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for a p^ivjuev, dependent upon 'iva, Comp. Herod. 8, 87. Cic.
Fin, I, 12, 40. Xen, Hell. 2, 3, 19. 'O ^' ai Ortpa^evriQ Kai
irpoQ Tavra eXeyeVy on cltottov doKo'ir} eavrw eivai to irp^jTOv
fxev povXof.ievovc, tovq (5€Xti(ttovg twu 7roXiT(jJV koivojvovc iroi-

rjffaaOai Tpicj-^iXiovc (see §. 611, 2.) eireiTa ^, e(j)r}y o^w

hytoye ^vo Vfxac, tcl evavTiu)TaTa irparTOVTac,, for to irptJTOV
fiiev TToiTiaaaQai, eireiTa Se irpaTTeiv, where Wyttenbach ad Eel.
Hist, p, 400. suspects, without good reason, a corruption of
the text.

So when a member of a proposition is repeated it is often
expressed the second time interrogatively, e. g. Flat. Fhccdr.
p. 67 D. ovKovv yeXolov av eir;, avopa irapaGKevaCovTa eavTOV
ev Tw piix) OTi eyyvTUTa bvTa tov TeQvavai outw Z!*iv, KciireiO*,
VKOVTOC avTco TOVTOv, ayavaKTclv ov yeXolov ; Comp. Ale. 1.
p. 108 E. Leg. W.p. 931 C. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 8. Q^con.

Syntax. Irregularities of Construction. \ 137

8, 17. The subject is also changed //. o', 556. ov yap er
€<JTiv aTTOGTa^ov ' ApyeioKJiv fnapvaaOaif irpiv y T)e {rj/nac)
KaTaKTa/nev (avTOVG ohj.) rje Kar aKpr]c' IXiov anr€ivr}v cXeeiv
{avTovQ subj.) KTaaOai re TroXirac. The same is the case in the
transition from the oratio recta into the obliqua, or vice versa.
JEur. Hel. 1683. Gvyyovio S e/my Xeyu), irXelv l^vv Troaei ato'
nvevpa ^ efer' o'vpiov. See §. 529, 2.

5. Also in constructions which are defined by single words this 632.
transition from the one to the other takes place. After aVouetv

the accus. and gen. follow ; hence a transition is made from
the one to the other in Anacreon : XvpiKrjc aKove iiovar]Q
fpiXoTTaiyiJLOvoQTeVtaKyjiiv kTepOTTvoovc, T evavXovc Comp.
§. 349. Ohs. 3. Hence ttou tiq Oetjv tj Sai/nojv enapivyoQ ;
§. 320,3. p. 540. further the d at. and accus. with infin. §.536.
Ohs. p. 929. riyyeXrai X] fxayj] la^vpa yeyovkvai Kai ttoXXovq
reOvavai §. 537. p. 931. on and the partic. after yiyvuxjKeiv
§. 549, 6. Ohs. 1. uxjirep tov apiOjuiov ovk e^ovra Tiva
avayKi]v, Kai ovy^ o\ov re e'li) \. 569. p. 988. As wc with the
partic. is sometimes used instead of vofxiC^iv with the infin.
Tliuc, 7, 68. vof.i[a(i)p.ev ajiia f.iev voi.ufjHi)rarov eivai, ot av die
€7rt Ti/awpia tov TrpoaireaovTOC ciKai(o(7(i)(Tiv airoTrArjaai T-qa
yv(jjixr\Q TO dvfxovfxevov, ap.a §e eyQpovQ a/nvvaaOai eyyevrjao-
/Lievov rjjLLiv.

6. It is not therefore surprising that the Greeks also combine
in one proposition two modes of construction which are in sense
the same. So after comparatives the constructions §. 448, \,b,
and §. 449, c. are united. Eur. Med. 673. (To(pu)T€p'y r) Kar
av^pa (Tvp,paX€lv eirr}, from tTrr; (Jo(j)tJTepa 17 kqt' au^pa, and
<ro<^{oTepa r\ (loare) (TUjn|3aXeTv. Comp. Plat.Cratyl. p. 392 B.
— Plat. Aj)ol. S. p.36 D. ovk had o ti paXXov Trperrei ovtljc
tjQ TOi' ToiovTOv civ^pa iv Tl pvTave'iti) aiTelaOai, from ovk eaff
o,Tt i^iaXXov irpenei t/, and ouTa> irpeireij o»c &c. See §. 455 c.
• — Eur. Iph. r. 6 1 0. Ta tQv (piXuiv aiayjLGTOv ogtic, KaTaj3aXu)v
etc l^v/uipopac avTOC cretroxTTat, from aia-^iaTov to KaTa(5aX6vra

aeawadai, and aicry^KiTOQ €(ttiv ocjtic . So P/iccn. 523.

Thuc. 4, 18. So in the passage of Thucydides above quoted
§. 632, 5. (7, 68.) ot av St/cataxrwcrt refers not only to tovg
evavTiovc, but belongs also to vof-upwraTov etvot, from vojii-

1138 Syntax, Irregularities of Construction,

IxdJTarov €ivai, to BiKaiuiaai, and vofiiiuKOTaTOVQ elvai ot av §i/c.
2,44.^' Comp, Herm.adVig.p,7l\,36. Xen. H.Gr, 2,3,3],
eydo vo/uLi^(i) irpoararov epyov elvai o'lov ^et, oc av opojv rove
(j)i\ovG efttTrarw^evouc ^117 eTriTpeiry, Comp. Anab. 2, 5, 21.
Theogn, 743. eJ. Bekk, Plat, Gorg, p. 619 C. Comp. ii/'wr.
HeL 275 seg-. Troad, 650. Panyas, in Brunch Gnom. 1 zw.
J3. 186. ec?. Xips. — Xen, Anah. 2, 5, 5. oiBa rj^)] avOpbJirovc

Tova fjiev €K Sia(3oXijc, tovq Se ej viroxpiac ot eiroiriGav

avYiKeara KaKa, from olda av9p<l)7rovQ tovc jmev ej

VTTOiplaQ 7roiri(TavTaCf and oi^a avOpLJirovQ oi eiroirjGav, 01 juev efc
S. 01 ^e ef VTT. — Eur. Phcen. 724 se^'. efoto-Teoi^ rap' bnXa
Orif3ai(x)v iroXei - - - - - - cktoq Ta(j)p(t)v tw vS , tjc fia^ovfxevovQ

rayjoLy because both constructions were used tovto efxo\ iroirj'
reov and r. e^e tt, §. 447, 4. Soph, El. 47. a-y-yeXXe 3' o/o/cw
TTpoGTiQe.iQj i. e. opKoVj from ayy. bpKw, and ayy. bpKov irpoff-
TiOeic, as Arist, Av. 56, av §' ouv Xt^w Koxpov XajSwv. Comp.
-So;?^. (Ed/. C. 475. So also P/a^. Rep. 5. p. 459 B. Eur,
Hel, 683. rivtjv ^|0^j^ou(Ta Trpoadiuvai irovtov, from Tt»/wr ttoi^wp
^^^2* ^i^d Tivac, TTOvovQ wpoaOeivai "^pytovaa. Plat, Leg. I.
JO. 626 D. ^oKelc yap fxoi t»Jc 0eov €7rwi^U|Uiac a^coq eti^at ^aAXoi/
eirovofxateo^ai, i. e. avrriv, consequently from aftoc t»?c ctt. and
a^. eirovofx. ti]v eTrwvvfxiav, Apol. S, p, 37 B. To this class
belong such passages as Horn. H. in Cer. 281 seq. ov^e n
TraiSoG pvrjffaTO Tr/Xu-yeTOto aTTO oaTreoov aveXeaOai. Soph. Ant.
489 seg'. Eur, Hipp. 1391. Xoyyj]c, epajmai Siapoipaaai, from
XoyyrfC epajxai &c. and kpa^xai Xoyyjiv ^lajuoipacrai pe, where
utare is generally supplied, which is quite inappropriate ;
further Soph. Trach, 394. (Lc epTrovroQ eiaopac e^uou, from d>c
ipTTOvTOC epov, and wc epnovra epe ela, Herod. 9,91. KXydovoc
eiveKe OeXu)v TrvOeaOai. Hence the union of oratio recta and oZ>-
liqua in one proposition §. 529, 5. and the use oi pn ' whether*
§. 608, 5 a. Ohs. 3. From this mixture frequently arise
pleonasms, e. g. Soph. Phil. 554. ap^i o-ouve/ca, from ap(pL
aov, and eveKa cfov. Plat, Leg. 3, p, 701 D. nvoc, ^rj \apiv
ev€Ka. Sometimes two propositions are contracted into one, as
Herod, 9,11. vpelc Se to evOevrev paOrjaeaOe okoIov av ri v/liIv

* Wytt. ad Eel. Hist. p. 405. Gnom. p. 186. Heind. ad Plat. Soph.
Schaef. ad Phcen. 51P. Pors. Briinck 71. p. 388.

Syntax, Irregularities of Construction, 1139

ef avrov €/c/3acV^, where the question expressed by okoIqv re-
quired 0K0I.0V av Ti eKJDaivoi (e/cj3ai)j Saner,), but at the same
time was to be expressed ' whatever it be' ; therefore the actual
reading has been made up from okoIov av ti eKJ^aivoi, or ok. ti
av florid era I (interrog.)? a^id okoIov av ti ovfjk^aivri, quidquid
acciderit. So may Soph, Aj. 92 1. be defended, nov TevKpoc ;
tjc aK/naloc, ei ^airj, fxoXoif where av appears to be wanting, but
a wish is to be expressed at the same time, as if it were, wc uk-
jmaloc av /uloXoi ! (I>c (JtoXoi ^e, quam opportunus veniret ! utinam
vero veniat. Plat, Prot, p, 347 E.^

7. Sometimes the connexion is founded on a construction
which is only present to the thoughts. Soph, Aj. 1107. ra
akfxv eTTTj /coXa^' eKeivovc, after the construction KoXa^eiv tivcl
KoXatJiv, as 7rXr]TT€iv riva 7rXr)yr}v ; but as the /coXacrtc consists
in words, ra (re/nv enr} is used for KoXacriv, id. ibid, 191. /uri,
jurj fA , ava^y eo wo eCpaAoic KAiaiaiQ ofxfx eyjbjv KaKav (paTiv
apT^ the poet appears to have had in his mind in using /ie be-
fore ava^, fJLT] /ne etc KaKriv (pariv jSciXr^c, but to have expressed
this as a consequence of the KaKav (pariv apecrOai of the prin-
cipal person, Ajax, simply by the accus. Comp.§.421. Ohs.4.
§. 423 Obs, §. 411. Obs, \,^ So verbs which according to
their signification or composition should govern a genitive, as
TTpoe^eiv rivoCf are construed with an accus., as Xen. Anab, 3,
2, 19. kvi iJiovo) TTpoeyovaiv r]fxac 01 iTTTreTq, because regard was
had to the implied sense of vikclv,

III. Conciseness of expression

takes place sometimes where one or more words, or entire parts 634.
of a proposition, are wanting which are essential to its complete-
ness, sometimes when single words are wanting.

''This mixture of constructions 795. Seidl. ad Eur. Iph. T. 214. It

{fJLiltv an(j)or€pcis rrjs curro^ews) is is a principle which should be cau-

applied by Eustathius ad 11. e', ."ilO. tiously applied, like thatof a«afo/M^//a

p. 659, 5. (comp. p. 409, 45. ap. Herm. generally, and only when known and

ad Soph. Aj. 983.) to the explanation usual constructions afford no solu-

of passages in Homer. In modern lion.

times, as far as I know, Wyttenbach "^ Herm. ap. Seidl. ad Eur. Troad.

ad Eel, Hist, first drew attention to 123. Seidl. ad Eur. Iph. T. 1061.

it. See Matth. ad Eur. Or. 383. Hcc. Matthias ad Eur. Hec. 795.

1140 Syntax, Irregularities of Construction.

1 . Frequently a word which is only used once must be taken
twice. Herod. 8, 80. \aQi yap ej e/meo ra iroievixeva vtto Mirjdoji/,
for t. yap ef e^teo Troievjuieva to. Trot, vtto M. ib. 142. where
a'lTiovQ ovraQ must be supplied. Thuc. 7, 68. where the words
ottottX. rrjc yvw/xTyc to dviiovfxevov must be taken once with
vojuifx(l)TaTov elvai, and once with ^iKaiuxrtijGiv. Comp. ib. where
eXevOepiav must be taken once with Kapirovfxkvi^j and once with
irapa^ovvai ; and Plat. Phadon. p. 1 14 B. ^lojvai with ^o^axri
and TTpoQ TO. Xen. Hell. 2, 2, 20. where KaKe^ai^ovioic, must be
repeated. Comp.e^. 2, 13, 19. Mem.S. 1,2,49. — Isocr.Paneg.
p. 50 C. {ed. Coray.) /care^eife appears to be the addition of a
grammarian, since e^i^a'^ev would suffice also for vroXto*.

2. So sometimes participles are found without a finite verb,
or infinitives without a word which governs them, because the
preceding verb was repeated by the mind. Oc?.X', 41 1. eralpoi
VbyXe/JietjJc; KTeivovro avec; wc apyioSovrec;, oi pa r ev acpveiov
av^pOQ fxkya ^vva/uLevoio r) yajuiio 7] epavio 17 eiXaTrivrj reOaXviy,
sc. KTeivovrai. Herod. 9, 60. where ^e^oKrai must be repeated.
Thuc. 7, 28. where ?77rt(TT»?o-ev av tic must be repeated. See
§. 556, Obs. 1.

3. Sometimes a word must be supplied which is the oppo-
site to the preceding one, as Herod. 7, 104. o i^o^oc

avwyei TU)vro aiei, ovk eojv (j)€vy€iv ov^ev ttXtJOoq avdp(x)iTb)v
eK juayric;, aXXa jnevovrac ev ry Ta^i, eTTiKpareeiv rj anoX-
XvaOai, sc. avu)y(i)v, fceXevwr, the contrary to ovk eu)v, as Cic.
Fin. 2, 21, 68. Comp. //. e, 819. Herod. 7, 143. Soph.
OE!>d. T. 241. iodelv sc. KeXevw, from cnrav^io v. 236. comp.
El. 72. with Herm. note. Eur. Or. 515. 900. Also with ad-
jectives, Eur. Or. 608. to irXriv yvvaiKoc ovveKa arpaTr]-
Xarelvj raXX ov^ev, in ov^ev lies the antithesis ^eivoQ, iKavoc,
which must be supplied to arparrfXarelv^. Plat. Apol. S.
p. 36 B.*^ ajueXrJtraq oil' 01 TToXXot (sc. eiriimeXovvTai). Or in a

*Wyttenb. ad Eel. Hist. p. 400. <^ Dorville ad Charit. p. 441,

Misc. Phil. 2, 2. p. 92 seq. Other Hemst. ad Luc. t. 3. p. 377. Valek.

omissions see Sehasf. Eur. Or. 1035. ad Herod. 7, 104. p. 552, 63. ad

*» Heind. ad Plat. Lys. p. 50. ad Phcen. 1223. Heind. ad Plat. Gorg.

Gorg. p. 160. Schajf. App. Dem. 2. p. 38. ad Phasdon. p. 156. Comp. ad

p. 93. Of e^CjOj^oyuat \iyeiv see Prot. p. 512. 610. Schecf. App.

§. 535. Obs. 3. Dem. 1. p. 53 J.

Syntax. Irregularities of Construction. 1141

negative word is implied the idea 'to say, mean'. Thuc, 1, 44.
01 'A.dr]valoi /uereyvijjcTav (' changed their decision, and deter-
mined') KepKvpaioiQ ^v/LL/uLay^iav jultj iroiriGaGdai, for /JLereyvwaav
Kai eyvwaav. Comp. uEsch, Agam. 230.

The verbs 'to say' &c. are omitted before d>c, on §. 624, b.
628. or if they are implied according to the sense in a pre-
ceding verb §§. 537. 635, 4. So also Plat. Gorg. J9.467 A.
eav jur) ^wKparrjc e^eXeyj^By viro ITwXou (/cat Sica'ydy) on ttoi-
ovffiv a (^ovXovrai. Comp. p, 508 A.

Sometimes a word is taken in two different significations.
Eur, Ph(£ti. 977. niKpov S A^pacrro) voarov ApyeioiGi re

Grjo-et KXeivac re O^jSac, from nOevai tivi voarov, pa^

rare alicui reditum, and riBevai riva kXcivov, reddere aliquem
illustrem. Find. Pyth, 9, 110 seq. Brjaourai re fxiv aOavarov,

Zjrjva Kai ayvov ATroXXvjva KaXeiv. Of a similar use

of yapiv see §. 576. p. 1002. See Dissen ad Pind, p, 466.

To this class belongs what is called Zeugma, when with two
or more substantives only one verb is put, which belongs only
to one of them. Herod. 4, 106. eaOrira Se (jyopeovai ry 2/cu-
OiKy oiJLo[r]v, yXojacrav Se i^irjv, where the latter is referred not
to (j)opeovaif but to e^outri .

Obs. Somewhat similar to this is the"custom of using positive words,
and considering them in a negative sense, e. g. Soph. Aj. Q74f. ^eivuiv
u-qfjia Trvevp-OLTiov eKoifxiffe arevovra ttoitov, though it is really not the
blowing but the ceasing of the wind which calms the sea, as Horace
says, quo nan arbiter Hadrice major ^ tollere seuponere vultfreta. Comp.
Track. 653. Pind. Pyth. 1, 138. where aXaXaros is the cessation of the
war-cry. So also II. v\ 166. where vikk] is used for victoria non repor-
tata. Pind. Nem. 4, 95. fxayaipi^ for ense subducto. Soph.Aj. 178.
kKvtQv €vup(s)v \p€v(Tde'i(ra dojpois, donis non daiis^.

4. Ellipsis is the omission of one or more words which are 535.
essential to the grammatical completeness of a proposition, e. g.
€tq (idov a(j)iKea6ai, eiQ BidaaKaXov levai §. 379. Obs. Kara ye

*• Dorv. ad Charit. p.440. Wesscl. seq. Elmsl. ad Eurip. Med. 672.

ad Diod. S. 1. p. 170. Brunck ad Schaef. ad Dion. H. p. 105.
Soph. (Ed. T. 271. El. 435. Wyt- • Schap.f. Soph. Aj.I. c.

tenb. Bibl. p. 109 seq. ad Plut. p. 253

1142 Syntax » Irregularities of Construction.

rrjv ejurjv, rj avpiov §. 281, 4. etTre^o §. 617. iVa rt ; §. 620.
and so many others. In these cases, however, an eUipsis can
be assumed only for the explanation of a phrase, without its
being possible to apply it to each particular phrase. Once
adopted, its use was extended to cases in which the proposition
could not be completed in this way. So the forms ov^ev aXXo
Tt, aWo followed by rj probably arose from the circumstance
that TTocw, yiyverai &c. were present to the mind, e. g, JEsch,
Pers. 207 , o o ov^ev aWo y rj n-xTj^ac ^e^ac Trapelye, for ov^ev
aWo eiroietriTrapely^ev, Soph, Ant, 646, Plat. Euthi/d, p. 2771),
Comp. Isocr, p, 166 E.* But this ellipsis cannot be applied
to explain Thuc, 7, 75. ov^ev yap aWo 17 TroXet eKTreiToXiopKrj-
fievT^ eioKeaav V7ro(p€vyov(jirf, So also aWo ti (rJ) §. 487, 9.
488, 1 1. With adjectives or adverbs with the article the sub-
stantives which belong to it are omitted, because the idea of the
substantive is necessarily implied in the adj. or adv., or be-
cause a verb is added which is properly joined with that sub-
stantive, and therefore the mind supplies the substantive with
it ; e. g. in avpiov is implied r\fxepa, whence 17 avpiov, 17 ar)/j.epov.
Lucian, D. Mar, 2, wc (5a6vv eKoijurjOric, because with Koip,aadai,
vTTvov is supplied by the mind. So //. j3', 379. e'l ^e ttot' ec
ye f.nav (jSovXrjv) fSovXeiKJO/nev, Eur. Here, F. 178. toi/ fcaX-
XiviKov eKiDfxaae sc, KWfxov, Electr, 804. ottojc, irevcrrripiav Ooi-
vaaofjieaQa sc, Ooivriv, Thus the verbs ^say, believe' are wanting,
because this idea is contained in a word which precedes, or the
construction itselfpoints to such an idea. Plat, Protag, p. 323 A,
*iva ce jj.r} o'ly aTraraadai {sc, vtt e/jiov Xeyovroc,) ioq tw vvti
Yiyovvrai &c. Xen, Hell, 2, 2, 17. opfxeiv implies the idea of
an anchor, ^a^iCeiv^ \evai of away; hence ein ttJq avTtJQ opixelv
without ayKvpaQ, Tr}v avrriv levai without o^ov. Plat. Lack.
p, 184 D. rrfv evavTiav without ;//rJ<^ov. So Kaipiav ireirXrfyinai
sc, TrXriyriv, So with different adjectives the mind supplied the
idea of the genus, to which as its predicate they are commonly
joined, e. g. with TrXaKoeic (-owe) aproc, with 1^ ixeXnoeaaa
(-TOVTTa) fJiaZ^a, with yjaXKeiov epyaffrrjpiov, without ex-
pressing these substantives, and the adj. were treated exactly

* Duker ad Thuc. 3, 85. Hoog. ad ap. Schaef. App. Dem. 1. p. 751.
Vig. p. 475. Blomf Gloss. iEsch. Heind. ad Plat. Phaedon. §. 20.
Pers. p. 123. Tm^o-cw. Amersfoordt

Syntax, Irregularities of Construction, 1143

as subst. There are also many instances in which a word that
once was inserted is omitted, as in the case of the imperative
§. 306. 0^5. §. 511. But to suppose ellipsis in all construc-
tions which do not agree with those of the Latin or other Ian*
guages, and supply, for instance, y^prifxa with ^vaapearov oi
vocTovuTec, e/c or tic with rtjv (j)i\o\oyo)v ei/uLi, Kara with 67rt-
Seoiiiai TO Tpavfxaj }xefxvr\ao or eOeXe with Bapawv vvVj Ato^T/oec,
eTTL TpujecTdi iiayeoQaiy is an abuise which has originated in
ignorance of the spirit of the Greek language^*.

IV. Pleonasm,

Equally common with Ellipsis is the use of words altogether ^^Q*
superfluous, or Pleonasm, e. g. the double tiq %, 487, 7. double
av %. 600. TraXtv avQic, {Bornem. ad Xen. Si/mp. p. 178.) e(pri
Xeyojv Herod. 5, 36. Soph. Aj.757,^ Xe-yei (j)aQ Herod. 5, 50.
CJ)€vyovTa (^evyeiv, f^Xenovra opav §. 533.*^ /neyeOei /j.eyac,
TrXrjBei ttoXXoi in Herodotus and Plato, wc aXrfOijDQ rio ovri
Plat, Phcedon, p. 66 C. See Heind, p, 45. rivoc, ^t) yapiv
eveKa id. Leg, 3, p, 701.*^ oO* ovveKa §. 624. a/LicI)! crovveKa
ibid, oaov awo jSorfc evcKa Thuc, 8, 92. Xen, H, Gr. 2, 4, 2 1.^
ra-^a icTwqS. apriioc, veo(T(payr}Q Soph, Trach, 1 130. iocjuvtmc
ouTOiC . aXXoi erepoi^, hjvopaafxevoc, KeK\r)raL Eur,Iph. T. 495.
even e^wv re koI KeKrr]fxe\fOC, Soph. Ant, 1278. e^w €K(j>ep€iv
€K TOTTou Loh, ad Soph, Aj. 740. ''AXXoc also is added to sub-
stantives which do not belong to one of the before-mentioned
classes: Soph, CEd,T, 8. a yio ^iKaitjv jari nap ayyeXayv, tekvov,
aXXujv aKoveiv, avToc to^' eXrjXvOa, with Erf, note ^, Especially
two words in the whole of equivalent signification are placed
in one proposition, one after the other, which is called (ryji/jLa

^ Besides Lamb. Bosii Ellips. Gr. Gnom. p. 169 seq. Of o0' ovycKa

ed. Schfpf. see especially Herm. Diss. comp. Soph. (Ed. C. 1006.
de Ell. ipso et Pleonasmo in Wolf's ^ Schaef. ib.

Museum Antiq. Stud, (printed in the ^ Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 24. 78.

Oxford edition of Bos.) and ad Vig. Musgr. ad Eur. Hec. 489.
p. 869 seq. '' Heind. ad Phadon. p. 181.

'^ Heind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 363. * Schaef. App. Dem. 1. p. 831.

Lob. ad Aj. 1. c. ^ Comp. Ileind. ad Gorg. §. 64.

** Lob. ad Soph. Aj. p. 370. 398. Pha^don. §. 137. Jacobs ad Anth.

v.115^. Heind. ad Plat. Soph. 323 seq. Pal. p. 973.

• Bast, ad Greg. p. 32. Schaef. ad

1144 Syntax. Irregularities of Construction,

eK TrapaWriXov, e. g. kut olkov ev ^ofioiG Soph. Track. 691.
KOjurfv airpi^ oi/v^t ffuXXajSelv X^p'^ ^^' A/* •^^^^ ^"^ ey^^oc
1^/uTv /caXXtVtfcoi^ €/c y^epQC etc arkpv a^€\(j)ov ttJg^ air
wXevrjQ jSaXeTv Ewr. Phan. 1412. NeiXov, oc AiyuTrrov

Tredov vypaivei yvaG id. Hel. 2. comp. Ion, 1252.

Phosn.7 SS. 1170. Soph. Aj. 4:64. yvimvov nHv apiareluyv arep^.
So also iroQev and avri rov Soph. Phil. 101 . The following
also may be regarded as pleonastic : Eur. Hipp. 10. o Gijo-ewc
TraTc, 'Ajua^ovoc tokoq. See Monk, and the negative expression
of what was before said positively, e. g. iLia\p arap ov Kara
KocTjULOU II, e, 759, ^pay^vv riv airei fxvQov ovk oy kov
TrXewi/ Soph. CEd. C. 1 162. ttoXXiJ ei' (ipOTOiai, kovk avwi^u^ioc
Eur, Hipp. 1. and Plat. Gorg. jd. 521E. ov irpoc y^apiv

\kyu)v aWa TTpoc, to j^eXridrov, ov irpoc, to tj^igtov,

also vice versa Soph. (Ed. T, 122. Comp. §. 463. §. 444, 5.
Such a pleonasm has often arisen from the combination of two
constructions, as Herc.F,65. e-^cov Tvpavvi^\ r]c, fxaKpai \6yyai
irepi 7rr?Swcr' eptoTt, from »)c Trepi and tiq eptjJTi. and the examples
§. 624/'OTt c. Obs. In the tragic writers participles, especially
iu)V, poXd)!', eXOiov, Trapwi'j e-^iov, are joined pleonastically with
the verb, e. g. Soph. Phil. 330. 353. 373. 481. 488. §. 552.
Obs. 2. comp. Attraction, also infin. after ^ovvat Sic. §. 535, c.
Obs. 1.

Sometimes a verb takes another of the same signification in
the gen. or dat. (§. 430.), as Eurip. Phan. 321. '^aiTac; ttXo-
Kojuov^. Soph. Trach, 175. Phil. 225. Comp. Eur. Here. I\
913,^ Of adjectives which repeat the sense of the verb see
§. 446. Obs. 2.^ And not only single words, but also whole
propositions are repeated pleonastically, e. g. Herod. 1, 79.
wc, OL 77 a pa Sol^av c^J'X^ '^^ TrpriyfxaTa ii wc avTOQ KaTe-

* Lob. ad Aj. 308. sense appears to be yevov poi ttqIs

•* Erf. ad Antig. 420. Schaef. ad €Tr}Tvi.ios, yeyios e/jids ttoIs, quum

Soph. El. 682. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. Jilius 7neus sis, veretejiliumprastaj and

1152. Blomf. Gloss. Pers. 425. Dem. in Androt. p. 616, 21. w»/ vtto-

*^ Erf. ad (Ed. T. 65. Reisig fxvrifxaT rjcrav oyres ol aTe(f>ayoif

Comm. Ex. in CEd. C. 1616. Of ttoo-i optcs isdutnsuperefant. Later writers

/3a/vetvcomp.SchaEf.adTlieocr.7,25. use el pi &v as an elegance. See

^ Reisig Comm. Ex. in Soph. CEd. Dorville ad Charit. p. 295. Boisson.

C.p.346. Soph. Trach. 1064. J ttq?, ad Phil. Heroic, p. 660.
yevov /xoi. Trals ertirvpos yeyuts, the

Syntax. Irregularities of Construction. 1145

ooKce. Thuc.5f47, rpo-Kw oTroiio av ^vvujvrai icryypo-
Tarti) Kara to ^vvarov. Flat. Leg. 11./?. 920 B. touc
eTTCTrjSeu^tciTa eiriTri^evovTac, a irporpOTrriv iyjEi rwa la^vpav
TTpoc, TO Trporpeireiv kukovg yiyveaOai. Comp. §. 342. So the
protasis of a proposition is expressed twice : Pht. ApoL S.
p. 20 C. ov yap S^iTTOv, crov ye ov^ev rtov aWiou wepiT-
Torepov TT pay {jLarevofievoVy eireiTa Toaavrr] (^r]fAr\ re Kai
oyoc yeyovev, ei |U77 Tt eirp arrea a A Ao lov 7] oi TroAAot.
Leg. 10. p. 892 C. €L de (j)aifiiaeTai 4^v^ri irpuiroVf ov irvp
ov^e ar]p, xpv^rj S ev irpCjroic yeyevrf/nevrjf (y^ecov opOo-
Tara XeyoiT av elvai ^tat^ejOot'TOic, OTt (pvaei ravx ecrO ovtojg
e^ovTo, av \pvy^i]V Tiq eTTi^eif^ tt pea^vrepav ovcrav
awparoQ, aWwc, §e oubofjLivQ, Comp. Luthj/d. p. 285 A.
Phccdon. p. 67 E. Xen. Ages. 2, 7. ei y^p Tavra Xeyoifxi,
AyriaiXaov t av fxoi ^oklj acppova awoCpaiveiv Kai e/iiavTOV
fxwpovy e'l eTraivoiriv toi/ wepi twv /.le-yto'TW v eiKrj Kivdv-
vevotfra^. Plat. Phcedon. p. 9Q C Sometimes there is a
double apodosis : Soph. AJ. 839. Kai acpac KaKovc KaKiara Kai
iravtjjXeOpovQ ^vvapiracjeiavy locnrep €laopoj<j e/ue avTOCKpayrj
Tmrrovra, twc avroaipayelc, irpoG twv <hiXiar(t)V eKyoviov
oXoiaro, if this is not to be explained according to §. 630, e.
Comp. Plat. Apol. S. p. 41 B. eirei efxoiye Kai avno QavfiaaTii
av eir\ 7) SiaTpi(5ri avroOi, and ovk av arj^ea enj. Phcedon.
p. 60 seq. 62 A. where the proposition the second time is
turned into a question, as Phadou. p. 67 D. E. §. 632, 3/
It is similar to this when an oblique case, with which a pro-
position begins, is repeated, after the governing verb by a
pronoun demonstrative, e, g. Isocr. Panath. p. 241 C. toc
Ku/cXaSac vriaovQj nepi uc, eykvovro iroXXai Trpayfxarelai Kara
TTjv Mti/&> Tou K^rjTOC ^uvaareiaVy Tavrac to TeXevralov viro
Kap(t?v Kare-youevaCy eK(5aX6vT€Q eKeivovc ovk e^iciuxraaOai rac
'^(^ujpaQ €.T6Xpr](sav, Here, however, the pleonasm promotes
perspicuity, and is occasioned by the separation of the case
from the verb. So parenthetical propositions occasion the
repetition of preceding words, e. g. Eur. Phan. 507. einoi
fxev, €1 Kai prj KaO KXXi]V(»}v ydova reOpappeO , aXX ovv ^vvera

* Heind. ad Phaedon. p. 51 seq. ' Heind. ad Phaedon. p. 20, 50.

Misc. Philol. 2, 2. p. 135.

VOL. II. 2 T

1146 Syntax. Irregularities of Construction,

fxoi SoKelc Xeyeiv. Xen. Cyr, 4, 5, 29. cTKexpai Se Kai, otc^j
ovTL ju 01 irepi ere oioc u)v irepi ejme eTreird fxoi /uLefx^rf, Cornp.
id. Hell. 2, 3, 28. That which has been already said is often
repeated for the sake of antithesis §. 631. e. g. Soph. EL
532 seq. ovk icroi^ Kcifiwy e^uot Xuttjjo, or eaireip , wcnrep rj
TiKTova eyd). Eur. Andr. 712. t) (Trelpoc, ovaa fxocjyoQ ovk
ave^erai TiKTOVTac a\XovG,ovK e'^ova avrrj re/ci/a^. Comp.

Obs. Many even of these ellipses and pleonasms are so in a gram-
matical but not in a poetical or rhetorical view, as they serve to give
distinctness or force to the expression. For the sake of this emphasis
the poets often add an adverb to a verb that has an adjective, as kcito
fjicyas fieyaXojffrl in Homer, olodev olos II. t]', 39. 226. alyodep alvws
lb. 97. Soph. Aj. 839. Kai <T<pas kukovs icctKiffTa (Twapiraaeiav. Phil. 685.
fo-os kv 'iffois avv]p. Comp. 711. 1002^. Even in a grammatical view,
additions which might have been spared and yet contribute to perspi-
cuity, as Epexegesis §. 476. are not properly pleonasms.

" Schaef. App. Dem. 1. p. 809 seq. Comm. Exeg. ad Soph. (Ed. Col. 43.
*» Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 787. Reisig 16 18. Crit. p. 342.





a and e exchanged §.10.

§. 14.

§. 10.

§. 10.

§. 10.







a for ai iEol. Att. §. 12.

a in declens. after a vowel or p.

§. 68. Obs. 2,
a Dor. termin. of gen. sing. 1.

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