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Xen. Cyr. 7, 5,52. op^v ae aij.(p' 'iinrovQ e^ovra, a/tic^ ap/nara,
afi(j)i /LiYi^avcLQ, r]yovfJLr]v, eirei airo tovtov cr^oAacratc, Tore ere
Kai oju(^' e/uie e^eiv (t-^oXtiv. 'Ahi(J)l frequently stands in this
sense, without signifying a surrounding, only to denote a place
generally : //. X', 705. a/x(^i re aarv epdo/jiev ipa Oeoitjiv ' all
round the city, in the whole city*. Eur. SuppL 1 1. auc^yi irvXac
'here and there at the gates', comp. 103. but 653. d/ncpi S
'RXeKTpac TTvXac ' near the gate'. Pind. OL 2, 55. rov oXov
dp(pl -^povoif. 1, 157. and like viro 'in connexion with' Pind.
01. 10, 92. del^ero ^e irav repevoQ TepiTvaloi OaXiaiQ rov
eyKoj/Luov ap(j)L rpoirov, because the song afxC^i^aXXeTai 01.
1, 14. Eur. Phan. 1056. But Ah. 594. eyopevae S' dfjic^l
aav KiOdpav ve^poc, it is probable that d^(^i is to be taken in the
literal sense. Andr. 215. dp(^\ OpyKrjv 'anywhere in Thrace'.

To this head belongs the phrase oi a^<^i or irepi riva. It
means :

1 . The person signified by the proper name with his com-
panions, followers, &c. Herod, 1,62. kuI ol a/ji(pi YleiaidTparou,
ioc, opiin}9evT€G €K yiapaOojvoQ r/io-ai^ eiri to ckttv ec tcovto
ffWiovreCj airiKveovrai eiri rrjc YlaXXrivi^oQ AOrjvairjQ lepov Kai
dvTia eOevTo ra owXa, ' Pisistratus with his troops'. Comp.
9, 57. ib. 69. ol aju<^t KopivOiovQ due. denote not merely the
Corinthians &c., although afterwards only ol MeyapecQ Kai
^Xidaioi are mentioned, but also the other tribes who adhered
to them. ib. 3, 76. ot CTrra twv Uepcrecjv e^i^ocrav avroTdt
(T(f)iGi Xoyovc' Ol fiiev a/ji(j)i tov Oravijv irayyv KeXevovrec

vir€p(5aXea9ai oi ^e djiiC^l rov Aa/oeTov avriKa re levai

/jLri^' virepl^aXXeaOai, of the seven grandees only two are

mentioned, as expressing their opinion ; the remaining five
must have sided, two perhaps with Otanes, three with Darius.
Thuc. 8, 105. Ol 7re|oi O paavf^ovXov 'Thrasybulus with his
soldiers'. Plat. Crntyl. p. 400 C. ol d/ncpi 'Opcpea ' Orpheus
with his scholars'. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 5, 10. oJ TrepI KeKpona



1022 Syntax. Prepositions governing three Cases,

' Cecrops and his assessors in judgement'. Hist. Gr. 5, 4, 2.
OuAAtoac eypafxfxareve rola nepi Ap'^iav 7ro\eij,apvoiQ. It
also denotes similarity, as oi d/acj)! F,v9v(j)pova ' persona of
Euthyphron's kind' Plat, Crat, p. 399 E. See Heind. p. 58.
Similar to this are the passages in Homer Od. y, 162.
' Ulysses and his companions'. //. i, 80 seq, the proper names
designate the principal persons, the CTrra -nyefiovaQ (pvXaKwv
V. 85. but the whole phrase, these along with the watchmen
who led them v, 86. Comp. //. l\ 435. The principal persons
are designated also by ajuL^i Hesiod. Sc. Here. 178.

2. Sometimes this phrase signifies merely the person whom
the proper name expresses, but only in later writers. Plat,
Hipp, Maj. p. 281 C. TlirraKov re Kat Btai^roq Km twv afx(j)i
Tov MiXr}<jiov OaXriv, unless we suppose that Thales is
meant, pre-eminently indeed, but yet conjointly with his fol-
lowers, the Ionic philosophers, distinguished from Bias and
Pittacus, who founded no school, id, Epist, 9 in, p, 357 D.
01 irepL ' ApyjiTTirov Kai ^iXwviBrjv, where, however, the com-
panions of the ambassadors may be also meant. Arist. Vesp,
1301. KaiTOi Traprjv ' IttttuXoc, Ai^rt^wi^, AvKtJU, AvcncrrpaTOC,
Oov(ppa(Troc;, ol ire pi ^pvvi"^ov, where Phrynichus and his
attendants may be meant. This phrase occurs particularly in
this sense in the later Grammarians^. //. y, 146. oi ^* aiJL(pl
Tlpiajuiov Kai JJavBoov r]^e OvjULOirriv, Aapirov re KXuTtoi/
I/ceraova t , oZjov' Aprioc,, OvKaXeyu)v re kul AvTr}V(jjp, irenvv

pev(M) aiJ.(j)(jj, Emro ^r]fxoyepovTec, em ^KaiyGi TrvXyaiv, Ucalegon
and Antenor are distinguished by the addition 7re7r»/. a/ti(j)(jj, and
the sense seems to be ' they, namely Ucalegon and Antenor,
sat around Priam'. »

3. The proper name also denotes the secondary person, who
is only mentioned in order to express more definitely those who
are properly meant, e. g. oi irepl ' Ap'^i^apov Xen. Hist, Gr. 7,
5, 12. means * the companions of Archidamus,' without him-
self. Instead of which Plat. Soph, in, ol irepl UappeviBriv Kai
7jrjvu)va exatjoot.

"^ Valck. ad Eur. Phoen. p. 618. p. S'^O sqq. Iloog. & Zeune ad V^ig.
Casaiib. ad Diog. L. 3, 22. Ern. ad p. 7 sqq. Ilerm. ib. p. 700.
Xen. Mem. S. 1, 1, 18. Eisch. 3 b.



Syntax, Prepositions governing three Cases. 1023

Ohs. We must distinguish from these the cases in which the prepo-
sitions are not followed by a proper name, but by another substantive,
or when the article is neuter, ol Trcpi (pikocrotpiav * those who study phi-
losophy', ol irepl rrjy dtjpav Plat. Soph. p. 220 D. * hunters', oi Trepl
rrjy ffocplav id. Hipp. Maj. p. 281 D. to. ctju^t top TroXe/uov Xen. Cyrop,
2, 1, 21. ' what belongs to war', tq TroXefjiiKd. to. nepl AdfjiypaKoy Xen.
Hell. 2, 1, 20. ' the occurrence at Lampsacus'. ra trepl Qrjfiaiovs Isocr,
ad Phil. 2)' 92 E. * the situation, constitution of the Thebans.' Some-
times also it is merely a circumlocution, e. g. ra irepl rtjv aixapriav
Plat. Cralyl. p. 420 D. for »/ afxapTla. Thuc. 1, 110. to. Kara Trjy fxe-
ydXrju arpareiav 'Adrjt'aiioy.

' towards', of time. d/uLCJ)! deiXriv ' towards evening' Xen. Ct/r.
5, 4, 16.

* about*. ajLiC^l ra e/c/cat^e/ca erri •^evofxevoc, Xen. Cyr. 1,4, 16.

' what relates to', especially in circumlocution, ra a/iicf)! rov
TToXe/uov, for ra TroXejuiKa. Hence 'of, de. Find. Pyth. 2, 27.
cLjACpii Kivvpav. Eur. Troad. 515. and so a/i(^t is used especially
in the commencement of hymns, e. g. H. Horn. 6. cr^<^l Atw-
vvaov — fjLviiaofxai. ih. 18.21. 33. Also * on account of, Pind,
Isthm. 7, 12. 5 or dp(p' 'loXaov tTTTTO^rjrti^, where it is also
used with the dative.

Note. In Homer the form ufxcjiis is also found. See §. 594, 1.

2. eVt 584.

a. with the genitive :

a. 'in, on, at', in definitions of place, in answer to the
question * where V Od. v , 346. enl Kparoc, Xi/nevoc rayu^uAXoc
eXaii] ' at the extremity, the innermost creek'. Plerod. 2, 35. ra.
w^Oea ol jLieu avSpec em twv Ke(^aXk(i)v (popeovcn, al ^e yvvalKec
eiri Twi^ ljp(t)v. id, 5, 92, 3. ecrrewTec em tcJv Ovpeoyv ' near,
at the door'. Xen. Anab. 4, 3, 28. /te?i/at em tov Trorafxov ' at
the river' ^. Hence the phrase em rtHu Topitjjv ofxvvvai, 'to
stand near, and swear"^.

j3. Likewise in answer to the question ' whither ?' Thuc,
1, 116. irXeiv eTTi 2a^ou. Xen. Cyr. 7, 2, 1. em ^ap^ewv
({yevyeiv. Comp. 6,1,31. 4,5,54. 3,3,27. Hence o^oq 17 eTrt
KapiriQ (pepovaa Herod. 7, 31. and with the omission of oSoq,

^ Fibch. 3 b. |). 228. 229. *= Viger. p. 615. Misc. Phil. 1. p. 163, 36.



1 024 Syntax, Prepositions governing three Cases.

tevai Trjv em KtXticiar,*. Herodotus 9, 47. uses gen. and accus.
together : o navvavlriQ OTriffw riye tovg ^irapririraQ €7rt to
^e^iov Kepac' toe S avrtJQ Kai o Map^ovioQ eiri rov evwvvpov

(Schw. TO €VU)VVIL10V).

y. * under, during', in definitions of time, enl KeKpoTroc ' in
the time of Cecrops*, Herod, 8, 44. kir eiprivrjc ' in time] of
peace', //. j3, 797. cttI rwv yifxerkptov npoyovtsyv Xen. Ct/r, 1,
6, 31.^ Sometimes eiri tivoc, signifies also ' the occasion of,
e. g. 1^ eir ' AvraXKi^ov elprjvri, properly ' the peace in the time
of Antalcidas', thence * the peace made by him'*^.

^. ' of, de, with the verbs ' to say'. Plat, Charm, p. 1 55 D.
eiTL TOW KaXov \eyiov irai^oc I^eg. 7. p. 793 E. OTrep eiri rwv
dovXcjv y iXeyofiev^, Soph, GEd, C, 414. Aj. 797.

e. 'from, after', a, with the verbs 'to name, to be named',
e^etv ovofia eiri TiifOQ Herod, 4, 45. T7?v eTrtovvfiirjv TroieiaOai
eiTL Tivoc id, 1, 1 4, 94, Comp.2,57. 7,58.83. Rence Herod,
4, 45. ovK eyu) ffUjUj3aXe(T0at, err orev fiiy eovay yy ovvofxara
rpi(^a(jia Keerai * wherefore ?

Z» ' in, near, at', with substantives which import any case
that may serve as an example, and with the verbs * to show,
see', &c. Isocr, ad Nic, p, 25 A. eTri twv KaiptSv Betsjpelv
Tovc (TVfijBovXevovrac, So aKoirelv eiri rivoc,^. Xen. Cyr, 1,
6, 25. eiii Tijjv 7rpa<^€(*)v, Plat, Rep, 5. p, 47 5 A, eir eftiov ' on
my example'. Also airov^a^eaOai eiri tivoc Eur. Iph, A, 907.
which is elsewhere expressed by eiri rivi.

71, It often expresses a connexion, accompaniment, pro-
vision, either with things, as Herod, 9, 11. ew opKov, jure-
jurando interposito. Soph, Aj, 1268. eiri ajxiKpuiv Xoycov 'with
few words'. Eur, Phcen, 1505. KaSrjaTO Ka^/nov Xaoc ckttti^ujv
eiri, clypeis instructus, to which is opposed in the following
verse arparoQ outtw revyeai irecjypayjuievoc, or with persons :
Soph, (Ed, C, 746. eiri TTpoawoXov fjiiac ywpelv ' accompanied
by one maid-servant'. Lys,p. 187, 30. eiri izpoGrarov oticeTi/,

=» Obss. Misc 6. p. 293. Fisch.Sb. "^ (Markl. et) Wolf ad Demosth.

p. 230. Brunck ad /Esch. Prom. 663. Lept. p. (276) 319. in SchaRf. App. 3.

Blomf. '.b. 679. p. 144.

»> Valck. adTheocr. Id. 10. p. 115. ^ Heind. ad Charm. 1. c. p. 62.

Fisch. 3 b. p. 227. * Schaf. App. Demosth. 2. p. 284.



Syntax, Prepositions governing three Cases* 1 025

habit are patronum hahentem. On this perhaps is founded
Soph. Ant. 787. Kai a' out' aOavarwv ^v^t/uoc ovbeic, ovB
ujnepiwv eir' avBptjTrtjjv * among men*. Hence ' before', coram,
as Hellen. 6, 6, 38. tVi paprvpwv, testihus adhihitis. Demosth.
de Cor. p. 273, 8. einoixoaavTO eiri twv arparriyojv. Comp.
Plat. Leg. 8. p. 846 B. C.*^ and it also serves as a circumlo-
cution of an adverb : eir a^eiaQ for aSetJC, en e^ovaiac ' freely'^ .

6. In this way these phrases seem to have originated :

€(p>* eavTov ' by himself, pecuharly*. Herod. 1, 143. 9, 38.
el'yov Kai oi pera twv Tlepaetov eovT€Q ' EXArjvec eir itovnjjv
pavTivlTnTopa-^^ov. Comp. I, 203. 2, 2. Thuc, 5, 67. Kepaa
pev eviowpov ^Kiplrai avrolc KaOi<TravTO, aei ravrrfv ttjv
Tci^iv povoi AaK€^aipovi(M}v em a(^ij^v avTijJv eyovrec, 'by
themselves, unmixed with others*. Comp. 8, 63. So //, ?j',

\9^. evyeade oi'yyj e(j) vpenx)v,\va pr\ Tpojec ye irvOcjvrai,

— Piat. Plot, p, 326 C. avTOL e(j)' avriov ' left to them-
selves*. Leg. 12. p. 942 A. avrov e(j)* eavrov ti Kara povaQ
Sjoav, which ib. C. is expressed ^w^ot'c ti tcJv aWcov irparTeiv,
Comp. Demosth. de Cor. p. 230, 14. Hence e(j) eavrov ot/ceiv,
of states also, ' to live by themselves, not dependent upon
others, to have a constitution of their own'. Thuc. 2, 63.^
But Thuc. 1, 17. TO e(f) eavrwv povov 7rpoop(vpevoi, said of
the tyrants, means ' their own concerns, their private interests,
in opposition to regard to the common good', and is explained
by the words ec re ro adpa Kai ec to rov i8tov oXkov ov^eci/.

eiri rpitjv, rerrapiov, e(j) evoc rera'^Oai, arijvai ' to stand
three, four, one deep'. Thuc. 2, 90. Xen. Cyr.2,4,2. 8,3,18.
Anab. 1,2, 15. ibid. 5, 2, 6. €<^' evoQ ri Kara(5aaiG ^v ' the
descent was by one at a time*, ib. 4, 8, 11. the gen. is inter-
changed with the accus. eirl ttoWovq reraypevoi, and eir oXi-
yijjv rer.

With names of a business or office, it signifies the execution
of them, e. g. oi eiri rwv irpayinaruyv, qui suffima rerum pra-

' Dorvill. ad Char. p. 642. Valck. Schaf. Mclet. p. 83.
ad Eur. Hipp. 213. Wessel. ad Diod. *' Valck. ad Herod. 8, 32. p. 634, 19.

Sic. T. 2. p. 153. Fisch. 3 b. p. 231.

? Wyttenb. Bibl. Crlt. 3, 2. p. 7.



1026 Syntax. Prepositions governing three Cases,

fecti sunt, Demosth. p. 309, 9. particularly in later writers, ot
eiri Tfjjv eniGToXoyv, ab epistolis^,

585. 5. With the dative especially it signifies a ' subordination',
the being in the power of any one, and a ' condition'.

a. ' Subordination', expressed in Latin by penes, e. g. tivu
ovT(i)v ra [jLev etjriv e(j) r}fJ^^^, to. § ovk ecj) rjjuuv ' are in our
power, at our command'. Soph, Phil. 1003. /mrj W twS' eartjj
rd^e. eirl ij,dvr€(nv eivai ' to be dependent upon soothsayers',
to be guided by them, Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 2. TroieTi' ri €7ri nvi

* to submit a thing to any one's judgement'. Plat, Rep, 5,
p, 460 A. Hence Soph, Trach. 356. ov Tam AvSoTq, old' eir*

Oiii(j)aXy TTovtjJv XarpevfjLara, ro eir e^uoi 'as far as depends
upon me'^.

j3. ' Condition', especially in the phrase €<^* a> or ecj) wre
§. 479. eni rola^e Eur, Ale, 382. Hel. 847. e^' olc Here.
F, 708. That also is regarded as a condition, on account of
which, in order to obtain it, something is done, which is the
price or the foreseen result of the action. //. t', 602. enl dojpoiQ
epyeo * on account of the promised gifts', k, 304. Swjow eVt
jneydXio ' for a large gift'. Herod. 1, 60. Me-ya/cXer^C eireKripv-
KevCTO JJeiaiffTpdro), ei (^ovXoito ol rrjv Bvyarepa ey^eiv eirl
ry rvpavviSi. Soph. Ant. 322. ib. 1061. Arist, Ach. 13. eirl
p,6ayjbt) adeiv ' for the price of a calf. See Brunck. Plat,
Ale, I, p, 105 C. eiri TovToiQ fxovoic tv^ 'upon condition of
having this only'. Leg, 5. p, 745 A. edv ric a-n-eiOy rovrw rtp
vo/uiio, (j)ave7 julcv o ^ovXojmevoQ eiri toTc r)fxiaeGiv ' so that he re-
ceives the half in consequence of a promise. JEschin. in Ctes.
p, 499. yjijjpav avaQeivai AiroXXiovi eiri iraay aepyia ' upon
condition that it shall not be cultivated'. Xen. Mem, 2, 2, 8.
Xeyei, a ovk dv rtq em tw )3/y Travrl (3ovXoito a/coucrai ' for his
life, though he must lose his life on failure of fulfilling the
conditions'. Thus also ewi ttoct^j av jSouXoto, eOeXoic, de^aio,
' for how much would you ?' the Latin, quid mereri velis,
merearis? id, Symp. 1, 5. Uptorayopa ttoXv apyvpiov deSioKac
enl G0(^ia ' upon condition that he taught you wisdom'. Isocr,
Panath, p, 234 C. tovtcjv airavTCJV ^oi Gv/nf^ef^YiKOTuyv, rtjju

* Leunep ad Phalar. p. 306. Fiscli.3 b. p. 244 seq. ^ Fisch. 3 b. p. 235.



Si/ntax, Prepositions governing three Cases. 1027

fiev v7r€ppa\\6ifTU)C, Twi' Be el^apKovvrtoc, ovk ayanw ^ujv €7rt
TovToic, ' upon condition, with the prospect of possessing this,
notwithstanding 1 were to possess this'. Thuc. I, 74. v/ueTc ctti
T((j TO XoiTTov veineaOai ejior]dr]aare ' with the prospect, or in
order to*. 2,80. ctt err](jiw irpoaTaaia r]'yei<jQai^. Hence Pz/ic?.
Pi/th. 4, 33 I. fc'TTt KOI ^avarw (pap/naKOV ecTc aperac evpeodai,
vel morte proposita.

Hence it frequently expresses 'an object, an aim', inasmuch
as this is the condition upon which the action is performed.
Herod. 1, 41. jutj rivec kut o^ov /cXwTrec KaKovpyoi eiri Sry-
Arjaei (pavetvai vpTiv, ^ in order to do you mischief. Comp. 2,
121. 6, 67. Ear. Here. F. 591. P/at. Protag. p. 312 B.
Tovrijjv yap ov eKucjTriv ovk eiri Teyvij ep-aOeCf ioc BriiniovpyoQ
eao/nevoG, * in order to exercise it as a profession'. Comp. ib.
p. 315 A. Apol. S. p. 36 D. Aristoph. Lys. 630. Hence
Gv\\aij.(3av€iv Tiva em 6avarii.>, ayeiv em 6. ' to lead to exe-
cution'*^. And as the incidental consequence is often substi-
tuted for the immediate, i. e. the object : Eurip. Hec. 649.
{eKpiOr} B epiCy av ev ' I^a Kpivei rpiaaac, fxaKapijjv Trai^ac, avrjp
povraCy) em copi Kai (jyovio Kai ep.wv fxeXaQpiov X(oj3a, ' with
the consequence of war, shiughter, and devastation'. Comp.
P^6ew.548. Hipp,5\6. Hec.822. Xen.Mem. S. 2,3,} 9. oIk
av TToXXr/ a/uaO'ia eirf Kai KaKoBaifxovia toTc ctt* toCpeXeia (the
object) TreTTOirjiLievotr, eiri (5Xaj5}j (consequence) '^prjaOai ;

Hence it often signifies merely ' on account of. Xen. Mem.
3, 14, 2. ej^^oi/neu av eiirelu, etri iroio) irore epyto avOptoTroQ
oil/o(j)ayoc KaXelrai ; Tims also Oav/nateGOai eni rivi Plat,
Menoti. in. (jypovelv enl rivi * to pride one's self upon some-
thing', id. Sj/mp. p. 217 A. aviaoOai tVi rivi^. aveirrepuyadai
em rpaytoBia, ' to love passionately', Arist. Av. 1444 seq. 'in
regard to', de. Herod. 1, 66. AaKe^ai/novioi ey^prjarrjpia^ovro
ev AeX<^oTo'i em iraay r^ ApKa^tjjv \^py. id. 9, 10. Oveiv em
T«J Uepay, properly in the view of conquering Arcadia, of at-
tacking the Persians.

* Ruhnk. ad Xen. Mem. S. 2, 2, 8. ** VVessel. ad Diod. S. 2. p. 86.

Villois. ad Long. p. 207. Fisch. 3 b. * Ilemsterh. adLucian. 1. 1. p. 238.

p. 239. Fisch. 3 h. p. 238.



1028 Si/ntax, Prepositions governing three Cases.

586. 7. Sometimes also it signifies ' at', as a definition of place
(as Thuc, 3, 99. Tre/otTroXioi/ ewi tio* AXtiki TrorajiK^) sometimes
in order to express generally a combination, a co-existence. To
this head belong the phrases Zrjvy TeXevrrjcyai, eiri Tratdiv, vi-
vere, mori liberos habentem^, — yafielv aWrfv yvvaiKa ewi Ovyarpi
ajLiriTopL Herod. 4, 154. comp. Eur, Ale. 380. TraWaKrjv e\eiv
eir eXevOepoiQ TraKJiv, Demosth. p. 637, 5.** Eur. Med. 123. tvv
ew* 'iffoiaiv, viv, aquo cum aliis jure fruentem. Comp. Isocr.

Pan. p. 48 B. (c. 10.) eaOieiv kirl tw (titw o^^ov 'to eat

with their bread', Xen. Mem. S. 3, 14, 2. Comp. Ci/r. 1, 2, 1 1.^
eiri Tw (TiTio TTiveiv id. Cyr. 6, 2, 27. Comp. Plat. Phadr.
p. 247 E.^ €7ri ry kvXiki aSeiv Plat. Symp. p. 2 14 B. Hence
//. V , 485. TwS' eTTt Ovfxio * with this disposition'. Comp. Hes.
Th. 153. So //. V , 104. eXai^oi avrwc vXaaKovaai avaXKi^cQ
ov3* eirl y^apjuy, the words ouS* ewi ^. appear to supply the
place of an adj. opposed to avaXKidec, ovS' eirl yjapi-iyj ovrea 'not
joyous for the attack'^. Thuc. 2, 101. viroayofjievoQ a^eX(pr\v
iavTOv ^wtreti/ Kai y^py]}xara eir avry ' with her'. KaOrjcrSai ein.
^aKpvoic, Eurip. Iphig. A. 1184. or eirl daKpvai Troad. 315.
for ^aKpvovaav. Iph. A. 542. Soph. El. 108. Ant. 555. ovk
eir appYjToiG ye roTq e^oTq XoyoiQ ' not without my having
spoken', id, 759. em if^oyoiai, i, e. xpeyovaa, Eurip. Ion. 235.
eir* aa(^aKToiG fxriXoiai ' without having sacrificed'. Eur, Or,
632. eirl avvvola, which 634. is expressed by n avvvoov/j,evoc,
Demosth. de Cor, p, 319, 16. Lys. p. 165, 13. eir* evvola
Xeyeiv. Soph, Aj, 142. eirl ^vaKXeia 'with disgrace', eirl
yeXwTt Herod. 9, 82. may signify 'with laughter', but like-
wise 'in order to excite laughter, in joke'. Eur, Phan. 1596.
OVK eir ovei^eaiv, ouS' einyapfiaaiVy aXX oZvvaiai Xeyo), the first
may mean 'not in order to reproach thee, not in order to exult
over thee', but may also be for ovk ovei^ltovaa, ou8' eTri^^ai-
povaa \ but eir oSui'aco't can mean only o^vvwixevri.

It frequently signifies not so much ' a being together', as an
immediate ' following upon' (a connexion of time and space).
Od, Xy 287. Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 7. avearr] eir avrt^ ^epavXac

» riemsterh. ad Luc. t. 2. p. 435. <=Bergl.ad Arist.Pl.628. Ach.835.

Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 860, 397. '' Brunck ad Arist. Plut. 1005.

»» Valck. ad Herod. 4,154. p. 348,56. * Jacobs ad Anth. Pal. p. 563.



Syntax. Prepositions governing three Cases, 1029

'immediately after him'. Comp. 22. Eur. Or. 887. 898. 902.
Immediate succession in space is expressed by it Od. t} , 120.
oy^vTf eir oy-^vy yrfpaaKei 'pear after pear'. Eur. Iph, T. 197.
Troad. 595. Comp. 173.^ Hence eir e^epyaojikvoiGi §. 565.
Obs. Likewise ' besides', pr^^er : //. i', 639. Comp. Od. y ,
113. cj, 211 . y^y 264. €7ri rovroic, prceterea, ' moreover, be-
sides', Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 38,

^. cTTi with the dative often signifies ' against', of hostile
relations. Eur. Phan. 1417. -^^av ^p6fxr]fxa ^eivov aXXrjXoiQ
em. Rhes. 511. 580.2

e. In many cases eirl with the dative has the same or a
similar signification with the genitive, e. g. eirl '^Oovl ' on the
earth*, eirl vvkti. 11. ff, 529. 'in the night*. Herod. 5, 12.
ayyoc, eirl ry /cec^aXi? ey^ovaav. id. 3, 14. tcuuto enoiiKje to Kai
€7ri ry Ovyarpi ' with his daughter'. //. t', 181. In the phrase
eni Tivi etTreTv Plat. Meriex. p. 234 B. Thuc. 2, 34. '^to utter
a panegyric upon any one', a definition of place appears to
have been understood, ' to speak at or over the grave of any
one*. Thus Herod. 7, 225. o XiOivoc Aetuv edrrjKev tni Aew-
vi^]}^, vofLLOvQ riOeaOai eiri rivi ' in reference to some one, i. e.
for'. Plat. Gorg. p. 488 D. Heindorfp. 141. explains em of
the direction, purpose.

t. On this use is also founded probably the construction
ovo/mateiv eirl rivi ' to give a thing a name', e. g. Plat. Rep.
p. 493 C. ovofxaCoi ^e iravra ravra eiri tolq tov p,€ya\ov ^<l)ov
^o^aic. See §. 420 b. p. 616.

With the dative it is put also to express occupations and
employments. Xen. Cyr. 6, 3, 28. ot eiri raic fxtj-^avalc, qui
machinis bellicis prtEfecti sunt. Hence Thuc. 6, 29. Trepireiv
TLva em aTpaTevp,ari ' as commander of an army'.

c. With the accusative it signifies particularly 'upon, against',
in answer to the question 'whither?' in those cases in which,
in Latin, in is put with the accusative, e. g. ava^aiveiv e(pi'
'twirov, em Opovov Herod. 1, 40. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 3, 10. ov^eu

' Fisch. 3 b. p. Q37. v. 544.

« Schaef. ad Soph. Ant. 57. Din- '' Valck. ad Herod. 4, 87. p. 321, 91.

dorf Comm. in Arist. T. 7. 1. p. 415. Fisch. 3 b. p. 240.



1030 Syntax. Prepositions governing three Cases*

iroiKiXov Set €7r' avrov fxriyavaadai ' against him'. So in eirl
TToSa avayjujpelvf pedem referre, eiri (tkeXoc naXiu yuypelv Eur,
Fhan, 1438. the Greeks seem to have had in view the return
into the place which the foot previously occupied. Hence it
is often put after verbs of motion with substantives which do
not denote a place, but an action, which is the end of one's
going, &c. as ikvai eir\ Orjpav Herod. 1, 37. em Oecjpiav Plat,
Crit. 52 B. Hence levai eiri v^top Herod. 3, 14. Xen. CEcon.
2, 15. 'in order to draw water, for water*. Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 12.
€7r* apyvpiov 'to get money'*. Hence eTrt ri 'to what end,
wherefore?' Arist, Nub. 255. eir* avro ye tovto irapeafxev,
wc eiri^eil^ovTe Kai di^al^ovre Plat. Euthyd. p. 274 A.

Yet it sometimes stands likewise in answer to the question
* where?' as elc, e. g. TCecrOai eni n Herod. 2, bd. 8, 52. ' to
go anywhere, in order to seat oneself there', eirl ^e'l^ia, eir
api(jT€pa Ke7a9ai Herod. 1,51. Comp. 3, 90. Soph. Q^d. C,
1493. (iKpav eir aiyiaXov OeM Tvy^aveiQ (^ovOvrov eariav
ayi^wi^. Eur. Fph. A. 812. 6a(Taov<j' eir* a/crac . But Thuc,
7, 37. oi ^ev eiTL ra Teiy^r\ kql tt/oo twv rei'^tjjv toTc irpotn-
ovffiv avmraperaaaovTO , the idea of ava^^avreQ is implied in eirl
ra reiyji.

With definitions of time it answers to the question ' how
long?' etrl y^povov 'for some time', aliquamdiu, //. /3', 299.
eni ^vo -iT/nepac 'for two days', Thuc. 2, 35. Likewise with
definitions of place : eirl rearffapaKovra ara^ia ^iriKeiv Xen. Mem.
iS. 1, 4, 17. With numerals it signifies ' about' Herod. 4, 198.
em TpirjKocTia ' about three hundred'.

It signifies also ' with regard to', in the phrase to eir' efxe.
Soph. Antig. 889. roviri rriv^e ttjv Koprjv^. — In Xeyeiv fxvOov
eirl TToXXouc Eurip. Suppl. 1069. (see Markland's note), it
is used like elc Thus also Herod. 3, 82. aiyioro av j^ovXev/jLara
eirl ^v(7peveaQ av^pac owtoj /uaXitrra, where if em ^vg/j,. a. be-
longed to j^ovXevpara, it must have been j3ovX. to, em ^vap. a,
'Em has the same meaning with the accus. and gen. in em

* Valck. ad Herod. 7, 1 93. p. 596,72. Schaef. ad Long. p. 427.
b Wessel. ad Herod. 6, 32. p. 452, «= Pors. ad Eur. Or. 1338.

14. Herm. ad Horn. H. in Merc. 418.



Sj/ntax, Prepositions governing three Cases, 1031

TToXAovc rerayfxkvoi Xen. Anab. 4, 8, 11. where shortly before
fcV 6Xiy(jjv rer. was found. 'Etti with the accus. or an adverb
has also an adverbial signification : eirl nXeov, iiri fieitov, em
fiaXXov, eir' 'iaa for iawc Pind, Nem. 7, 7.'*

3. ^era signifies a. with the genitive ' together, with', as 587.
(Tvv, to express a connexion. KaOrjcrOai fxera tcjv aXXwv ' with
the rest'. Plat, Rep. 2. p. 359 E. Hence juera rivoc elvai * to
be on any one's side', Thuc. 3, 56. 7, 33. With the words
* to contend, fight, carry on war', ij,€Ta expresses the side which
is favoured, e. g. I'huc. 1, 18. Hence various construc-
tions of which the basis is the idea of a connexion, which in
other languages is differently expressed, e. g. /ueTa iroXireiaQ
o'lKclv, reipublicae formam habere y Isocr. Paneg. c. 30. fxera
Tou Xoyov Plat, Phcedon. p. Qi5 B. duce ratione. fxera rwv
vo/jitjjv 'agreeably to the laws' Dem, Lept, §. 90. p. 490, 13.
but /LteTo. Tou v6/Liov ^laKiv^vveveiv ' in defence' Plat, Apol, S.
j9. 32 B. /j-era kiv^vvcjv ' in the midst of dangers' Thuc, 1,
18 extr, juera fxiadov ib. 7, 57. 'for pay', before juhgOm Trei-
aOevrec Soph. CEd. C, 1636. o'iktov /tiera ' lamenting'. Thuc,
6, 28. /iiera irai^iac Kal oivou ' in jest and drunkenness', as
fjier OLVOv eXOelv Li/s. p, 101, 17. julbt aperrjc irptjreveiv Xen,
Mem. <S. 3, 5, 8. juera crou ' with thy help', id, Cyrop. 4, 6, 7.®
Hence with the plural 'among' Eurip. Hec. 209. /uera veKptZv
Keiaofxai, Andr, 591. fxer av^pwv and ev dv^pacriv are inter-
changed.

b. With the dative, in the poets only, ' amongst, with'.
//. a , 252. pera Se Tpiraroiaiv avaoaev. instead of which
Od. 1) , 62. we have oc ev ^air]^iv avaaaev, and with singulars



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