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husband, with outstretched arms,
is endeavouring to avert the blow.
The expression of the countenances
is affecting indeed: I never thought
before that marble could be made
to speeJc, The monument to Major
Andre is pretty: the head of Wash-
ington, and Uiat of some of the
other figures has been broken off.
I know not how it is in reality with
others, but for myself I did not feel
those thrilling emotions, while gaz-
ing upon these mementos of the
departed great, which I expected
to experience. I was not indiffer-
ent; but then I could not help say-
ing to myself, <*Is this alL" Un-
der the fiagging,in the centre of one
of the aisles, fire depb&ited, side by
side, the remains of the two great
rival statesmen, Pitt and Fox: two
plain slabs of stone cover their
mouldering bodies; on one is mere-
ly the initials C. J. F.; there is no
inscription on the other — ^For on
inquirmg of the guide where Mr.
Pitt was buried, he replied that I
was standing over his grave-^
Scott's appropriate lines on this
subject came into memory:

^ Drop upon Foz'i grave the tear,
TwHI tnokle to hia rivml'e bier.
O'er Piti'a the ihoomfal reqaiem aoundi
And Foz*a ahall the notes rebound.
The aolemn echo aeeras to cry.
Here let their diwsord with them die."

The tomb of Mary, queen of Scots,
and that of Queen Elizabeth, were
interesting. In one apartment there
are wax representations of some
great personages, in their iderUicai
'robes. I was taken with that of
Lord Nelson, in the clothes he had
on when he received his mortal
wound: a pin is stuck into the coat
sleeve, to mark the place where the



fatal ball entered. There were a
vast many old and ragged flagi^
taken by the English on several oc-
casions, hanging about, and disfi-
guring many paru of the grand
cathedral.

From the Abbey we went to the
House of Lords, and .heard Mr.
Brougham (pronounced Broom^
make a speech before the Lord
Chancellor: he spoke fluently, but
1 thought there was nothing re-
markable in his addresfr— perhaps
the subject would not admit of it.
The wigs and gowns of the lawyers
and the chancellor, were to me
quite ridiculous. Mr. Brougham
frequently addressed ** their 2x>rd'
»hip8^'' though no one but the chan-
cellor was present in the court.
The hall of the House of Lords is
quite a common looking place; by
no means so showy or convenient
as the senate chambers, in many
of our state-houses. The throne,
however, because it is a throne^ was
interesting to me as a republican.
In the evening I stepped into Co-
vent Garden theatre, where a few
minutes sufficed to convince me of
the absurdity of calling such places
schools for morals. I left the place
in disgust, some time before the
piece was over.

Thursday, June 12th.— I passed
the morning in viewing various
parts of the town. At the Museum,
where I spend a few minutes almost
every day, I examined some of the
antiquities, particularly two im-
mense sarcophagi of stone, covered
within and without with hierogly-
phics. Near these stand two coloa-
flal heads of Egyptian sphinxes,
which must have cost great labour
and expense to transport. I saw
on this occasion also, the original
of the great Magna Charta, in the
library: the person who wrote it
was certainly not more of a, penman
than myself. At 6 o'clock I dined
with the Royal Society, and had
the honour, as I was afterwards
told to consider it, of being at tha
head of the table next the president.



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with a tioblemaft below me.' I
fdimd Mr. Gilllert, the preaident,
who is also a member of PaHia-
meiit, a rery afikble man, and high-
ly curious about every thing relat-
ing to America. He said that he
rarely saw an American without
blushing for his country: he was
Hlways reminded of the wanton de-
struction of our publick property at
Washington city, during our late
unhappy war^ The behaviour of
the English soldiery on that occa-
sion was Worse, he said, than €ro-
thic or Vandal barbarism. Mr.
Gilbert is highly distinguished as
a mathematician and natural phi-
losopher, and succeeded Sir H.
Davy us President of the Royal
Society: he was one of the firdt pa-
trons oi Sir Humphrey, before he
wis knovm to the world. Sir Eve-*
rard Home was also very agreeable
and polite< he unfortunately, hoW**
ever, iMo^fe now uAd then. We had
a long talk together on the dmAt'
ful r^Uei 6f America: he gavt^ me
fats card, with a request that I
would call oti him, as his age and
occupations prevented him from
m«1ung visits. There were a num-
lier of eminent men at the table. A
e:lergyman, the Ret. Mr. Conny-
beare, returned a very short grace
aft^ meat, just before we drank the
heklth Of the king, which is always
ciirstotiikry on these occasions. Dr.
WoHaston and Sir H. Davy were
both absent. After dinner, at
about hklf piltst eight, we all ad-
jouftied to Somerset House, where
are the rooms of the Royal Socie-
ty. Here I hud the pleasure of
withes^ilg otte of their sessions.
A^ ingenious) though dull paper,
on friction, was ^ad. The room
' i^ hm^ round with a number of
tfeN^ por^aitik ^>f glheiat men: that of
Dr. Franklin Iteld h conspicubut
place amcAig thefat. Bdbre the So-
ciety riiet^ I %Us iht3*oduced by my
mend Mr. Child^e^, tfho ^ dederr-
edly held in high estimaUon here,
bMi as ^ thah of stvettibe «nd ab a
glinttettian, tb the Society of Anti-



quaries. The business of fliis «&«
sociation, from the papers I heard
read, seems to be, to preserve all
the ancient records, and to notice
all the ancient ruins of Britain.
Our publick meetings to-night
ended, as usual, with something to
eat and drink; tea, coffee, and sand-
wiches were the nsfreshmenu.

Friday, June 13.— I went to-day
to see'^my old American acquaint-
ance Mr. W., who has accumulated
a considerable fortune by medi-
cated vapour-baths. His establish-
ments, both in town and country,
are very ^^ommodious. As his
house in the country is near Ken-
sington Gardens, about three miles
f^om town, I had an opportunity
during our ride, to see what may
be called the outskirts of London.
There are many fine publick build-
ing« near the New Road, along^
which we passed for some dis-
tance. The London University in
in this direction: it will be a grand
edifice when finished, and it is now
almost completed. . There is a
strong opposition to this institu-
tion, by some of the nobility and
the members of the esubjished
church. They have organized a
college, to be erected in London,
in opposition to it. The Duke or
Wellington is one of its principal
supports. A friend told me that he
heard the Duke's speech at a din-
ner, which was made to consult on
the ways and means of establish^
ing it. The Duke conunenced hia
address by saying, ^ Religion is the
basis of all sound educadon.'**
The deficiency in the religious in-
struction of the pupils is die osten-
sible reason of the opposition to
the London University. It is es-
tablished by dissenters, and in-

» The tete dael of the Dak« of Wellinff-
toD) and hie publick yiolaUon of the Sto-
bath, by attending, in company with the
£i^rl of Dudley, & concert given by tba
Coanteis of St. Aatoaio, on the even-
ing of that day, eeem to imply that ha
lias either had a Teiy unsound early edu-
dation, or has miaeraJUy miahnprovea one
ibmided on religion.



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struction in religion forms no part
of their plan:

The environs of London differ
very much from the environs of
our American towns. Here the
finest dwelling houses are to he
seen: the rahhle and the low and
the abandoned, inhabit^for the most
part, the central portions of the city,
which you know is the reverse with
us. I visited the king's palace at
Kensington, and the gardens. The
palace is paltry, as an establishment
for a king: he, however, never re-
sides her^: it is now occupied by'
one of his royal brothers. The
gardens, or rather grounds, are

ricturesque, and beautiful indeed,
was delighted with a walk under
the deep shade of the large elm
trees, which stand on each side of
broad gravel paths, some serpen-
tine and some straight, extending
in every direction for miles, from
the centre of the grounds. I saw
but few flowers, though there is a
fine hot-house.

Saturday, June 14w-^This day L
devoted to the Tower, and that part
of the town in its neighbourhood,
which I had not yet visited. After
passing throuc^h Temple Bar, I had
the pleasure of seeing the two large
semi-human figures, of wliich I
had often heard, at the clock of St.
Dunstan's church: they were in the
act of striking the hour on the bell^
with their clubs. Passing by St.
Paul's and getting into Cheapside,
I stood under the sound of Bow
bell, and I hope you will find on
my return that I am not thereby
converted into a Cockney $ an effect,
which it is said it produces on
many Londoners, who live near
Bow church. Going by the Man-
sion House into Lombard strait,
which is full of the houses of pri-
vate bankers, I turned to the right
towards the river, and then passed
through little £astcheap,to see the
Boar's Head, the celebrated resort
of Falstaff, and what are called his
merry coinpanions. Near this is
the Mommwntj built after Ae guai



547

fire: it is a flnled piUar, b«iltmiQli
after the fashion of Pompey's pil-
lar near Alexandria. It did not
strike me to be as bea^tifttl as the
column in Blenheim Park. It is
constructed of Portland stone^ tho
material commonly used for the
publick buildings here. In eleva-
tion it is more than 300 feet, «ai4
therefore exceeds in height the fa*
mous pillars of Trajan and Anto-
ninus. Though unfortunately lo-
cated for effect, it stands on ft^
very spot where the fire broke out
in 1666, which destroyed a great
part of ^ this protestant city.'*

From tlie Monument I went to
the famous, or infamous, fish mar-
ket, close by, called Billingsgate. I
expected to hear and see that
which would not be very agree-
able; but the visit was muph the
same as going into our fish mar-
ket at Philadelphia, except that
there were more drunken women.
Here I may add, that I now «ee
more drunken women in one day »
and every day, than I ever did in
my whole life before. Drunken-

- ness generally, I have no hesitation
in saying, prevails more extensiver
ly among the labouring class here,
than within the United States. The
English, therefore, have quite as
much need of temperance societies
as we have at home. Near Bil-
lingsgate, on the banks of the
Thames, is the new Custom House,
a large splendid building of stonei
and a little further down the river,
is the Tower. I was somewhat
disappointed to find tke 7btci«r a
collection of old houses— in fact a
small town, enclosed by a wall and
ditch, rather than one or tiro large
edifices. What is called the White
Tower, and which is the old place,
connected with so many interesting
facts in hbtory, is quite smalL I
entered the open space near the
White Tower, by a gateway, fiir-
nished with a portcvlUs, one of the
few remaining articles of defence
of this kind yet extant in this
country. It is nothing nnore than



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in iron grate, with sharp points at
the bottom, which moves up and
down before the gate,like awmdow
sash. Here I was met by one of
the warders of the Tower, who of-
fered to be my g:uide. I was dis-
posed to laugh at the oddity of his
dress, for he seemed as if just es-
caped from some theatre, or moun-
tebank exhibition. His round flat
cap^ with party coloured ribands,
bis red petticoat-looking coat,
marked with G. R. on the back,
his broad laced girdle, and the
quantity of lace with which he was
bedizzened, made him truly ridicu-
lous. This dress, however, has an-
tiquity in its favour, for it is said
to have originated with Henry
VIII. I cannot find time to de-
scribe the lions, and all the other
wonders of this place. Those
which interested me most were,
the Spanish armoury, the Bloody
tower, where Richard III. stran-
gled the two royal children, and
the chamber which contains the
crown jewels. The present king's
crown, said to be the richest in Eu-
rope, cost about a million sterling;
there is no very large diamond in
it, but it has a most magnificent
ruby and sapphire ; besides being
absolutely eoveredj or frosted, with
small diamonds, rubies, pearls, and
emeralds.

The sapphire is two inches long,
and nearly as broad; and the rock-
ruby once belonged to Edward the
Black Prince, and was worn by
Henry V. very foolishly, I should
think, at the battle of Agincourt.
This splendid crowti is placed on a
pedestal, under a glass cover, which
IS made to revolve, so as to display
every part of it in succession.
There are a number of other crowns
among the regalia, most of them
rich in jewels. The golden orbs
and sceptres, the chalices, dishes,
tankards, spoons and salt cellars,
are all wonderfully fine. If one
should judge of the quantity of
•alt used by the people in old
times, from the size of their golden



vessels for holding it, thor con-
sumption of that article must have
been enormous. The apartment
in which these jewels are display-
ed, has no windows, but is very
well lighted by a number of large
Argand lamps. All the fine things
are behind large sashes of glass, so
that no second Colonel Blood shall
be able to snatch them away. The
old lady who presided at this exhi-
bition, began to tell in measured
mood, her oft repeated story re-
specting each article, as soon as I
entered. After making several
fruitless inquiries of her, I let her
talk on to the end, without inter-
ruption or further attention, while
I gazed at the royal gewgaws. As
a mineralogist, I was delij^hted
with this splendid display of pre-
cious stones. In many cases, the
difference in the colour of the jew-
els is very ingeniously and happi-
ly contrasted; the rich red of ^
ruby, the brilliant blue of the ame-
thyst, the glowing yellow of the
^topaz, and the pide green of the
emersud, were all beautifully re-
lieved by the pure white of pearls,
and the transparent splendour of
diamonds.

As to the lions, and other wild
beasts confined in the Tower, I
can say nothing in praise either, of
the animals themselves, or the
manner and place of their exhibi-
tion. The whole concern I think
disgraceful. If there must be a
royal menagerie, It ought certainly
to be in far better style than it is, in
this confined and dirty place. On
the whole, I left the Tower a good
deal gratified, if not instructed.

After dining at a chop house in
the neighbourhood, I sauntered
tomeward about dusk, regarding
but little the busy crowd by which
I was constantly surrounded. The
Tower and its various objects com-

?letely engrossed my thoughts.
*he figure of Queen Elizabeth, in
the very robes worn at Tilbury-
camp, the thumb-screws, and other
instruments of torture Uken from



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Mr. EUtredg^s Address.



549



the Spanish armada^ and the axe by
which Anne Boleyn was beheaded:
these, and the images of a thou-
sand other trapkiesy with their his-
torical connexions, came up in re-
view before me; but most of all L
pondered on the crown jewel room,
and its unrivalled splendours. A
few hours before I left you all in
America, I wrote for the Album
of a young female friend, the fol-
lowing lines; and the recollection
of them at this time, was calcu-
lated to suppress any disposition,
I might have had to covet—

THX PKARL.

There is a treaiare rioher ftr

Than all the jeweli of the earth —
With it the diamond can't compare/

And coral loaei all its worth.
The gold of Ophir, glowing briffht,

The onyx and the sapphire bloe,
The rubv, with its rosy light,

The Ethiopian topaz too-^
Ob, these are all bat light and mean,

When weighed against this radiant stone;
A favour 'd few alone have seen

This precions pearl, of price unknown.
Its name is Wisdom — bnt its worth

The proad and worldly wise condemn ;
The meek and lowly of the earth

Alone secure this heavenly gem.
One fflorious ray of light divine

WOl show thee where it sparkling lies :
Then haste to make tha treasure thme,

Delay may rob thee of the prize.



kittredoe's address*
( Concluded from p, 502.)
But, Sir, the vender tells jou
again that he withholds the cup

* In the book of Job, chap, zxviii. v. 16,
17, 18, and 19— of which these stanzas are
a paraphrase, the Hebrew word translated
ci^stal, I have no doubt means diamond.
It is by no means certain what the words'
really mean, which «re here rendered co-
rals, pearls, rubies, and topaz. Such names
are often ambiguous even in Gre^k and
Latm, and no wonder if they be more so
in Hebrew; bat that precious stones are
meant, there can be no doubt. Arabia, we
know, abounds with them, and they were
the chief commodities in which the Ara-
bian merchants, from Sheba and Raamah,
traffieked with the inhahitantt of Tyre.
(SM£iek.zzni.22.)



from the drunkard. So perhaps he
may. He will furoish the cup till
the wretch is made drunken, and
then refuse him till he is sober
again. But, Sir, this is too late;
and his refusal comes when it can
do little or no good. The crime is
already perpetrated. The ^uilt is
already incurred, and in vain does
the vender attempt to escape* But
it is not true, that he withholds the
cup from the drunkard. Erery re-
tailer does sell to the drunlcard,
and however well meaning he may
be, he cannot carry on this trade
without contributing to the sup-
port of intemperance. And, Sir^
this traffick should be abandoned by
the Christian publick. Conscience
should be allowed a triumph over
interest and custom, and tne mer-
chandise of spirits should be class-
ed with the, merchandise of blood.
No Christian should contaminate
his hands and his soul, with this
most destructive and demoralizing
commerce. And, Sir, I am happy
to say that many merchants have
lately viewed this subject as they
ou^ht, and forsaken the trade as
being a curse, revolting to the feel-
ings of patriotism and Christianity*
They have given a noble example
of the triumph of principle, and
one that deserves the universal ap-
probation of the Christian commu-
nity.

But the retailer is not alone.
He is but a subaltern in that mighty
army of the agents of intemperance,
which is scattered through the
land. He is the immediate instru-
ment of the ruin which spirituous
liquors occasion, but the wholesale
dealer, although one grade above
him, is equally a partaker of the
guilt. He supplies the numerous
streams which issue through the
land, laying waste every thing in
their course. Sir, could the vender
learn the history of a single hogs-
head of this liquid; could every
drop return to him, and give a
faithful account of the effects it had
produced, he would shudder at the

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aarratioii. Could he collect before
hi in, and be enabled to see the crime,
the disease and death, the poverty
and distress, to count the tears and
hear the groans which every cask
of spirits occasions, he would revolt
with horror from the trade. But
he may conceive it Let him learn
the history of intemperance, and
then let him reflect that he is con-
stantly engaged in spreading its
horrors-*— that he is supplying, from
day to day, the liquid fire th^t is
scattered by an army of retailers
through the land, scorching and
destroying every thing within its
reach, and hh will be constrained
to pronounce it an unholy and un-
christian occupation. And let the
distiller remember that he stands
at the head of the stream, and lets
loose the flood -^ates to deluge and
destroy; that his occupation is to
poison the land, and that the more
he does, the more wretched is the
world, and he will not find one
consolation to cheer and support
him. Sir, if all the distilleries
were for ever closed, and this busi-
ness were to cease, the intempe-
rance of the land would be at an
end. And who would not rejoice
to see that day? What benevolent,
what Christian heart would not ex-
ult? And shall it not be done?
Let publick sentiment be arrayed
against it; let the traffick be repro-
bated by the Christian world, and
in a short time, it will assume its
proper character. None will en-
gage in it but the vile and aban-
doned. No man would furnish his
fellow with the means of drunken-
ness, but such as would steal or rub.
And this is its true character.
PubHck opinion has hitherto ren-
dered it a respectable employment
— But publick' opinion must be
changed, and I rejoice that it is
changing, and that the future pros-
pects of this Society promise a glo-
rious triumph over the monster in-
temperance.

But H is not intemperance alone,
that should be condemned^ All



agency whatever, ia the procurhig
and use of ardent spirits, should be
laid under the ban'of publick sen-
'timent What has been done should
be forgiven; but for the future, ar-
dent spirits should receive no quar-
ter in an^ shape, from the Christian
community. They should be laid
under a curse as they issue from
the distillery; they should be cursed
in their transportation; they should
be cursed in the store, in the house,
and in the field; and wherever
found they should t>e marked as
the thing accursed of God and man*
This land, that has so long been
defiled with the use of ardent spi-
rits, should undergo a general lus-
tration, and be purified from the
plague. It will take years to wash
awa^ the stain, and restore it to its
original purity. But, Sir, it can be
done, and I believe it will be done.
It is at this moment m the power
of the temperate part of the com-
munity, to put an end to the intem-
perance of the day. Within one
^ear this may be accomplished ; and
IS it not desirable that it should be?
Will any one refuse to lend his aid
in this sacred cause? From this
moment, let every temperate man
abandon the cUstilling, sale, and
use of spirits, and intemperance
will cease. Let the temperate but
forsake the usq of such liquors,
and the trade will be discontinued.
It is the temperate that support the
intemperance of the land, and on
them rests the responsibility of this
cause. It is the countenance which
they give to the trader that upholds
him in respectability, and enables
him to sell to the drunkard. It is
the temperate that supply the in-
temperate. No man would carry
rum into the country for the drunk-
ard alone. No man would engagne
in a ttade that none but drunkards
would support No man could
maintain a business for which they
were the only customers. It would
end in the ruin of his chan^Pter aad
fortune. Let then the jtem^perste
cease buying, an4 the iatefli|ieNi4e



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•¥n MStiredge'^8 address*



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will become reformed from neces-
sltj. — On them therefore rests this
awful respoDsibilitj. For them it
remains to decide, whether this
land shall continue to suffer all the
wretchedness and wo which this
▼ice has caused, or whether it shall
be relieved froqi the horrors and
the guilt of intemperance. For
them it remains to saj, whether in-,
temperance shall end with the pre*
sent generation of drunkards, or
whether it shall survive^ to sweep
away their children and their chil-
dren's children to the end of time*
And will thej not decide this ques*-
tion? Will thej not save them*
selves and their offspring from the
horrors, as it were, of the second
death? Let this age be distinguish-
ed as the age of a reformation from
the use of ardent spirits, and we
shall faaTe acquired for our chil-
dren, A triumph as important and
e;lorious as was the triumph of our
fathers, in their struggle for inde-
pendence.

But, Sir, publick sentiment is not
changed in a moment. The interests,
habits, and pleasures of a large part
of the community, are concerned in
the continuance of the use of strong
drink. It is a reformation too im-

fiortant to be accomplished without
abour. The discontinuance of the
slave trade was a work of time;
and the reformation which we seek
must be a work of time.

But, Sir, there is a part of the
community who ought to be enlist-
ed in this holy work, and the very
Erofession which they make should
ave found them prepared for this
sacred enterprise. But from the
church arises one of the most for-
midable obstacles to the success of
this cause. In the church are found,



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