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tradition says that the little Zaccheus once dwelt in it. In th^ imme-
diate vicinity, are scattered some forty or fifty of the most forlorn
habitations that I have ever seen. Very few of them are higher than
a man^s head, and are little better than pens or sheds. They are all
surrounded by a peculiar kind of fortification, made of a species of
thombush very abundant in the plain. It is cut and platted together,
and neither horse nor man will venture to attack it ; and hence it is ,
the' best that could be provided against the Bedouins, who ahirays
make their attack on horseback. .


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The Ajmbs of Jerico and tbe plam^re-one.or two shades darker
than the saoie class on the moootaiiis, only. a few miles di^ant. This
is easily accounted for hy die gieat diffiereBee in dimate. We shi-
yexQd in pur cloaks on the mountain, and boiled in the shade on the

After looking . about the village, and riding a mile or two to the
l>orthwest, to see tlie great fbunlainy Ayne el Sultan, we returned to
the camp about sunset, for protection. Having sung, '* The voice of
free grace," and *' There b a land of pure delight," and united with
(brother N. in prayer, we wrappetd our cloaks aoout us and^ prepared
to sleep. But the scenes of the day, and the circmnstances with
which we were surrounded, were of too novel and exciting a charac-
ter to allow of sleep. Canopied with all the gorgeous splendor of an
oriental sky, I conununed, all night long, wi3i the brilliant lamps of
jieaven. To the east and to tbe ;west, in parallel lines, ran the lofty
fountains of Moab and of Valentine, like perpendicular walls reared
^p to heaven, by tbe Creator himself, to guard this iavored spot. At
our feet flowed the Jordan, the most interesting rivor on the face of
die earth ; a litde to the south, sleep in mysterious silence, the hitter
waters of the Dead Sea ; whilst underneath us, are the moiddenng
jruins of old Jerico, who^ iiigh walls fell prostrate at the blai^ of
j>f Judah's priests. What an assemblage of interesting objects ! Hocw
well calculated td awaken deep and soleawQ reflection ! Here, the
^swellings of Jordan rolled back, that Israel's chosen race might take
jMssession of the promised land. Thus when ^* on Jordan's stormy
banks we stand," if the ark of Grod be there, the dark waters, afiiright-
ed, ;ihaU flee away at the presence of Hkn who hath ^the keys of
death and of helL" Here too, the smitten watears parted loathe ^id
thither, when the jH-oiihet of the l*ord went over to be conveyed to
the skies in a chariot of Are. We drink of the* feuntam which was
jsweete^d by £Usha's cruise of sa}t. Here, also, oinr blessed Saviour
was baptized, the heavens were opened, the Spirit descended upon
him in the form of a dove, and a voice frffm heaven said, ^* This is
my beloved Son in whom I a^n well pleased." O ! ye guilty cities
pf the {^in, even here do ye lie sealed up unto the judgment day,
^)^ring the vengeance of eternal fire. Be wise, ye careless, lest you
he overthrown and consumed with that other fire which shall never be

gianched, ai¥l bo cast into that other lake, of .which this is such a
ajrful type,-^Mis9ionar^ HeraM. , -

pver the arid and thirsty deserts <^ Asia and Africa, the camel
jiffords to man the only means of intercourse between one country
^d another. The camel has been ia^eated with an especial adapta-
tion to the regions wberem it has contributed to the comfort, and even
ip the very existence, of man, from the earliest ages. It is consti-
tuted to endure the seyarest hardships, with little physical inconveni-
^pce, Its fe0t ^e formed to tread lightly upon a dry and shifting
H^j it^ np^jh h4V0 die ^apadty of do^, so as to shut out the


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286 LUerary^ Scientific, end Religious Iniittigence.

driving sand, when the whirlwind scatters it over the desert ;**it is
provided with a pecnliar apparatus for retaining water in its stomach,
so that it can march from well to well, without great inconvenience,
although they be several hundred miles apart And thus, when a
company of eastern merphancs cross from Aleppo to Bussora, over a
plain of sand which offers no refreshment to the exhausted senses,
the whole journey being about eight hundred 4niles, the camel of the
heavy caravan moves cheerfully along, with a burden of six or seven
hundred weight, at the rate of twenty miles a day ; while those of
greater speed, that carry a man, without much other load, go forward
at double that pace and daily distance. Patient under his duties, he
kneels down at the command of his driver, and rises up cheerfiiUy
with his frfad ; he re^iiires no whip or spur during his monotonous
march ; but, like many other animals', he feels an evident pleasure in
musical sounds : and, therefore, when fatigue comes upon him, the
driver sings sora^ cheering snatch of his Arabian melodies, and the
delighted creature toils forward with a brisker step, till the boiir of
rest arrives, when he again kileels down, to have his load removed
for a little while ; and if the stock of food be not exhausted, he is
further rewarded with a few raouthfuls of the cake of barley, which
he carries for the sustenance of his master and himself. Under a
burning sun, upon an arid soil, enduring great fatigue, sometimes en-
tirely without food for days, and seldom completely slaking his thirst
more than once during a progress of several hundred miles, the camel
is patient and apparently happy. He ordinarily fives to a great age,
and is seldom visited by any disease.

Camels are of two species. That with one hump, is the Arabian
camel, and is usually called the dromedary-* The species With two
humps is the Bactrian camel. The Asiatics and Africans distinguish
as dromedaries, thos* camels which are used for riding. There is no
essential diifereitce in the species, but only in the breed. The camel
of the heavy caravan, the baggage camel, may be compared to the
dray horse ; the dromedary, to the hunter, and, in some instances, to
the race-horse. Messengers on dromedaries, according to Burck-
hardt, have gone from Daraou to Berber, in eight days, while he was
twenty-two days with the caravan on the same journey. Mr. Jack-
son, in his account of the empire of Morocco, tells a romantic story
of a swift dromedary, whose natural pace was accelerated in an ex-
traordinary manner by the enthusiasm of his rider : " Talking with
an Arab of Suse, on the subject of these fleet camels and the desert
horse, he assqred me that he knew a young man who was passion^^
ately fond of a lovely girl, whom nothing would satisfy but some or- ,
anges : these were not to be procured at Mbgadore ; and, as the lady
wanted the best fruit, nothing less than Marocco oranges would satisfy
her. The Arab mounted his heirie at dawn of day, went to Maroc-
co, (about one hundred miles from Mogadore,) purchased the oranges,
and returned that night, after the gates were shut, but sent the oran-
ges to the lady, by a guard of one of the batteries.^'

The training of the camels to bear burdens, in the countries of the
East, has not been mnutely described by any traveller, M. Bru^


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LUtranf^ 8ci€ntijic^ and Rel^^iouB Intelligence. 287

iriio, at the latter part of the seventeenth century, had the manage-
ment of the affairs of a French commercial company at Senegal,
«ays, '^ soon after a camel is bom, the Moors tie his feet under his bel*
ly, smd having thrown a lage cloth over his back, put heavy stones
at each corner of the cloth, which rests on the ground. They in this
manner accustom him to receive the heaviest loads.^^ Both ancient
and modern authors agree tolerably well in their accounts of the
load which a camel can carry. Sandys, in his travels in the Holy
Land, says, *'8ix hundred weight is his ordinary load, yet he will carry
a thousand.*' The caravans are distinguished as light or heavy ^ kc-
Gordiog to the load which the camels bear. The average load of
the heavy or slow-going cameU as stated by Major 'Rennell, who in-
vestigated their rate of travelling With great accuracy, is from ^\e
to six hundred pounds. Burckhardt says, that his luggage and pro-
visions weighing only two hundred weight, and his camel being capa-
bly of carrying six hundred weight, he sold him, contracting for the
transport of hb luggage across the desert. The camel sometimes
carries ku^ panniers, filled with heavy goods ; sometimes bales are
strapped on bis back, fastened either with cordage made of the palm
tree, or leathern thongs : and sometimes two or more will bear a sort
of litter, in which women and children ride with considerable ease.

The expense of maintaining these valuable creatures, is remarka-
bly little : a cake of barley, a few dates, a handful of beans, will suf-
fice, in addition to the hard and prickly shrubs which they find in
every district but the very wildest of the dcfsert. They are particu-
larly fond of those vegetable productions which other animals wovld
never touch ; such as plants which are like spears and daggers, in
Gomparison with the needles of the thistle, and which often pierce the
incautious traveller's boot. He might wish such thorns eradicated
firom the earth, if he did not behold the camel "contentedly browsing
Yq)on them ; for he thus learns that Providence has made nothing in
vain. Their teeth are peculiarly adapted for such a diet. Differing
from all other ruminating tribes, they have two strong cutting teeth
in the upper jaw; and of the six grinding teeth, one on each side, in
the same jaw, has a crooked form ; their canine teeth, of which they
have two in each jaw, are very strong ; and in the lower jaw, the
two external cutting teeth have a pointed form, and the foremost of
the grinders is also pointed and crooked. They are thus provided
with a most formidable apparatus for cutting and tearing the hardest
vegetable substance. But the camel is, at the same time, organized
ao as to graze upon the finest hf rbage, and browse upon the most
delicate leaves ; for his upper lip being divided, he is enabled to nip
off the tender sihoots, and turn them into his mouth with the greatest
facility. Whether the sustenance, therefore, which he fi^ds, be of
the coarsest or the softest kind, he is equally prepared to be satisfied
With, and to enjoy, it. — Penny Magazine,


• Through the medium of the New- York Journal of Commerce, we
have the deeply afflicting intelligence, that Mr. and Mrs. Laird, and


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289 LUerwry^ SMentific^ ami RtUgumf ItOoHigmee.

Mr. Cloud, missioiiaries of the Western Fdreign Missionary Society
to Africa, and Mr. Wrioht, of the Misthodist Missionary Society,
have all died of the fever incident to foreigners, in that country.
Mr. Pinny has been very ill, but is recovering. This is a heavy stroke
to the Westei-n Foreign Missionary Society, to the church, and to
the hapless land which has become their grave. The dispensations
of God, however mysterious*, are undoubtedly wise and good. They
are probably intended to try the faith of his people, and to awaken in
them a spirit of humbler dependence, and more fervent prayer,* in
relation to their efforts to carry on the spiritual warfare in the hitherto
undisturbed dominions of the powers of darkness; We would also
suggest the question — whether the annihilation of the missions from
Basle, in Switzerland, and from Pittsburg, in Pennsylvania, u^on that
fatal shore, does not indicate' the propriety of educating and sending
out pious Africam^ from this country, as better fitted, from natural
complexion and constitution, to survive the seasoning, and more likely
to live and labor with success, for the salvation of their father land t
There are other parts of the world, where missionary labor is as needful
as in Africa, and where the climate is not so certainly fatal to white
people. If there were no alternative, but to send white missionaries,
or none at all ; then we would say, send them— send as many as may
be willing to go. They wiU go with the martyr's spirit, and they
will obtain the martyr's crown ; the cause will be retarded by the
perpetual work of death ; but it will ultimately triumph over death
and thri grave. Still, when we look at the number of colored chris-
tians in this country, in the West India Islands, and in South Africa,
we cannot believe that a number of suitable persons fnay not be found
among these, who would be willing, after a moderate degree t)T mental
training, and enlarged christian knowledge and experience, to plant
the banners of Chrisf*s kingdom on the western shores, and in the
populous inland regions of Africa. We annex an extract from a letter
of the Rev. Mr. Pinney, colonial agent, to R. S. Finley, Esq.

" Monrovia, May 10, 1834. — ^Mr. Temple, the Igst of the band of
Presbyterian missionaries who landed in Africa the first of January
last, to try its perils, will hand you this note, and communicate more
at length, the tidings which my pen is loth to speak.

" Mr. T. will, I trust, do good while at home. He is desirous of
ordination, and expects to return very soon. The vessel sails in about
two hours, and time is short. Our losses do not dishearten me. I
trust the church will not be discouraged. God is about to try us, but
I hope some good will be found, anA faith which shall not tremble,
though a thousand fall." — Cincinnati Standard.


We would again remind the churches, and individuals who may be
interested, that the Singing BoolcSy published by order of our Synod,
are ready for distribution ; and that it is very desirable that they should
be taken off the hands of the Cominittee, and paid for at the approach-
iner meeting of Synod.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


VoLUI. September, 1834. Tdo.O.



iWritten bj the late Rev. J. V. & Lansiof , darinf the early period of hii miniitry.] *

And this is his name whereby he shall be called^ The Lord our
Righteousness. — ^Jer. 23.6.

The person to whom these words refer, is called, in the preceding
Terse, a righteous Branch : ^* Behold, the days are come, saith the Lord,
that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch.'^ There had been
many descendants of David, who had sustained the relation of kings
and rulers to the people of Israel ; but, in the exercise of their au*
thority, they gave full proof that they were but men, possessing a
sinful nature^ encumbered with frailties and imperfections. It had
been many times intimated by the prophets, that one of David's de-
scendants should come to the throne, whose dominion should be es*
tablished forever, whose righteous government should secure to its
subjects the enjoyment of perpetual prosperity. As his reign was to
be peculiar for its justice and benevolence, so also was Iub to be a
person of extraordinary character. His nature, unlike that of all the
kings and princes before him, was to be entirsly finee from the pollu-
tion of sin, and he was to possess all those quadificattons that are re-
quisite for one who, without a single instance of failure, would exe-
cute judgment and justice in the earth. In th^ chapter before us,
the promise of a Messiah is again repeated ; and while his character, as
a man void of the imperfections of a sinM state, is clearly pointed
out, 'by his being termed a righteous Branch, our text, which follows
in the next verse, discovers the remainder and by far the most mys-
terious part of his nature : And this is his name whereby he shall be
called, the Lord, or as it might be rendered, Jehovah our righteouS"
ness. The term Jehovah, in the sacred scriptures, is applied, in no
Instance, to any but the self-existent, immutable, eternal God ; and
it is employed in this passage, to teach us who that great personage
is, that came into the world as the promised Messiah. Though his
birth-place was a stable, and his cradle a manger ; though he was
poor indeed, without a house of his own to shelter him from the storm,
or a bed to receive his weary frame ; yet he was the great God who
made heaven and earth. Possessed of infinite power, when he was
hungry he might have turned the very stones into bread ; when he
was persecuted and led away to an ignominious execution, he might,

• Aa


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290 Christ his People's Righteousness.

with a single word, have laid his enemies dead at his feet Bat sucb
an exorcise' of his sovereign power would, by no means, have been
consistent with his designs of mercy. The Son of Go<) must endure
the contradiction of sinners against himself; must be hated and perse-
cuted of men ; and finally, to make his humiliation complete, must
be led as a sheep to the slaughter : for thus it became him, as the
captain of his people*s salvation, to4}e made perfect through sufferings*
Here is a life of self-denial, at which the infidel may scoff; which the
proud pharisee may regard with derision, and in which the cold for-
^ malist can see nothing very attractive. But the genuine disciples of
Jesus look upon it as the sole foundation of all their hopes of heaven ;
and while they contemplate these circumstances of poverty and suf-
fering, their faith discovers something glorious here. By looking upoD
Jesus as the Lord their righteousness, they fnlfil the prediction — ** And
this is his name whereby he shall be called, the Lord our righteous*-
ness.'* ^

The Lord Jesus Christ is called^ the righteousness of his people,
because they are made the righteousness of God in him ; because
in him they possess all that is necessary to reconcile them to God,
and give them a title to eternal life. To constitute such a righteous-
ness as will save sinners, two things are necessary. Since they are
under a broken covenant, they roust, in the first place, suffer the pe-
nalty of the violated law ; and, next, they must render to that law a
perfect obedience. The least failure in either of these particulars,
will render their salvation utterly impossible — impossifle, because
the justice of God is an attribute which he delights to honor : Jus-
tice demands an absolutely perfect obedience, and car accept instead
of this, nothing but the endurance of eternal wrath, the penalty for
disobedience ; impossible, because God hath said, that the wages of
sin is death, and his faithfulness to his word will effectually bar the
jrates of heaven upon those who are chargeable with transgression.
Many, indeed, forget the truth, that "justice and judgment are the
habitation of his throne." Ignorant of the evil nature of sin ; puffed
up with a^conceit of their own goodness ; they vainly suppose, that a
few pangs of remorse for sin, and such obedience as they can render,
will be amply sufficient to recommend them to the tenderness of di-
vine compassion, arid secure them the happiness of a heavenly man-
sion. But they are by no means aware of their lost condition : little
do they think that all their sorrow is but the dictate of fear, the sor-
row of the pit. Little do they think that all thoir obedience is but
continued rebellion. " They that are after the flesh do mind the
tilings of the flesh ;" and this is all they can dp. But even supposing
the order of nature were reversed, and it were true that a corrupt
tree could bring forth good fruit : that bitter fountains could send forth
sweet waters ; yet all tlieir goodness could never remove the curse.
Have they not offended in many things 1 This they will not deny*
Well then, what answer will they make to this declaration 1 ^* Who-
goover shall keep Ihe whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is
guilty of all ;" " for it is written, cursed is every one that continueth
not in all things which are writteri in the book of the law to do them.'*


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Christ hU People^ s Righteousness. 291

Gal. 3.10. Oh, how completely helpless is the race of man ! Born
under that condenmation which came upon all men by the offence of
one — ^Rom. 5.18^ they begin to add to the amount of their guilt as
soon as they are capable of moral action. They add sin to sin, and
iniquity unto iniquity ; serve Satan with alacrity, and give full proof, that
the " God of this world hath blinded Aeir minds ;" 2 Cor. 4.4, and,
although, to the detriment of their own souls, they may think other-
wise, yet Ais god of theirs, this deadly foe to all that is good, this
tn"uel toaster who delights in the ruin of thjeif immortal souls, while
he holds them as his prey, his lawful captives, is far too mighty for
them. If those doors of Satan^s prison, which have been closed
upon them, shall ever be opened, other strength than theirs must be
called into exercise. The debt they owe must be fully paid, the law
they have transgressed must be magnified, it mifst be made honorable.

But we may tiurn from this scene of wretchedness to brighter pros-
pects, and behold, in Jesus Christ, the very thing we want. He hath
fulfilled all righteousness, and also the true Lamb of God, slain for
the sins of men. His sacrifice is the only sacrifice that could ever
take away sin. None of the ceremonies of the Jewish ritual, could
by any means remove the curse of the law ; " For it is not possible
that the Wood of bulls and of goats should take away sins," Heb. 10.
4. All these were but a shadow of good things to come. They
were a merciful dispensation, by means of which, while the Jews were
instructed that, without shedding of blood, there is no remission,
they might look forward to a better sacrifice, Heb. 9.22. Yes, let us
call upon our souls and all that is within us to bless the Lord, that
while offended justice could take no delight in Jewish sacrifices and
offerings, and burnt offerings, and could find in them nothing merito-
rious ; it found satisfaction in a better sacrifice, in the Lord Jesus,
of whom it is written, " This is my beloved Son in whom I am well
pleased ;'* even that beloved Son who hath **^iven himself for us
an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savor," Epli,
5.12 ; even that beloved Son, who, when he liid finished his work,
ascended up on high, and made the incense of his blood to arise in
clouds about the throne of Jehovah, who, perceiving the goodly smell,
orders the sword of justice to return to its scabbard. There shall it
sleep, never, never to awake against any of that happy people whose
God is the Lord.

That the sufferings and obedience of our Lord Jesus Christ, were
a complete satisfaction to law and justice, in behalf of all those for
whom he laid down his life, will more fully appear from the follow-
ing considerations :

Firsts He was made of a woman, made under the law — Gal. 4.4.
Since it was necessary that the same nature that sinned should also
suffer for sin, the Son of God, that he might sustain the office of ^me-
diator between God and man, assumed into personal union tvith him-
self, as the second person of the adorable Trinity, the whole nature of
man, consisting of body and soul. " Forasmuch as the chiklren are
partakers of fiesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the
«aueu'* ^ For verUy he took not on him the nature of angels ; but he


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292 Christ his Feopk's RighUausness.

took on him the seed of Abraham. Wherefore, in all things it behooved

him to be made like unto his brethren :'' Heb. 2.14,16,17. But hpw

could he be made under the law ; and that too, a violated law, since

he '^ did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth V* 1 Pet. 2.22.

This, indeed, is a mysterious subject. Here we behold ^e infinite mer*

cy of our God. This was the beginning of mercy ; the foundation of

all other mercies. That Jesus, '' who knew no sin, should be made sin

for us :" 2 Cor. 5.21. He bore the burden of all our sin ; for, *' the Lord

hath laid on him the iniquity of us all :'' Isa. 53. Thus was he made

under the law ; for the law recognizes him as the surety of his peo-

' as they have nothing to render for the least of their sins,

weight of divine vengeance must fall upon his head. The

( him with all the transgressions of his people, as well

have already committed, as those they are yet to commit ;

3 is considered a sinner by imputation, how shall he release

a the demands which the law makes upon him, but by sufier-

ilty, the wrath of God, and rendering a perfect obedience ?

released, and in token of the accomplishment of his dif->

was welcomed again at the right hand of the majesty on

r, If he did not fully satisfy the claims of justice, whence

Online LibraryAssociate Reformed Presbyterian Church (1802-1822)The Christian magazine, Volume 3 → online text (page 37 of 55)