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Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative.



xliVERY proposition, even the simplest, must contain two prin-
cipal ideas : namely, that of the Subject, a thing or person of
which anything is asserted in the proposition ; and that of the
Predicate, that which is asserted of that person or thing.

In propositions which are independent of any other, the Sub-
ject is always in the nominative, except in the construction of
the accusative with the infinitive. Sometimes the subject, as
in Latin, is not expressed, either because it is implied in the
form of the verb (as in <^iXw, <^tXeic, <|)tXeT ^ I love, thou lovest,
he loves*, except when an emphasis is thrown upon it), or be-
cause it is easily seen from the context. Thus it is omitted in the
termination of the third person plural, if there be no determinate
subject, Xe-youo-t, <^aai, dicunt, ' they say'*. Frequently also from
the nature of the verb a subject is inadmissible, as in verbs im-
personal, e. g. \pr]y Set, e^ecm, and in verbs which are used im-
personally, as (j)aiverai, eoiKe, ei/coc eari ; in verbals also in the
neuter, ireov ecrri, eundum est, Tro\efxr\Tka eari, hellandum est.

In the same manner the proper subject is omitted, when a
proposition follows which begins with the relative pronoun oq,
5, o, or a relative conjunction, eV0a, oirovj ore, and these words
refer to the subject which is kept in mind. See §. 298, 2. The
nominative of the subject also is attracted to the relative fol-

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 347. Duker ad Thuc. 7. 69. Comp. Heind. ad Plat. Crat. p. 17.

VOL. 11. B

506 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative,

lowing in the same case, as ttXoutoi' S' ov fxev ^wai deoi, irapa-
yiyverai av^pl ejuire^oQ Solon. EL in Brunck's Poet, Gnomic,
p, 74. V, 9. See §. 474.

Obs. Of ecTTiv o'l, eoTiv ovs, &c. which united make an adjective equi-
295. "Valcnt to 'ivLoi, eviovs, see §. 482.

(294) 'pj^g following are some particular cases :

1. When the verb indicates the occupation of a definite
person, whose appellation in this case is often derived from the
verb itself, the subject is not expressed particularly : Herod,
2, 47. Ovairi ^e rjde twv vtiyv rp ^eXr^vy Troieerai' eireav Bvay
(sc. o Ovrrip), Trjv ovp^v uKpr\v Kai tov (nrXrjva /cat tov eTTt-

ttXoov ovvOeic Ojjiov Kar lov eKaXv\pe ry Tri/iieXy. lb. 70.

e7rea»^ vuirov voc, SeXeaa^ {sc. o aypevc, from the preceding
aypai) irepi ayKicrrpov, /uCTiei ec, fjLeaov tov irora^ov. comp,
6, 15. Xen. Anah. 3, 4, 36. eTrei Se eyiyvayctKov avrovQ oi
' EXXr^i'ec l^ovXoiLievovc airievai Kai SiayyeXXojLievovc, eKrfpv^e
{sc, o Kr)pv^) ToTc EXXt/^ti irapacrKevaaaaOai. lb. 6, 5, 25,
TrapriyyeXXero 8e ra juei' ^opara em tov ^e^iov (v/ulov ey^eiVj ewe
(jrjjULaivoi ry aaXinyyi {sc, o GaXiriKTric). Comp. Hur, Heracl. 833.
Demosth. in Lept. p. 465, 1 4. o/lkdc, Se Kai tov vofj-ov v/uuv avrov
avayvLjaerai sc. o ypafifxaTevc Comp. jEtSch. p. 403. ed, Reiske,

Sometimes the subject nomin. is taken from a preceding
verb of kindred meaning, as Herod, 9, 8. toi' '\adfjLov kreiyeov
Kai a(l>L ^v TTpoQ TcXet sc, to TelyoQ, Xen, Cyr, 2, 4, 24.
TTOpevaoiJiai evOvc irpoc, to. paatXeia, Koi r)v /uiev avSiaTriTai sc, o
f^aoiXevQ. Comp. Anab. 3, 3, 5. Often, however, third per-
sons are found without a subject, consequently impersonally,
vei ' it rains', for which in a fragment of Alcseus we find vei fjiev
o Zeuc, as Theocr. 4, 43. Theogn, 25. Herod. 3, 117. So vl(J)€i
'it snows' Aristoph. Ach, 138 seq. j3povTa, aaTpa-KTei 'it
thunders, it lightens' Arist. Anag. Fr, 7, to which the poets
often add Zevc or arjp, Soph, CEd. C, 1456, 1606. eVeiffe
' there was an earthquake' Thuc. 4, 52. avaKOTatei ' it grows
dark' Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 5.^ It is not improbable that the Greeks,
who referred all natural phgenomena to the Deity, originally
supplied 0eoc in the mind, but in common life this was hardly

"" Valck. ad Herod. 4, 151. Toup Lamb. Bos. p. 167. 185. Elmsl. ad
ad Suid. T. 1. p. 397. Schaef. ad Eur. Heracl. 830.

Si/ntax, Of the Use of the Nominative, 507

thought of; but vei, vK^ei, (^povra were used quite imperson-
ally, as in Latin pliiitj ningit,

2. So the third person sing, is often found without a sub-
ject when anything is expressed generally and indefinitely.
//. v', 287. (v. 276. €1 yap vvv irapa vr\vcn Xeyoi/^eOa TraVrec

apKTTOi €Q X6j(^ov ) ovde Kev evOa reov ye jnevoc /cat '^elpaQ

ovoiTo, where ov^e'u; or tiq or avrjp may be supplied.

In the other passages, however, which are generally referred
to this head, the third person refers to a word before men-
tioned^. Soph, (Ed. T. 611. (piXov yap etjOXov efcjSaXelv 'i(tov
Xeyo), Kal rov Trap' avTM (5ioTOv, ov TrXelarov <^iXeI, <^tAei is
sufficiently introduced by avri^. Id. Trach. 93. the subj. of
TTvOoiTo is supplied by iKrrepii), which precedes. Id. Aj. 154.
the subject of ajuapToi is in leic (see §. 271. Ohs.), as Msch,
Ag. 69. the subject of irapaOeX^ei in viroKXeitjju, &c. Arist.
Nub. 9 SS. Eur. Orest. 907 . orav yap r}^vc role Xoyoic, ^poviov
KaKujc, ireiOy to ttXtJOog, ry iroXei KaKov fieya, in ricvQ roTq A.
'one who speaks agreeably' §. 269. Id. Androm. 423. in
PpOTolc, as §. 475. Plat. Criton. p. 49. ovre apa avra^iKeiv
Se?, ovT€ KaK(j)c, TTOielv ov^eva avOpiltmov ouS au oriovv Tracryij
vir auTwr, 7ra<T^^ refers to the indefinite subject of the inf. av-
ra^iKelv, as Menon. p. 97 A. In Xeu. Mem, S, 1, 2, 55, the
subject of discourse from §. 54. onwards is eKacTTon,

Ohs. In many passages of this kind the second person is taken in-
stead of the third, e. g. Soph. Tr. 2. eKfxaOois for €Kf.indoi, Eurip. Or.

308. voays Zolai^ris for voay Zola'Cr}. Eurip. Ion, 1387. it now

stands vTrepl^aliji' for vTrepfjair]'^.

So the third person sing, alone is used of indefinite things,
where the Latin inserts res, Eur, Troad, 405. ei S eiq toB'
kXOoi. Ion. 1196. €7ret § ec, avXov r]Kev. in the phrase ovrttyc
e^ei, e. g. Plat. Prot. p. 340 E. comp. Soph. Aj. 684. Bei^ei
Bri rd^a Arist. Ran. 1261. 'it will soon show itself, comp.
Plat, Phileb, p,45J). with Stallbaum's note p. 139. e^jjAwce

^ Soph. (Ed. T. 314 seq., which *^ Besides the remarks of Porson,

Pors. ad Eur. Or.308. Herm. adVig. Hermann and Schaefer, quoted in the

p. 730, 1 11. Schaef. ad L. Bos. p. 476. preceding note, see Heind. ad Plat,

referred to this head, has ])een more Gorg. p. 34. Dobree ad Arist. Plut.

correctly explained by Erfurdt ad 505. p. 116. ed. Lips. Bornem. ad

loc. Add. ed. rain, and Herm. ibid. Xen. Symp. p. 51.

B 2

508 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative.

^e * it showed itself Xen, Cyr. 7, 1, 30. Trpay/j-a or ra wpay-
fiara is commonly supplied, as Thuc. 1, 109. d>c Se avrto
irpovyfopei. ttoAXov Set ' far from it', &c. Herod. 9, 44. wc Se
Trpoait) Trie, vvktoq irpoeXrjXaro ' when it was far on in the
night*, where y^povoc is usually added.

The subject of a third person must often be supplied from
an oblique case which precedes, as Plat. Phadon. ^. 72 B.
oiau oTi reXevrwvra iravra Xrjpov rov Ev^u^iwva aTTOoei^ece,
Kai ov^a/uLOV av (j}aivoiro, sc» o EvSu/iiwv. Gorg. p. 464 A.*
Comp. §. 428, 2.

296. 3. In dependent propositions the subject is often wanting,

(293) because by an attraction it is construed with the verb of the

preceding proposition. //. /3', 409. y^ee yap Kara 0u^ov aSeX-

i^eov, u)C, €7roveiTOy for u)c, eirovelro a^e\(^6c,. comp. v,

310 seq. Od. T, 219. &c. Pind. Pyth. 4, 6 sqq. evQa ttotg

'^pvaetjv Atoc opviyjbjv irape^poa lepea '^prjcrev oiKicTTripa

BoTTO*/ KapTTO<p6pov Ai(3vaQy lepav vaaov cLc r/Sij XittCjv ktkt-

ffeiev evapjuarov iroXiv. comp. ib. 9, 195. JEschyl. Agam. 500.

Ttt^ eiaofxeaOa Xa/unra^ojv ^aeaC^opijjv (j)pvKrwpi(i)v re Kai irvpoc

TrapaXXayac, eir ovv aXrjOela (eitrtV), e'lre &c. Soph. CEd.

T. 224. oaric nod Vfx^v Aaiov tov AajSSa/cov Karoi^ev, av-

^poQ e/c TivoQ otwXeTO, rovTOv KeXevto iravra (jr)fxaiveiv efxoi.

comp. CEd. C. 571. Aj, 118. Eur. Iph. T. 341. Herod. 7,

139. Ti7»^ yap u)(p€Xirjv Tr]v twv Teiyetov ov cvvajjiai

'TTvOeaOaiy riric, av riv. comp. 8, 112. &c. Thuc. 1, 72. Kai afxa

TT7V aK^erepav iroXiv ej^ovXovro ar^fxaiveiVy oat] eir/ ^vvafjLiv,

Plat. Lys. p. 206 B. Kairoi oi/ eyoj, av^pa Troirjcrei pXa~

TTTOPra eavrov ovk av ere eOeXeiv o/uioXoyritTai, wc ayadoc, ttot

ecTTt 7roiY)rriCj jSXajSfjOoc wv eavrio. Xen. Hist. Or. 2, 2, 1 6.

Otipafxevrjc ev eKKXr}aia eiTrev, ort, ei (^ovXovrai avrov Tre/u^ai

napa Aixrav^poVj etSwq rj^ei AaKe^aifnovlovc, norepov e^av-

^paTro^icTacrOai rijv ttoXiv povXo/nevoi avreyovai irepi rwif reiyfjv,

17 TTtcrrewc eveKa. comp. Cyrop. 4, I, 3. Anah. 1, 2, 21. Isocr,

de Pace, p. 178 A. pa^iov ecm Kara/naOelv Kai ttjv '^tjpav

rjjLKjJV, OTI, ^vvaTai Tpe^eiv avcpac a/j.eivovc tcov aXXtov, Kai

T17V KaXovinevrtv pev ap'^rjv, ovcrav ce <Jvp(popav, oti

* Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. §. 43. p. 57. §. 29. p. 503.
ad Phaedon. §. 45. p. 72. ad Protag.

Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative, 509

ne(j)vK€ -^eipovQ airavTac iroieiv rove y^piojuevovc, avry. The
subject also is constructed with the preceding verb in other
cases besides the accusative: Thuc. 1, 68. twv Xeyovriov
/uaAAov vTTOvoeiTe, tlx; evcKa rwv avrolc loia ciaCpoptou Xeyoixxc.
C. 61. riXOe evOvc rj ayyeXia ruiv iroXewv, on aCpearaai.
lb. 97, rrjc ap-^rjc, airoSei^iv e^ei rrja t(j)v AOrjvaiwVj eu o'im
TpoTTii) Karearr), Comp. Soph. Trach. 1122. Xen. Mem. S. 1,
4, 13. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 1 1 1 E. Thuc. 1, 119. 138. »»

Obs. The article is sometimes separated from its noun. Sojyh. Trach.
98."A\top aiTui rovTO, Kapv^at tov 'AXK/ii'iiaSf ttoQl fxonrodi Trals vaUt
TTore, for Kapv^ai, ttoBl 6 'AXkjjl. Trals vaiei. Eur. Here. F. 842. yvy
fieu Toy "Upas olos €<tt avrS '^(oXos ^. The noun is sometimes repeated,
at least in sense, //. y', 192. e'lir aye fxot koX rov^e^ <f>i\ov tckosj oam
6 h^ early. Pind. Pyth. 4,430. hepjia eyyeirey, eyda viy cKrayvaay
<bpilov fxa-)^aipai. Both propositions are intermixed with each other
Eur. Ion. 1326. r>}v arjv onov col ^r}Tep eart yovderei for vovd. birov aoi
y'(T)] fxvrrjp effTt. and in a different way Plat. Gorg. p. 4G0 A. d7ro*:a-
Xuxpas rfjs prjropiKrjs elne ris iroff // hvvapis kariy.

Many verbs, which are used impersonally in other languages, 297^
followed by a proposition dependent upon them, particularly in (296)
construction of the accusative with the infinitive, in Greek usually
take the chief word of the following proposition as a subject,
which is also a case of attraction. The expressions SrJXor/ eari,
^'iKaiov €(TTi * it is clear, reasonable', &c. are most usually thus
constructed. Thuc. 1, 93. kqi ^ijXrj ri oiKo^oju'ia en /cat vvv
etTTii^, on Kara (T7rov^i)v eyevero. Xen. M. S. 2, 6, 7. Kai
avcpa St) Xeyeic, oq av rove (jyiXovc touc wpoaOev ev ttokjjv (^ai^
vrirai, BrjXov elvai Ka\ tovq varepov evepyen^cjovra. Dem. pro
Cor, p. 231, 16. ot G»jj3a7ot (pavepoi iraaiv r\(Tav avayKaaSri-
Go/Lievoi Kara^evyeiv ecj) vjnac, for (j)av€pov ?)v, touc O. avayKa-
(Tdr](T€CTOaL^. Of the participle see §, 549, 5. Similar to
this is Dem. in Macart. in. Ka\ ovtol ctt iSei^^OncrovTaiy oioi
etcrii' avOpojiroi, as Cicero Or, 20. §. 68. Fin. 4, 6, 14. Comp.
Isocr, p. 180 B. Aristot, Eth. 10, 8. p. 183 E. ol Oeol
■yeXotoi (j)avovi'Tai ovvaXXaTTOVTec,. Herod. 2, 119. wq

^ Wesseling ad Herod, p. 78. 87. Theocr. 25, 179. Erf. ad Soph.

KoenadGreg.p.(53) 128s€q.Brunck Ant. 212.

ad Arist. Eccl. 1125. Nub. 145. " Pors. ad Eiirip. Hec. 1030.

Heusde Spec, in Plat. p. 51 sq. '^ Fisch. ad Well. 3 a. p.313. Ilia- Eur. Med. 452. Sch»f. ad denb. ad Xen. M. S. 3, 5, 24.

510 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative.

eTraiaroQ eyevero rovro ep-yaofxevoc,. Thus also ^iKaioc, ei/LU,
for ^'iKaiov ecTTiv, ejiie. with an infin. according to §.530, 1 . 53 1 .
Herod. 1, 32 extr. oc, S av avrewv irXelcjTa eywv diareXeyy Kai
eireira reXevrrfcrrj ev^apiaTwc, Toy j3ioi^, ovtoq irap Cjuoi to
bvo/LLa TOVTO, w paaiXeVy ^iKaioc, eari (jyepeoOaiy for Si/catoj/ ecTTt,
TOVTOv (pepeadai. Soph. Antig. 399 sq. eyCj ^' eXevOepoc di-
Kaioc ei/Lii TWvS cnrtiXXa^Oai kqkwv^. It is used impersonally
Herod, 1, 39. e/ue rot ^ikqiov eo-ri (ppat^eiv. Eurip. Suppf,
1055. Ti S ; ov ^iKaiov irarepa tov gov el^evai; Xen, Ci/r,
6, 4, 19. ' Af tot /LievTOi ye eajxev tov yeyevrifuievov irpayfxaroc
TOVTOV airoXavaai Tt ayaOou, for a^iov eaTiVy y\fxac anoXavaai.
A similar expression is, TiVeq 7]fjuv twv vewv cTriSofot -yeve-
adai eirieiKeiQ Plat. Theat. p. J 43 D. ' from which young men
can we expect, that they', &c.^ IloXXov, oXt-you, to(jovtov Sew
iroielv Tt *I am very far from, very near to, so far from doing it'.
Isocr. Busir. p, 222 B. to(tovtov (not to(tovt(i>) Seetc ovtw
Ke-^prjaOai to?c Xoyoic, locTTe, tantum abest, ut hanc rationem in
dicendo secutus sis, ut. Plataic. p. 297 D. toctoutou Slo^ev tljv

'i<T(M)v a^iovaOai TOtc aXXotc ' EXX>/(7ti^, w(TTe ih, p. 300 A.

0»?j3a?oi TOCTOVTOU okovai /unjuelaOai ttjv TrpaoTtjTa Tr\v vf^ieTepav,
GXTTe &c. Demosth. p. 191, 28. oXiyov Se Sew Xe-yetv. Plat.
Hipp. Maj. p. 283 C. TToXXou -ye Sew (touc STrapTtaTwi^ vteTq
ajmeivovQ TroirjcraL). Otherwise ttoXXou, oX'iyov Se? or Se?v, e.g.
Thuc. 2, 77. Tovc nXaTateac TctXXa BiaCpvyovTac; eXa-
^to-TOv eSer/o-e Sta ^0eT/o a t ^. Thus Thuc. 7, 70. ^payy
yap aTreXiTTou ^waitiipoTepai (vijeq) Sta/cocriat yeveaOai * they
wanted very little of being'.

Hence are derived the following constructions : Soph. Ant.
547. apKecrio dvrjcTKova eyto. Aj. 80. ei^Soi^ apK€iT(o fxevtov,
for apKeaei epe Ovr}aK€iv, apKciTU) avTOV ev^ov jneveiv. Plat,
Gorg. p. 475 C. Comp. Soph. Aj. 7 6. CEd. C. 498. Eur. Or,
1625. Iph. A, 1427. Hel. 1294. Troad. 654.^ So also aXtc
voGovcT eyw (Ed. 2'. 1061. II. (j) ,482. '^aXenr] toi eyw pevoQ
ai>Ti(f)ep€aOaiy for ^aXerroi^ etiTti^ e^oi avTiCJ). comp. §. 534, b.

* Markl. ad Eurip. Suppl. 186. see Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 133.

Brunck ad Arist. Plut. 1030. Wes- <^ Dorv. ad Charit. p. 558. Bibl.

sel. ad Herod, p. 720, 55. Jacobs ad Crit. 3, 2. p. 15.

Athen. p. 64. '^ Musgr. ad Eur. Iph. A. I.e.

^ Wessel. et Valck. ad Herod. Matthiae ad Suppl. 511.
p. 285, 88. For examples of ctt/^o^os

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative, 511

Find. Isthm. 4, 85. Soph. El. 1254. Thuc. 1, 132. 'Apyi-

Xioc \vei TttC eTTKJToXaCj ev aic, VTrovorjcrac ri roiovrov

7rpo(Te7re(JTa\0ai, kol avrov evpev ey yey pa /n/Lievov kt€LV€iv,
where the construction is 'ApylXioc kveyeypairro Kreiveiv, for
eveyeyp., 'ApyiXiov Kreiveiv 'it was in the letter, that Artabazus
should put to death A.' Hence in Isocr, Trapezit, p. 363 C.
should be read evpeOrf yap ev rw ypajm/uareKf) yey paf.ifxkvoQ
a<pei/LievoQ arravTOJU tcuv ffv/nfioXa'KjJU vir Cjuov, not yey pa fx~
fikevov. Demosth. in Nea?'. p. 1347, 17. e/neWev eyypa<p7](Tea6ai
AiroWoSijjpOQ rpiciKovra raXavra o(j>ei\(i)v tw Sr/^iiocriw. He-
rod. 1, 155 extr. ov^eu ^eivoi roi eaourai /uri aTTOtJTewaiy for ov
oeivov earai, imrj eKel.voi aTrocTT. Xen. Hist. Gr. 6, 4, 6. twi/

Gijj3attt>v ol jTpoearijJTeQ eXoy'itovro ei jlit} e^oi o o??/uo<; o

Orff3aL(i>v TcnriTij^eia, on Kiv^vvevaoi Kai rj iroXic avrolc evavria
yeveaOai, as Thuci/d. 8, 91. (^doKijjv (o Or\pafxevr]c,) Kiv^vvevaeiv
TO relyor^ tovto Kai tiV ttoXiv ^ia(pBe7paiy for on Kivovvevaoi,
KivcvvoQ ecoiTO, /Lirj rj iroXic evavria yevonOy /lItj to tci^^^oc touto
'-'dia(()eeipeie. Plat. Gorg. p. 449 A. Soph. p. 242 B. Leg. I.
p, 643 C. Phadon. p. 67 C. KaOapGic ^e elvai dpa ov tovto
Gvpf3aivei, for avp,(5. KaOapariv elvai. Soph. Aj. 635. Kpeiaaujv
yap a^a KevOwv, for Kpelaaov r\v avTOv KevOeiv {KevOeaOai). See
Lobeck's note, p. 315. And so is probably to be explained
Eiirip. Or. 771. ov Trpo(jr]KOfxev KoXaZ,eiv Tola^e, ^ijjKeiov ^e y^j
for ov 7rpo<jr}Kei Tolade, KoXateii^ rjpaQ 'it does not become them
to punish us'. Iphig. T. 453. oveipaai (jvpj3air}u o'lkoiq noXei
TC TruTpioa Tepirvuiv v/tivojif awoXaveiVy for avppairi, epe awo-
Xaveiv, where, however, Musgrave reads avpj^airi *v o'ikoic,

Ohs. 1. Hence also the constructions, 6 Kvpos Xeyerai yeveadai used
as well as Xeyerai Kvpoy yevkaQai §. 5'd7, Tap kv vp.iv kariy fi KaXuis
e^eti', &c. i. e. ey vplv eari to Tctpa rj Ka\u)s e^eiv, &c.

Obs. 2, On the other hand, the verb, which should be referred to a
subject, is changed into the passive, and is used impersonally, with the
dative of the subject, e. g. Thuc. 7, 77. iKara to7s noXepiois evTv^rjTaij
for tfcavcJs oi noXepioi evTv^YiKaaiv. Plat. Gorg. p. 453 D. KaXws ay
(TOi arreKeKpiTo for axeKCKpiffo. See Heind. not. p. 25. Otherwise the
third pers. pass, is used without a subject in the same manner as in Latin,
itur. Thuc. 1, 93. vTrrjpKro tov Ueipaiuis. To this may be referred
Herod. 6, 112. cTrei ^e tr^t ^lereTaKTo. Thuc. 1, 46. eirei^ avTols
napEffKeunaTo, unless it be better to supply in the first t6 ffTpaToiredoy,

512 Syntax. Of the Use of the 'Nominative.

and in the second to vavriKovt in which case both would belong to
§. 294, 1. ih. ad Jin. a<fiKro ventum esset, Herod. 9, 100. has the plur.
Cjs Ze apa TrapeaKevatraTO rolai "FXXrjffi.

Obs. 3. That 6 for ovtos, and eyw, av are often repeated by the old
writers, see §. 466, 5. 468.

298. Instead of the nominative we have sometimes,


1. Another case with a preposition. Xen. Cyrop. 8, 3, 9.
' E<TTa(rav Se irpwrov fxev t(jjv ^opv^optjv etc TerpaKiay^i-
AiovQy e/uTrpocrOev de Tuiv ttuXwi^, etc Terrapac, cKy^iXioi
Se eKarepwOev rtjv irvXwv, and thus generally in numbers which
are given roundly. Thus also Kara with an accusative : Thuc.

1,3. ^oicet /mot Kara eOvri aWa re Ka\ to IleXacT'yt/coi'

CTTi irXe?(TTOv a(p eavrtHv Trjv eTrcjvv/uiav irapeyjeaQai, singulos
populos. ibid. KaO eKaffrova i]^tj Ty o/miXia /maXXov KaXel-
oOai ' EXXrjvao. comp, 7, 75,* eiri Lysias in Agorat. p. 130,
25. €7ri ^eKa ara^ia,

2. A whole proposition : Eurip. Hipp. 429. ^ov\o7yap av^pa,
Kav OpaavaTrXayyvoc, tic, ->7, orav ^vvei^y fxr)Tpoc, rj irarpoQ
KaKCLy i. e. ^ovXol to l^vvei^kvai. Herod. 9, 68. ZriXol €p,oi on
iravra ra Trp^yjuaTa twv (3ap(3ap(jjv TiprriVTO €K Uepaewv, et
Kai Tore ovtoi eCpevyov, i. e. to tovtovc ipevyeiv ^rjXol. e/moi,
where however ^riXo7 may also be taken for ^rjXov eon* So
(TrjjLielov §e, reK/nrjpioif ^e, SrjXov Be, without a subject, the place
of which is supplied by a proposition beginning with yapy §. 432,
615. A following proposition with the relative also frequently
contains the subject of the verb, as Hei^od. 1, 202 extr,

3. What is called the accusative absolute, which is explained
hy quod attinet ad, e.g. Od. a, 275. iuir}Tepa B, e'l oi Ovjulog
e^opfxarai yafxkeaQai, a\p Wb) ec fxeyapov, is founded on an
anacoluthia, the poet having had in his mind airo-nrefx^ov, airi"
evai KcXeve. See §. 631. The genitive, in the same sense:
Plat. Phcedon. jp. 78 D, E. ruiv ttoXXwv KaXwv, oiov avOptJTrojv,
77 nnrwv-'^ apa Kara ra avra e^^ei ; oee <^. o4-^.

299. The Predicate expresses the action or the quality, the con-
(*^98) dition, which is ascribed to the subject. The Copula, as it is

* Schaef. ad Dion. II. p. 44 seq. 358.

Syntax. Of the Use of the 'Nominative. 513

called, serves to connect this with the subject, by which means
the simple ideas (in the subject and predicate) are converted
into a proposition. This is always a verb. For this copula,
either a proper verb is assigned, — and this is chiefly the case
with eifxi ' I am*, and other verbs which of themselves convey
no complete idea, but require the addition of another definition
in a substantive, adjective, or adverb ; — or the copula and pre-
dicate are united in one verb, which takes place in those verbs
which perfectly express a condition of themselves, e. g. Kv/ooc
rkQvr\Ke ' Cyrus is dead'. Frequently the condition, or action,
expressed by the verb, requires besides that the relation should
be determined in which it stands to a person or thing ; hence
arises the determination of the oblique cases, which are governed
by the verb.

The verb, whether it be the copula alone, or a copula with
the predicate, is determined by the subject, with respect to
person and number. Of the persons, the first and second, in
the singular, dual, and plural, can only be used when the sub-
ject is a personal pronoun, either expressed or merely understood
for these persons, e. g. eyw juev aaOevcj, av ^e eppwcrai ' I am ill,
but you are well'. e'lQ offac o tXyi/lkjjv eKXTreTrrw/ca avfx(popac, 'into
what misfortunes have I, wretched man, fallen'. Xen. H. Gr. 2,

4, 14. ^eiTTvovvrec ^vveXafi^avofxe^a and so also when the

speaker names himself, as Ge/ut(TTQfcXrJq Tj/ca> 7ra|oa ak Thuc. 1,
137. 4>o7j3oc (t' o AriTovc -iratQ oS' eyyvc wv KaXS Eur. Or.
1659.^ Both persons are united Thuc. 1, 128. riauo-aviaq - -
aTTOirefxTrei — Kai yvcjjuriv tto coujuat . So after the relative is found
the person to which the pronoun refers : Herod. 2, 115. eyw

av ff€ eTKTa^rjv, be epyacrao &C. Li/s. p. 109, 31. aTTO-

(j)7)vaiiLii, OQ TrpwTov jULev e^eKOTTTOv. In all other cases the third
person is used.

When several subjects, of different grammatical persons, are
put together, the verb in the predicate agrees with the chief
person ; which is the first, with relation to the second or third ;
and the second, with relation to the third, as in Latin. Hesiod.
Th. 646. r\ ^ri yap /naXa ^rfpov evavTioi aWrjXoKTi viKt^c Kai

^ Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 1285.

514 Syntax. Of the Use of the 'Nominative.

KpareoG irepi juapva/xeO' T^fxara iravra, Ttrrjvec re Oeoi Kai ocroi
Kpovov eKyevofxeaQa. Eurip. ap. j^Esch. c. Tim. p. 254. Kayw
^lei^ ovTU) ywcTTir, ear avr]p troCpoQ AoyiCo/Jiai TaAriuec, etc avopoc
(pvcriv. Plat. Tim. p. 29 C. ayairav y^prj fue/dvrjfxevoVj mc o
Aeywi' v^€?c re o'l Kpnai (pvcriv avQp(i)invr]v eyofxev. Xen. Hist.
Gr. 2, 3, 15. enei Kai eyu) kql (tv TroXXa ^ri rov apkaKeiv kveKa
Ty TToXei Kai eiirofiev Koi eTTpa^afxev. Eurip. Or. 86. av c rj
(jLaKapia fxaKapioc o aoQ iroaic, ijKerov e(j) r]fxac, ad\'i(»)C^ we-
irpayorac, ^.

Ohs. There are some apparent exceptions to this rule, the verb being
often referred to the nearest subject. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 7. Trept tov
diKaiuv Trayv olfxai vvv eyjeiv eiTrelv, Trpos a ovre av ovr ay ^iXXos ovocls
BvvaiT aprenreh'f for hvyaifrde, but properly for ovr dv av dvvato, ovr
aXXos ^vvaiTO. Herod. 3, 68. Also the singular of two, Soph. (Ed. 2\
1136. Eur. Hipp. 667. ttws vlv Trpocro-^ei kol (tv koX letj-jroiva (rrj ;
Comp. Plat. Phcedon. p. 77 D. The verb appears to stand in the
person of the nearest subject and yet in the plural Eur. Ale. 672.
%upiv Toidy^e koi (tv -yji TCKova yjXXa^aTqy, if >/X\. be not here the 2nd
person. See §. 195. Obs. 1. Plat. Symp. p. 189 C. ctXXr; ye irri tv v^
e^io XeyetVi >} r] av re Kai Havaayias elxerrjyf Bekker reads eiTrerov (r).
Soph. El. 622. (jj Qpkjip avaiheSf rj a eyoj Kai rafx eirri Ka\ rapya rapcL
TToXX' aya»/ Xeyeiv Trotei, where different persons are not meant, but the
words TCLjx e-KYi KaX rapya ra/xa are an illustration of ey w ' I ', that is, my
words and actions, * make you speak so much', and the predicate is
referred to the explanation.

300. With regard to the number, the natural construction is, that
(^^^) the verb is put in the singular, dual, or plural, according to the
number of the subject. In Greek, hov^ever, an exception takes
place, which again has the force of a rule, viz. that the nomi-
native of the neuter plural has the verb in the singular, e. g.
Twv ovTwv Ttt pkv ear IV ecj) rjpiv, ra Be ovk e(j) rjjuLiv.

This usage, however, is more observed by the Attics than by
the older writers in the Ionic and Doric dialects, and is fre-
quently neglected by the Attics themselves, e. g. //. )(', 266.
ovre ri I'wii^ opKia eaaovrai. X , 310. aprj^ava kpya yevovro,
where the scholiasts observe, that this is constructed apyaiKwc,.

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