this his place of confine-
ment, he was not without new re-
velations of a miraculous kind. . We
shall not discuss the question whe-
ther these accounts^ are true, but
shall give the narrative in the words
of Pontius. " On the very day in
which we entered upon our exile,'*
says Cyprian, " there appeared to
me, before I had fallen asleep, a
youth far above the ordinary size of
man, who conducted me to the prie-
torium, where Iseemed to be brought
before the tribunal of the Proconsul.
^He, upon beholding me, began im-
mediately to write upon a tablet a

* '< Christiano totus liic mundiis una do-
mu8 est. Unde licet in abdituin et abstni-
tum locum fuerat relegatus; admixtus Dei
8ui rebus, exilium non potest computare."



senrtence, the import ^( which I did
not know, for he had proposed to
me none of the usual interrogatioDS.
The vouth, however, who steNod be-
hind him, seemed with great cari-
ositv to read what he was writing.
And because he was unable to de-
clare it in words, he showed, bj a
significant gesture, what was in-
scribed upon the tablet* With his
hand expanded, so as to represent a
sword, he imitated the usual stroke
of execution. I understood it as the
sentence of my death." The ac-
count goes on to state, that he pray-
ed for a reprieve of one day, which
was accordingly granted. It was a

Erophetick day,-^Dd ta one year
e suffered martyrdom. Towards
the close of the year, Maximus, the
Proconsul, ordered Cyprian toSe
brought from his exile, and gave
him permission to remain in his gar-
dens. This was no doubt for the
purpose of a more convenient appre-
hension. The proconsular court
was held at Utica, about forty miles
from Carthage, and Cyprian was
ordered to repair thither for trial.
Upon hearing this, he retreated from
the eardens into a concealment
which had been prepared for^him.
This step was taken, not for the
purpose of avoiding death, but that
he might leave his dying testimony
at Carthage, amoD(|hi8 own people*
rather than at Utica. From this
retirement he wrote his last epistle
to the presbyters, deacons, and peo-
ple of CartKage. In the mean time,
the Proconsul returned from Utica
to Cartbase, the capital of his pro*
vince, and the metropolis of the
African church. Cyprian now re-
turned to the gardens, notwith-
standing the importunities of many
friends, who besought him to save
himself. He was permitted, as was
frequently the case, to hold a feast
witn his brethren, on the day before
his death.

On the day of trial, being brought
before the Proconsul, he was enabled
to make a good profession of his
faith before many witnesses. There

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Sketch oftU Life of Cyprian.



1829.



Ib a conciseness and sublimity in
the discourse of the martyr, which
scarcely admit of a translation. We
may preserve its meaning, but must
lose its point and elegance. ** The
Proconsul said to Cyprian the
Bishop, Jre you Taschins Cynrian?
Cyprian the Bishop answered, Iam»
The Proconsul said, Hast thou not
eteted as High Priest to men of a sa-
eriUgiousmindf Cyprian answer-
ed, 1/ The Proconsul said, The
most sacred Emperors have com-
manded t/ou to do sacrifice. Cy-
Srian said, I do it not. Gralerius
laximus said to him, Consult your
safety. Cyprian answered, Do what
has been commanded you* In so just
a eause^ tliere needs no consultation.
Thus far the words that were
«poken.*'*

The Proconsul, after consultation
with his court, proceeded in the fol-
lowing words: *'Thou hast bien
living with a sacrilegious mind;
hast collected around thee manj
who have conspired in this nefari-
ous course; and hast held thyself
forth as an enemy to the Roman
gods» and the sacred laws. The

Iiious and most sacred princes, Ya-
erian and 6allienus,have been un-
able to recall thee to their own ce-
remonial. Since, therefore, thou art
detected as the head and standard-
bearer in these most flagrant crimes,
thou shalt serve as an example to
those who have been associated with
thee in wickedness. The law shall
be sanctioned by thy blood.'' Sen-
tence was then pronounced, Tas-
chium ^yprianum gladio animad-^
verfi pIa^.F^LetTaschius Cypri-
an suffer deatn by the sword.] To

* Proconsul Cypriftno Episcopo dixit,
Ttt 69 Tatchiw CyprianuB? Cyprianos
Episcopus respondit, Ego mm. Proconsul
dixit, Til Papain te sacrilegm merUU Aomi-
nibv* prsebtusti? Cyprianus Epificopus re-
spondit, Ego. Proconsul dixit, Juaseruni
te aacratissimi Imperdtores cetemoniari,
Cyprianus Episcopus dixit, J>/on/acio, Ga-
lenus Maximus ei, Coruule tibi, Cyprianus
Episcopus respoiidit, Fac quod UH prm»
ceptum etU In re tarn Jvttu nulla eat con-
ntUoHo, Hactenus verba."

Vol. yil^Ch. Adv.



S61



which he replied, Deo gratias^^
[Thanl^s to God.] He was behead-
ed in the sight of all the people,
in the montn of October, A. D.
258.

Thus died this eminent man, ho-
nouring, in his martyrdom, that Sa-
viour whom fte had delighted to
serve in life. The charge of the
Proconsul, that he was the leader
and standard-bearer of the Chris-
tians, contains in it a eulogy well
deserved. In all his writings, and
in the whole history of his labours,
he stands forth as the head' and re-
presentative of the great body of
African Christians. The church of
Rome appealed to him on the most^
important questions, and the clergy
of Europe as well as Africa, applied
to him for his counsel. No single
year of his life seems to have been
free from controversy, and much of
his voluminous writings is taken up
in the discussion of contested points'.
Yet, in the midst of these labours,
so detrimental to the warmth of true
religion, we find him constantlj^ in-
culcating the practice of true piety,
stimulating the churches to love and
good works, and striving for the
purity and unity of the body of
Christ. We cannot but regret, how-
ever, the frec|uent recurrence of ex-
pressions which seem to intimate a
belief in the merit of good works,
and an ignorance of the freeness and
fulness of salvation by Christ A
minute observer might, perhaps, dis-
cover traces of a lordly spirit, and
an assumption of too great authori-
' ty. Yet the simplicity of primitive
times had not yet been worn away;
and these faults, if they did indeed
exist, seem scarcely separable from
the bold independence and uncom-
promising love of truth and order,
which are so conspicuous in the cha-
racter of this truly great man. In
his style of writing we detect some-
thing of the meretricious glare of"
African oratory, yet often so inge-
nious and so polished, that we can
scarcely condemn it. He wad an in-
defatigable labourer in the vineyard

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On Original 6in.^^EmUem$from jyature.



Aug.



of his Lord, and spent his Christian
life in striving for the salvation of
men. S. L. R»



TOS TEX CmUSTIAir ADTOCATK.

ON ORIGINAL SIN.

Philadelphia, July 25, 1829.

Mr. Editor,— -Having read a good
deal of some recent discussions on
original sin, in which, as it seems to
me, the old notions of Pelagius are
brought forward in something of a
new form, I was much struck this
day, with a few paragraphs in Mil-
ner's Church History, which I hit
upon while looking for something
else. Having noticed the fact, that
A. D. 253, a council of 66 bishops,
with Cyprian at their head, had de-
cided a question relative to infant
baptism, the historian takes the
opportunity to give his own views
of that subject, and then adds the
following remarks :—

" I could have wished that Chris-
tian people had never been vexed
with a controversy so frivolous as
this about baptism, and having, once
for all, given my views and the rea-
sons of them, I turn from the sub-
ject, and observe further, that there
is in the extract of the letter before
us,* a strong and clear testimony of
the faith of the ancient church con-
cerning original sin. One may safe-
ly reason in the same way as in the
case just now considered, but the
fulness of Scripture concerning so
momentous a point precludes the
necessity of traditional arguments.
A lover of divine truth will be glad



however to learn, that Chrifitians in
the middle of the third century did
believe, without contradiction, thai
men were bom in sin and under the
wrath of Qod through JSidamh tranS'
gressum^ conceiving tiiemselves as
one tcith him, and involved with Aim
in the consequences of his offence*
Modern self-conceit may say to this
what it pleases; but thus thought
ancient Christians in general, and
the very best Christians too, with
whom was the spirit of Christ in a
powerful degree. The just conse-
quence of such facts is not ahrajs
attended to by those who are con-
cerned in it, *Tes, but reason
should be attended to.' So I say;
but what is right reason ? To sub-
mit to the testimony of the Divine
Word. This alone is sufficient and
is above all; if men will not abide
by this, it is not unreasonable to
tel) them, that their strained inter-
pretations of Scripture are confuted
by the sense of the primitive church,
who had every opportunity of know-
ing the truth ; that to deduce Scrip-
ture doctrines from what we should
fancy to be reasonable, rs not rea-
son, but pride ;' that an argument
drawn from settling the question,
< What did the ancient Christians
think of these things P deserves
some attention ; but that an arga-
ment drawn from our own fancies,
what we think ottght to be in Scrip-
ture, deserves none at all. It maj
be called the language of philoso-
phy ; nothing is more confused than
the use of that term in our days;
but it is not the language of one
disposed to hear the want of Ood
and to do ie." L. N.



KMBLBMS FROM NATURS.

See yon pale moon.
Hanging upon the skirt of that black cload.
Which,' in its slow majestic motion, \

The lovely orb will shroud.



A letter of Cyprian,



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1829. German JiTeologism. 365

Aod'see again, after a little space.

The cloud is o'er —
And shining clearer, brighter than before,
} She glories in her race.

So have I seen the young, the good, the fair.

Rejoice in life.
Till disappointment, wo, and bitter care.
Remorse and pangs of meni'rj, ever rife,



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