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live in an age when public sentiment is easily created and
moulded. We observe that men do not hestiate to change
established customs and break traditions, nor to upset calcu-
lations on the part of the shrewdest manipulators ; so we
need not fear, as we get better to know each other and under-
stand each other's interests, to strike out vigorously an:l
earnestly, as we have a right to do, to obtain those things
which we believe essential to our progress, our prosperity and
our common welfare. (Applause.) Truly, no man could
have listened' to an address like that of the Director of the
Census, showing the great, progressive changes in our own
section of country, without also feeling the great responsi-
bility that rests upon all of us.

I shall accept this Presidency again (applause and cheers),
because, first, I believe you sincerely intend that I shall go
on with this work under your direction (cheers and applause),
and because you intend to stand by as faithfully and with
greater strength numerically, than you have done in the past.
(Applause.) Secondly, because the work of promotion and
agitation during the last four years has reached a point where,
notwithstanding the oratory and enthusiasm of the hundreds
whom we now claim our friends, it might not be advisable
"to swap horses while crossing the stream." (Applause.)
But, remember, in a resolution passed this afternoon you have
fixed a tremendous responsibility upon a committee of which
your President is to be Chairman, the responsibility of im-
pressing your demands, your interests — those things which
you believe to be yours of right in a commercial spirit — upon



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224 ATLANTIC DEEPER WATERWAYS CONVENTION.

the Congress and Senate, and the President of the United
States. (Applause.) Now, I have firm faith in your pur-
poses, and I have no question as to your loyalty and your
friendship, but I ask that same unflagging interest and zeal
on your part, in your own communities, amongst your repre-
sentatives, as will aid us and strengthen our hands when we
undertake the great work that you have imposed upon us
today. (Applause.)

As to the future, now that you have decided to go to the
patriotic town or city of New London, whose Mayor gave
you the word of promise and the word of welcome, let me
say this, that we shall so advise that hereafter, while we
desire hospitality and will expect to receive it to the full, we
shall endeavor to arrange that those splendid promoters, the
ladies, who have grown so strong in membership, shall not
so constantly be withdrawn from our midst, taking away with
them from our meetings some of the best material we have.
(Laughter and applause.) And we shall endeavor, while
accepting all that New London has to offer, within certain
limitations, to so adjust our form of entertainment that it
shall not absolutely steal us away from the serious business
that brings us here. (Applause.)

And with this, which is longer than I should have occupied
your time, permit me to say that I thank you all for your
kindly support, for your generosity and broad patriotic spirit.
You are to be commended for coming long distances at con-
siderable personal expense to help out in a cause which is
neglected by those who do not see so far ahead nor under-
stand so well as you. You are the pioneers in what promises
to be one of the great movements that eventually must attract
and hold the attention of the entire nation. (Applause.)
And when the time comes for the consideration of the regula-
tion of this great question, you must be armed, you must be
prepared through the members that will join your ranks, not
only to give notice, but to maintain that the rights, and the
privileges, and the opportunities of the young and the old
business men along the Atlantic seaboard shall no longer be



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SECOND DAY — ^AFTERNOON SESSION. 225

neglected, but shall receive their full measure of support and
consideration. ( Applause. )

I should like to run from Maine to Florida in this address,
but there are men here from Maine to Florida, and they are
here to speak for themselves, and we want to hear them. I
beg your pardon now for having taken so much of your time,
and presume I am wise, as I seldom am, in withdrawing from
your presence. I again thank you for the great compliment
you have paid me this day. (Applause.)

CALL OF STATES — MR. WILLIAM A. HOURS, OF FLORIDA.

Chairman Higgins: Mr. Bours, of Florida.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:

Sometime ago I was on a railroad train and in conversation
with a gentleman, he asked where was I born. I told him in
the biggest city in the United States, and he wanted to know
if I meant New York. I told him Jacksonville, Fla., because
while we might not be largest in population we were largest
in push, enterprise and aggressiveness. (Applause.)

Ladies and gentlemen, Florida, the southermost State in
Dixie, and of the United States, through the Jacksonville Board
of Trade, one thousand strong, sends you greeting. Our city
is situated on the banks of the beautiful St. John's, a river
that is peculiar in one respect, in that it rises in the South and
flows north, carry towards you north of us our cordial greet-
ings, our hearty co-operation and our best wishes for the suc-
cess of the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association, with which
we are in full accord and in which we are deeply interested.
(Applause.) I might say it is somewhat of a selfish interest,
as the State of Florida has over six hundred miles of sea
coast, and I think more than any State on the Atlantic sea-
board, and the improvements in waterways advocated by this
Convention will be of incalculable benefit to our State. (Ap-
plause.)

I am inclined to think that a large number of the people
of this country are not fully impressed with the importance
that the deepening of the inland waterways will have upon
our wonderful and beautiful State of Florida, and the great



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226 ATLANTIC DEEPER WATERWAYS CONVENTION.

possibilities that will be before us when these developments
have been brought about. Our close proximity to the West
Indies, Central America and the Panama Canal should bring
about untold commercial results to our State, and especially
as regards the water transportation of this great country, and
particularly the Atlantic seaboard.

Our State has made some progress in the matter of her
inland waterways. We have now the East Coast Canal, which
is open from Jacksonville to Miama, a distance of over 300
miles, but is only navigable for craft drawing about four
feet. Our State is also cutting a canal from the east coast
to drain the Everglades, which will reclaim thousands of acres
of sugar and trucking lands, and when completed I believe will
be extended as a waterway across the southern peninsula.

.It seems to me if the commodity transportation of this
country continues to grow in the future as it has in the past,
railroad transportation will be inadequate to move the same,
and we must look to the waterways as a means of relief. It
behooves us to aggressively carry on the work for which this
Association was organized, and thus create and crystallize a
sentiment that will command the attention of the general Gov-
ernment and thus enable us to obtain the necessary appropria-
tion to deepen the waterways on our coast, and open them up
to our rapidly increasing commerce. (Applause.)

As Florida is so deeply interested in the objects of the
Atlantic Deeper Waterways Convention, I think it would be
well for the Convention to meet in our fair City of Jackson-
ville. We have plenty of hotel accommodations and it would
be an object lesson for you to meet on the banks of the St.
John's River, with its depth of twenty-four feet from the
ocean to our docks, and navigable for 200 miles farther for
lighter draft boats and vessels. (Applause.) In the name of
the Jacksonville Board of Trade, I extend to the Atlantic
Deeper Waterways Convention a hearty and cordial invitation
to hold its meeting of 1913 in the fair, hustling and thriving
City of Jacksonville, Florida, and I promise you a welcome
that will be fully up to the far-famed and unbounded hospital-
ity of Virginia. (Applause.)



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yl> ^ SECOND DAY — AFTERNOON SESSION. 227

• CALL OF STATES — MR. BLADES, OF NORTH CAROLINA.

Chairman Higgins introduced Mr. James B. Blades, of
North Carolina, who said :

I accepted the invitation to address you merely to say one
word — that since the opening of the canal to Beaufort all the
lumber passing through to the northern markets has saved
one dollar on the thousand in freight. You have no idea what
a real value that is, and not only do they now save one dollar
on the thousand in freight, but the shipper saves twenty-five
cents a thousand on insurance. Now we expect a result like
that from all the ti'uck we market in North Carolina. The
csLTryitig of our truck, our vegetables, fish and things of that
kind can be done much better by boat, arriving in market
more promptly, and there is no one here who realizes what a
benefit that will be to all sections of the country, for I want to
speak of North Carolina as a place that swarms with the
richest of lands. More than that, we want a chance to carry
our lumber to Maine. We want to carry it to all the Con-
necticut and Rhode Island ports by an inland protected route.
T sent lumber to New York and Newark as long as I could
through the canal; it was not wide enough and we want a
waterway made broad enough to accommodate the commerce
t»f our coasts. We have enough marl and lime, 90 per cent,
pure, that can go to Delaware and New Jersey where it is
needed. We want to stand and work for this waterway im-
provement as one of the gfreatest things for our Eastern
Country. (Applause.)

Mr. E. H. Warner, of Connecticut, was introduced by Chair-
man Higgins. j

CALL OF STATES — MR. WA&NER^ OF CONNECTICUT. ~~

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen of the Atlantic Deeper
Watenvays Association:
Since it has been called to my attention that I had been
selected to speak for the State of Connecticut, I have been
casting about for an inspiration worthy of this occasion.
First I thought I would go and see Judge Crutchfield, of the
city court, that man who's fame h"*? traveled all over the



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228 ATLANTIC DEEPER WATERWAYS CONVENTION.

country, but on second thought I feared that he might re-
member me. However, I found in the old Church of St.
John's a thought that seems apropos. There, years ago, a
famous son of Virginia said: '*Is life so dear or peace so
sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?
I'orbid it, Almighty God ! I know not what course others
may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death."
These words remind me of an utterance made by a son of
Connecticut, "I only regret that I have but one Ufe to lose for
my country." The first were the words of that fearless pa-
triot and orator, l^atrlck Henry ; the others those of that
martyr, Nathan Hale. These men fired the colonies with en-
thusiasm for independence; they were leaders. Every great
undertaking needs a head or leader. To-day our leaders,
headed by the Hon. J. Hampton Moore (applause), are firin^^
with enthusiasm the people of the thirteen original States to
the realization of the great possibilities to accrue to the ship-
ping on the Atlantic seaboard by the construction of the intra-
'coastal canal as advocated by this Association. (Applause.)

Connecticut has been slow to respond to the necessity of
improving her waterways. I wish that we had among us
another J. Hampton Moore, or that in Congress we were
favored with such a representative. (Applause.)

However, Connecticut has begun to emerge into the lime-
light. I have told you before of the acts of our legislature of
1909 favoring a waterways policy for the State. The legis-
lature of 1911 did not pass into sweet repose until the last
of September, after a nine-months' session ; yet I am pleased
to say to you that progress was made in Connecticut for the
improvement of. her rivers and harbors. The report of the
special commission to investigate the condition of the water-
ways of the State was accepted and the commission made
permanent under the title of the Rivers, Harbors and Bridges
Commission. (Applause.) Fortunate, indeed, was the State
in havinof the Hon. B. F. Mahan, the Mayor of New London,
as the Senator from the Eighteenth District, as his live-wire
tendencies were mainly responsible for the passage of a bill
to bond the State for $1,000,000 to construct ocean



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SECOND DAY — AFTERNOON SESSION. 229

terminal docks at New London, where there is one of the finest
harbors on the eastern coast. (Applause.) The harbor has a gen-
eral depth of 71 feet and of 54 feet up to the railroad bridge.
Ocean liners can come within three miles of the proposed
docks at full speed, and the entire United States navy can find
anchorage in this magnificent harbor. New London is now
a terminal of the Grand Trunk Railway, and upon com-
pletion of the Grand Trunk Pacific, that is now stretching its
rails from ocean to ocean, this port is destined to become of
much importance, inasmuch as the development of the great
wheat fields of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta will de-
mand an all-year port to ship the great amount of grain that is
bound to be raised to foreign ports. I thank you, gentlemen^
for your attention. (Applause.)

Chairman Higgins: I take pleasure in presenting Mn
Alfred Schreier, of Virginia.

CALL OF STATES — MR. SCHREIER, OF VIRGINIA.

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:

I deem it an honor to be called upon by my colleagues of
the Virginia delegation to express in my humble way their
sentiments and voice their decision upon waterway improve-
ments throughout the Union, and especially as regards the
improvement of the inland waterways of the Commonwealth
of Virginia and of our Southland in general. (Applause.)
I know of no issue before the American public which better
merits the support, moral and financial, of our country than
that great project of waterway improvements so earnestly
sought for and so gallantly fought for by that giant of water-
ways, that intellectual master advocate of intra-coastal canal
improvements, the Hon. J. Hampton Moore, of Pennsylvania.
(Applause.) You will pardon me if I digress for a moment
to say that my interest and my fighting blood were aroused by
the great zeal and the logic of argument advanced for so
many years by the President of this Association. (Applause.)
May his good work and that of every advocate of waterway
improvements be speedily in our day crowned with success,



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230 ATLANTIC DEEPER WATERWAYS CONVENTION.

and when in the course of time the great canal system from
Maine to Florida shall be completed, may every son of
American soil point with pride and admiration to those two
intellectual giants of this waterway project, Mr. Moore and
Mr. Small, representing as they do the two great sections of
our country which are so vitally interested. (Applause.)
The mighty East, with its great markets of manufactured
goods, and the great South, with its tremendous fields of raw
materials, two sections, I say, so ably represented in this
movement by the live wire of Pennsylvania, the Hon. J.
Hampton Moore (applause), and the electric battery of Nortli
Carolina, the Hon. John H. Small. (Applause).

We, of Virginia, and especially of Norfolk and Tidewater
Virginia, are deeply interested in all that pertains to water-
way improvements, whether that improvement be first started
on the coast of Maine or in our own locality.

Surrounding Norfolk are our beautiful Hampton Roads,
the Chesapeake, the Elizabeth and the James Rivers — bodies
of water not equalled by any other on the civilized globe.
Two different canal routes are offered to us, and while work
has been started on a canal route from Norfolk to Beaufort
Inlet, North Carolina, we feel that whichever of these routes
shall be favorably reported on by the United States Army
Board of Engineers, or if both of them, it is a matter we
are at present unable to ascertain. What is of more im-
portance, and which I desire to impress upon every merchant
throughout the land, and especially upon every merchant in
the great State of Virginia, is : that whichever route is selected,
the retail merchants, the shippers and consumers must unite
in one big effort and stand together as a unit behind that
route which the national government decides is the best route
for the greatest number and of the greatest benefit to our
citizens at large. (Applause.)

The great Southland is alive to the situation. There is no
sectional feeling between the business men of the Atlantic
Coast from Maine to Florida. We all realize that we must
work in harmony to secure the desired result, and we of
Virginia feel that an improved waterway will mean the



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SECOND DAY — AFTERNOON SESSION. 231

opening up of new business in old fields and in old territory
so long neglected that if Adam were alive he would scarcely
recognize, or, rather, discern any difference between the in-
land territory of the State of Virginia in his time and day
and in that of ours.

Friends of waterway improvements! The time for action
is at hand, and we of the North, of the South, the East and
the West, must impress upon our representatives in Con-
gress that from the Atlantic Coast to the Gulf of Florida
the clarion voice of the people is heard with no uncertainty.
They demand action! (Applause.) The time for coming
into our own has long since passed, and what we demand is
not words, nor arguments, nor eulogies over bond issues, but
the absolute voting by Congress of enough money each year
to build a great chain of free waterway canals from one end
of the Atlantic Coast to the other, until* the work is com-
pleted, and that in conjunction with this we want terminal
facilities free from coiporation or trust control. (Applause.)
Waterways and terminals for the people, who will not, and
shall not, be deprived of their inherited rights. (Applause.)

The Board of Trade of Norfolk, the Retail Merchants'
Association of Norfolk, the Chamber of Commerce of Rich-
mond, the Richmond Retail Merchants' Association, the Vir-
ginia State Retail Merchants' Association, and, in fact, every
citizen from the Governor of our Commonwealth to those in
the humbler walks of life have been doing a great work in
promoting public sentiment in Virginia in favor of waterway
improvements, and, gentlemen, when public sentiment once
centers upon the right matter it becomes the guiding hand of
our legislators, and the right matter at the right time today
is the improved waterway project of our Association. (Ap-
plause.)

We do not go before Congress with a theory ; we do not
advance one thought for consideration that does not merit
the support of every man, woman and child of our great
republic. (Applause.)

The business men of Virginia recommend for consideration
to our coming session of the State Legislature the appropria-



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232 ATLANTIC DEEPER WATERWAYS CONVENTION.

tion of a sufficient sum and the enactment of a law permitting
the Governor of Virginia to appoint a Rivers Commission,
whose duty it shall be to investigate the waterways of Vir-
ginia and to work out in harmony the most feasible water-
way improvements in conjunction with the Federal Govern-
ment. We know that Virginians are vitally interested in
waterway improvements; we know that the farmer and
merchant of inland Virginia can, with a complete water-
way, market his goods at a lower freight rate and reach new
trade in new territory, and thereby increase the production
of the soil as well as the manufacture of his raw material.

The building of State inland waterways means increased
activity of trade for the present generation as well as for
those to come, and, looking at it from a naval standpoint, I
should say that that section surrounding Hampton Roads does
not ask, but demands, a channel twenty-five feet deep, so
that in times of war, as well as in times of peace, our giant
warships may safely travel, at a moment's notice, from Nor-
folk to Florida.

My time is up; I cannot continue longer. (By unanimous
consent, Mr. Schreier's time was extended.)

We are not content that torpedo boats or gunboats shall
alone be able to use an inland route. We want a canal so
deep that the largest type of war vessel may safely traverse
a protected route and be ready for action at any port upon
short notice to protect the interests of the people of this great
nation. (Applause.) In this day of progress, when progres-
sive policies are the set standard that must be maintained by
all if they wish to succeed, must we not realize that in this
success the improved waterways of our country and the main-
tenance of low freight rates must play an important part?

The commerce of the State of Virginia can be greatly in-
creased without lessening the tonnage of freight or the profits
of the railroads. New barge lines would be organized if an
inland route were provided, and that means that the ship-
building interests of Virginia would be revived to a large
extent.

In 1910 Norfolk shipped 3,534,134 tons of coal by water.



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SECOND DAY — ^AFTERNOON SESSION. 233

and Virginia 11,000,000 tons of Chesapeake coal around Cape
Cod. Who shall say what she would ship if the intra-coastal
canal was a fact?

While I have cited much about Tidewater Virginia, my
position here is in the interest of not alone all Virginians, but
the welfare of all citizens whose welfare means our welfare.
We are citizens of one country ; what affects one part eventu-
ally affects the other part, and in concluding my remarks let
me impress upon every retail merchant, upon every business
man in all spheres of life that all individual preferment for
canal routes or any jealousy whatever must be laid aside.
Let us stand united, one great brotherhood ot citizens fighting
for a worthy cause, never tiring, never letting up one inch of
persistence until Congress recognizes the justness of our
claims and starts the passing of an appropriation that will
mean an inland waterway from Maine to Florida. A free
waterway, with adequate terminal facilities. (Applause.)

Let us harken to* the old adage, that united we. stand,
divided we fall. The past has seen us united ; let that unity
now be cemented into a solid phalanx of waterway hustlers
who mean business, and whose work spells success, and in
this great work we pledge to you the heart, the soul, the brain
and the money of the sons of old Virginia, who will stand
with you shoulder to shoulder for a free waterway from
Maine to Florida. ("Applause.)

Chairman Higgins: We will now hear from Pennsyl-
vania, and I take pleasure in introducing Mr. Emil P. Albrecht,
the Secretary of the Philadelphia Bourse.

CALL OF STATES — MR. EMIL P. ALBRECHT, OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Mr, Chairman and Delegates to the Convention, readies and
Gentlemen:
Were it not that I fear her silence might be misinterpreted,
Pennsylvania would not detain you at this late hour, but in a
call of the States upon the Atlantic seaboard to announce
their position with respect to this important* movement, which
is so rapidly approaching its culmination, each should make
known in no uncertain terms where it stands.



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234 ATLANTIC DEEPER WATERWAYS CONVENTION.

Pennsylvania, the Keystone of that arch of thirteen States
upon which was built the superstructure of this nation, always
has supported, does now support and will continue to support
this movement which means so much not only to her, but to
all of the States along the Atlantic Coast. (Applause.) Con-
sistently, in season and out of season, by words and by deeds,
Pennsylvania, from the inception of this movement, has
labored for the attainment of the desired end, and how well
she has supported it has been shown by the report of the
Committee on Ways and Means and by the list of members
and delegates to this and the preceding conventions. And
Pennsylvania will continue her support and assistance until
success shall have been achieved, still serving as the Keystone
of that arch of States along the Atlantic seaboard, holding
the separate units firmly together, cemented and bonded by
brotherly love in a common cause, which must and shall


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