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BR 162 .N4 1872 v. 2
Neander, August, 1789-1850
General history of the
Christian religion and



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i



GENERAL HISTORY



CHRISTIAN RELIGION AND CHURCH:

FROM THE GERMAN OF

DR. AUGUSTUS NEANDER.

TRANSLATED ACCORDING TO THE LATEST EDITION.

BY

JOSEPH TORREY,

* PBOPESSOB OP MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVEBSITr OF VERMONT.



"Let both grow together until the harvest."— Words of our Lord.
Leg uns Christianisant le civil et le politique, lea autres civilisant la Christiauiarae, il se forma de ce m§Iange nn

monstre." — St. Martin.



VOLUME SECOND:
COMPRISING THE SECOND GREAT DIVISION OF THE HISTORY

ELEVENTH AMERICAN EDITION,
REVISED, CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED.



BOSTON:

PUBLISHED BY CROCKER AND BREWSTER.

LONDON: WILEY AND PUTNAM.

1872.



Entered according to Act of Congress, In the year 187/, by

Crockke and Brewster,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



BIVEBSIDE, OAMBRIDCE :

STEBEOTYPED AND PRINTED BT

H. 0. HOUGHTON AND COMPANY.



DEDICATED

TO MY EAELY AND FAITHFUL FRIEND,
DR. KARL SIEVEKING,

SYNDIC OF THE FREE TOWN OF HAMBURG,

OUK COMMON AND BELOVED NATIVE CITY:

a EEMEMBEAKCE OP OUK EARLY FRIENBSHIP, WHICH, HAVING GROWN OUT OF WHAT IS ETERNAL, CANN09

PERISH.

Berlin, September 30th, 1829.

With heartfelt joy, and thankfulness to Hmi in whose hands our life is, I
now renew this dedication, April 30th, 1846, to serve as an abiding memorial
of that union of souls which was formed in the enthusiasm of youth, for the
whole of liffe, and which, with God's help, shall endure, under all diversities
of outward condition, down to the grave and beyond it.

A. NEANDER.



DEDICATION OF PART 11.

TO THE VEEY REVEREND ABBOT,
DR. G. J. PLANCK,

ON THE DAT OF THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBKATION OF HIS INDUCTION INTO THE

SACKED OFFICE.

Beloved and highly/ respected Instructor, —

Will you, on this day, when so many doubtless will unite in showing you
the testimonies of their love, esteem, and gratitude, also receive, with your
usual condescension, this expression of his hearty, inextinguishable thanks,
from an old pupil, who presents you a gift, which, insignificant as it may be to
you, is yet, from his own position, the best he has to offer. Though with
many things in this book you may not be satisfied, still you will not fail to
recognize, in his earnest endeavors to be charitably just, the pupil who, fi-om
the great master himself to whom he is under so many obligations, first learned
to strive after the suum cuique in his construction of historical facts. And
with your own candid justice, which, ennobled by the spirit of charity, has been
tried through half a century, you will know how to place the right estimate
on each of your pupils who with earnest intentions labors on at his own posi-
tion. Therefore it is, that I confidently rely on your indulgence, in offering
you this token of grateful love and respect.

Praise be to God, who gave us you to be our instructor, and who has pre-
served you to us so long : and long may he still preserve you, honored teacher,
to shine as a light before us by your precepts and your example.

This, on this day, is the warmest wish of your affectionate and grateful
pupil,

A. NEANDER.



PKEFACES TO THE FIRST EDITION.



PREFACE TO PART I.

I HERE present to the public the first part of the second volume of my
Church History, containing the first two sections, as the second part will con-
tain the next two following ones. I still hold to what I expressed in the
prefaces to the several parts of the first volume.

As it regards the notion of the invisible church, which seems in my history
to have given offense to many Catholic theologians and to others, it will
without doubt still continue to be the fundamental principle in this history of
the church ; as indeed it must, in my opinion, give the direction to every
right treatment of church history generally. It will constantly be my en-
deavor to trace, and wherever I can find it, to seize and exhibit, with a chari-
table zeal, the manifestations of this truly catholic, invisible church, both
among the orthodox and among heretics, and honestly to distinguish it from
everything that does not proceed out of the essence of this invisible church.

Critical remarlis, carefully written, on those particular portions of my wort
to which I have devoted myself with a peculiar affection, and hence with a
proportional degree of fullness and originality, would be thankfully received by
me, nor should I fail to avail myself of all they might afford me in improving
this work, which hereafter it will be my endeavor to pei-fect as I have ojipoi^
tunity ; and I take this opj^ortunity to express my grateful acknowledgments
to Dr. Gieseler for a critique of this sort on my account of Manicheism.

Berlin, June 27, 1828.



PREFACE TO PART II.

In presenting to the public the second section of the second volume of my
Church History, I think it necessary only to add the following remarks to
what I have already said in the earlier prefaces.

I have supposed it would contribute to the reader's convenience as well as
to my own, to separate here also the rich materials into two different sections.
The plan, perhaps, will be found to be justified by the execution.

In the first volume, I placed the history of Christian Anthropology after
the history of the doctrine of the Trinity. But as the controversies on the
doctrine of the Trinity are, in the present period, so closely connected with
the controversies concerning the two natures in Christ, I have thought it best
to abandon that arrangement here, and to place the history of the doctrine
concerning the person of Christ inmiediately after the history of the doctrine
of the Trinity. Furthermore, I doubtless might have concluiled this section
•with the history of the doctrine of the Trinity ; and this arrangement was
recommended by various considerations ; but as the commencement of the



PREFACES TO THE FIRST EDITION. V

history of the doctrine concerning Christ's person is, in this period, so closely
connected with many views that had been developed in the history of the
doctrine of the Trinity, and they mutually serve to explain and to integrate
each other, I preferred rather to include the latter also in this section.

The judgment of all unprejudiced friends of the truth, whether favorable or
otherwise to my own views, and whether relating to my general scope and
design, or to any particular points I have touched, will ever be welcomed by
me. As to the criticisms of those who are leaders or slaves to schools and
parties, I despise them. Popery of all sorts is my abhorrence, — whether it
be a state church, a doctrinal, a pietistic, or a philosophic, an orthodox, or a
heterodox popery. May the Lord preserve in his chui-ch the liberty he has
achieved for it ; and may none who are his disciples suffer themselves to be
the slaves of any man or of any human mind.

Of those who undertake to criticise this work as a whole, I must of course
beg that they would reserve their judgment respecting the arrangement of the
several parts of this section, until the whole is completed.

Berlin, Sept. 30 1829.



PREFACE TO PART III.

With thanks to Him who has enabled me to proceed thus far with my
work, I here present to the public the completion of its second great division.

I have prosecuted my design thus fir from the point of view which I set
forth in the preface to the first volume ; and from the same point of view,
which has been the result of my life and studies, I shall go on to complete the
work, so far as I may be enabled to do so by the Divine goodness. This point
of view is with me firmly established, whatever may be objected to it by those
who are wont to regard all history as merely the sport of human caprice, and
to explain the greatest effects from the most trivial causes, or to think them-
selves able to measure the development of the divine life in humanity, and to
reach the depths of man's soul and spirit by certain pitiful dogmas of the un-
derstanding, to which everything else must be forced to bend. That any
irreconcilable opposition exists between an edifying and an instructive church
history, is what I shall never be disposed to admit. Edification can proceed
only from the clear exposition of truth. Whatever, by the investigation of
science, is shown to be a delusion, ceases from that very moment to be a
source of edification. Ill would it fare with the practical business of edifica-
tion, if it were incompatible with the free and enlightened views of the spirit.
The truth, which is a witness to the power of the godlike, cannot, if rightly
apprehended, be otherwise than edifying; nay, the less vitiated it is, the more
edifying must it become. Nor is it necessary that the bad should be passed
over in silence, or concealed out of view : for, without the knowledge of that
too, as it is, God's judgments in the history of the world, and the progressive
triumphs of his kingdom in its' conflicts with evil, caimot be understood. The
pi-ogress of Christianity cannot be learned without separating from it whatever
has proceeded from foreign influences. In a word, there can be no true and
genuine history of the kingdom of God, which is not accompanied side by side
with the history of the kingdom of evil. But to be sure, the truth alone,
which is its own witness, should here, as it instructs, also edify ; which it cer-
tainly will do with the more purity and efficiency in proportion as the subject-
ive character of the historian, faithfully open to the self-revealing spirit of



vi PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

Christianity, serves as the organ of it. This is the objectivity which I aim at ;
and in those cases where my own subjective views and feelings have intruded,
as no doubt they have often done, I shall always be ready to acknowledge
the fault, and seek to correct it Thus much in reference to the Kvptais Sofats
belonging to the various tendencies of the spirit of the age : and now, accord-
ing to the measure of knowledge which God has bestowed, or may bestow on
me, I shall quietly pursue my way, unconcerned as to what may be said on
this side or on that.

I have, in this volume interwoven the history of the more eminent church
teachers into the history of the doctrinal controversies, both for the sake of
clearness and vivacity, and also to save room, — hence there is no particular
section devoted to the teachers of the church.

In that section, particularly, which treats of Chrysostom, I have confined
myself within narrower limits, because a new edition, improved and enlarged,
of the first volume of my Chrysostom is shortly to appear.

In my exposition of the system of Theodore of Mopsjiestia, which is so in-
teresting a subject, I would very gladly have availed myself of his Com-
mentary on the Minor Prophets, — a work of great importance in its bearing
on the history of the peculiar tendencies of the theological spirit, and one
which has been long due to the public. May my Mend, Von Wegnern of
Konigsberg, instead of disappointing our hopes like Majus, soon give us the
pleasure of seeing an edition of this important work.

June 4, 1831.



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

My duty to the public and to this work, which I undertook in obedience
to an inward call, demands of me, that, before issuing the volume which car-
ries the history of the church down to the times of the Reformation, I should
prepare a new edition of the second great division, — the first having long
since been disposed of In doing this, I am bound thankfully to avail myself
of all the new light which has been thrown on the history of the dissemina-
tion of Christianity by our own great master, C. Ritter, by Professor Neu-
mann of Munich, and by Professor Waitz of Kiel. A considerable part of
the matter in the section which treats of the emperor Julian, and of the rela-
tion of the later New-Platonism to Christianity, will need to be remodeled ;
as also in the section which treats of Jovinian. Also, in other parts of the
work, I must endeavor to introduce improvements in the matter, but more es-
pecially in the form of many scattered passages. Critical remarks, with the
scientific grounds on which they are based, I shall ever estimate at their just
value. The revilings of party passion I know how to despise, and vulgarity
I shall leave to punish itself.

A. NEANDER.

Berlin, April 20, 1846.

[The rest of this preface is a beautiful and affectionate tribute to the mem-
ory of Hermann Rossel, the young friend of Neander, whom he notices in one
of the prefaces to the first volume, and who died the same year (1846) in
which this new edition passed' through the press. — Translator.']



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



VOLUME SECOND.

SECOND PERIOD OF THE HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

FROM THE END OF THE DIOCLETIAN PERSECUTION TO THE TIME OF GREGORY THE
GREAT, BISHOP OF ROME; OR FROM THE YEAR 312 TO THE YEAR 590.



SECTION FIRST.

BELATION OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH TO THE WORLD. ITS EXTENSION
AND LIMITS, 1-160.

I. Within the Roman Empire, 1-124.
A. Relation of the Roman Emperors to the Christian Church, 1-110.

PAOE.

Import of the edict of Galerius 1,2

Maximin. His measures in relation to the Christians. Favor shown
to Paganism. Means adopted for its restoration (Acta Pilati). Last
effusion of blood in consequence of the Diocletian persecution . 2-6

Constantine. His psychological development in general. His educa-
tion. Resides while a youth at the courts of Diocletian and of
Galerius. Becomes Augustus, A. d. 306. Offers in the temple of
Apollo, at Augustodunum, A. D. 308. Makes his public declaration
in favor of Christianity, after the victory over Maxentius, a. d. 312.
Legend respecting the vision of the cross. (Examination of the
evidence in support of it, and of the various theories in explanation
of it. Result) 6-13

First religious edict of Constantine and Lieinius. Restrictive clause in
it. Second edict (313). Introduction of a general and unconditional
liberty of conscience. Influence of this law of the two emperors on
Maximin. Edict of the latter. A later and still milder rescript . 13-18

Constantine and Lieinius sole rulers. Death of Constantia. Growing
hostility of Lieinius to the Christians. War betwixt the two emper-
ors (323). Preparations of Lieinius. Constantine's reliance on the
sign of the cross. Constantine victorious and so/e rw/er . . . 18-21

Retrospective vieio of Constantine's previous conduct in reference to
religion. Transition from Eclecticism to Monotheism. Political
motives. Tolerance. Sacrifices in private dwellings prohibited
(319). Law respecting the institution of the Haruspicia, in the
year 321, (Signs of a relapse into heathenism) .... 21-23

Proclamation to the provinces of the East after the victory over Lieinius.
(Letter to Eusebius. Emblematic representation of the victory.)
Decided declaration for the God of the Christians. (Constantine
not precisely a conscious hypocrite, but not inwardly penetrated by
Christianity ; mean flattery of the bishops.) The emperor's wish to
unite all his subjects in the common worship of God, with continued
tolerance 23-26



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAoa

Destruction of single heathen temples in Phoenicia, Cilicia, not without
just occasion. Effects of this proceeding on different classes of
Pao-ans. Offering of sacrifices forbidden to officers of the state.
Later general prohibition of the erection of idolatrous images, and
of reliqious sacinfices. Regulations for the army. Constantine,
though far from employing force for the extension of Christianity,
does not, however, disdain all external means (his words at the
Council of Nice) .......... 26-30

Constantine, only a short time before his death (337), hap'ized by Euse-
bius of Niconiedia. Reasons for deferring baptism. Story among
the Pao-ans resjiecting the cause of Constantine's conversion. Rea-
sons for suspecting the truth of this story. General truth in it . 30-32

Constantine's successors: Constantius, Constantine the Younger (d.
350), Constans (d. 350). Law of Constantius (in the East) of the
year 341, and law enacted in common by Constantius and Constans,
A. D. 346, with reference to the extirpation of Paganism. Penalty
of death. Laws of Constantius against Paganism, a. d. 353, and
(in common with the Caesar Julian) A. d. 356. Paganism a crime
against the State. Catena of Paulus. Demetrius Chytas. Destruc-
tion of temples, but preservation of national antiquities. Bold
voices of Christian church teachers against forcible measures. Blind
zealots and flatterers, as Maternus ....... 33-37

Way opened for the reaction of Paganism. External conversion of
many. The corrupt court. Formal orthodoxy. Connection of the
old religion with the old national life. Paganism supported by rhet-
oricians. Neo-Platonic philosophers 37-40

Julian. Formation of his character.

Born 331. His relatives murdered by Constantius. Perverted educa-
tion (in Cappadocia). Spiritual color given to the sports of the boy.
Destined for the clerical profession. Bible and Homer. Called to
Constantinople in the year 350. His instructor Ecebolius. Studies
in Nicomedia (Libanius). Connection with the Pagan party.
Julian's vain, perverse disposition. Influence over him of the Pla-
tonist and magician Maximus. His studies at Athens. Continued
concealment of his religious convictions . . . . . . 40-45

Julian emperor, A. d. 361 . . . . . . . . . 45

Julianas way of Thinking in the matter of Religion.

Julian's dislike, not merely to a false apprehension of Christianity (he
well knows how to distinguish bet\yeen the suj^plementary and the
original in the Christianity of that time), but to the spiritual and sim-
ple nature of Biblical Christianity in general. His religion : a Poly-
theism spiritualized by the Neo-Platonic doctrine. Gradation fi-om the
highest spirituality to sensualization. (Stars, images.) Eternal
and necessary process of evolution from the absolute to the extreme
limit of all existence. His antique view of the differences in national
peculiarities. His comparison of the Bible with the Hellenic litera-
ture. Julian's more favorable judgment of Judaism (a national
religion, a sensuous worship). His view of Jehovah. He praises
the Jews for their fidelity in holding fast to the laws of their relig-
ion. Julian on the differences in the New Testament (Paul,
John), and its relation to the Old. His involuntary testimony
for Christianity. Mixture of the rationalistic and the supernatural-
istic in Julian's system of religion. He sees in Christianity only a
fabrication of cunning men: regards himself as destined by the
gods to restore the old religion 45-59

Proceedings of Julian.

Assumes the duties of Pontifex Maximus. He wishes to organize a



TABLE OP CONTENTS. IX

PAGB

hierarchy modeled after Neo-Platonic ideas. Image worship. His
defense of images. His ideas respecting the priesthood, the educa-
tion, employment (borrows from Christianity the didactic element,
beneficence), and mode of life of the priests. Separation of worldly
glory from religion. Restoration of the demolished temples. Injus-
tice in connection Avith this procedure. Libanius as advocate for
the Christians. Julian's zeal even for a merely external participa-
tion in the sacrifices ......... 59-69

Conduct towards the Jews. Attempted restoration of the temple at
Jerusalem 69

Conduct towards the Christians. Julian's tolerance. Causes of it.
The exiled clergy recalled, and equal freedom granted to all relig-
ious parties. Julian's designs in this proceeding. Julian's unjust
conduct towards Athanasius and his adherents. Unworthy artifices
of the emperor. He forbids the explanation of ancient authors in
Christian schools, but permits Chi'istian youth to frequent Pagan
schools. ProEeresius and Victorinus. The two Apollinarises.
Julian's dislike of the church teachers who had been educated
under Hellenic culture (as Basil, Diodorus, and others). His con-
duct towards the Bishop Titus of Bostra. His mildness under per-
sonal injm-ies. Gregory (the father) of Nazianz and Maris of
Chalcedon. Bloody scenes at Alexandria (Georgius). Marcus of
Arethusa 70-81

Julian's residence at Antioch (a. d. 362) increases his bitter feelings
towax'ds the Christians. His zeal in the Pagan worship provokes
ridicule and hatred. Restoration of the temple of Apollo. Exhuma-
tion of the bones of the martyr Babylas. Feast of Apollo Daph-
neus. The one Goose. Burning of the temple of Apollo. Harsh
measures against the Christians. Noble conduct of Libanius, and
his admonition to the Christians. The emperor and the town of
Pessinus in Galatia * . 81-86

Julian's expedition against the Persians. Batnae. Julian's death in
the year 363. Advice of Gregory Nazianzen to the Christians.
Libanius' quarrel with his gods 86,87

Jovian grants universal religious liberty. Speech of the Pagan The-

mistius to the emperor 87-89

Valentinian. His tolerance conduces to the spread of Christianity
(Paganismus. The landlords) 90, 91

Valens. Address of Themistius to him. Prohibition of bloody sacri-
fices 91

Gratian. Is the first to decline receiving the robe of the Pontifex
Maximus. Laws unfavorable to the Pagans, A. D. 382. Symmachus
and Ambrose of Milan .91,92

Valentinian II. Renewed attempt of the Pagan party through Sym-
machus. Remonstrance of Ambrose 93

Theodosius (d. 395). Chrysostom, in his writing on the martyr
Babylas, against violent measures. The law of Theodosius to the
prefect Cynegius against soothsaying from the sacrifices is applied
against the sacrificial worship in general. Destruction of temples
through blind zeal (wild bands of monks) and avarice. Libanius'
plea for the temples. Inconsistency of the emperor. Harsher and
milder laws in reference to Paganism. Contest between the Chris-
tians and Pagans at Alexandria (Theophilus). Rescript of Theo-
dosius. Destruction of the temple of Serapis. Marcellus of
Apamea. Law in the East, a. d. 392; the offering of sacrifice as
crimen majestatis. In the West, meantime, all remains unchanged.
New proposal of Symmachus to Theodosius (388). Eugenius'
concessions to the Pagans (392) withdrawn by Theodosius (394) . 94-99

Arcadius (in the East) and Honorius (in the West). The weakness
of the emperors. The landlords. Honorius (a. d. 399) orders the



X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

destruction of all Pagan temples in the country. A law of the same
emperor (a. d. 410) proclaims universal religious freedom ; another
(a. d. 416) excludes Pagans from civil and military offices. Con-
duct of Arcadius. Influence of Eudoxia 100-103

Law of A. D. 423, changes the punishment of death, hitherto estab-
lished against those who sacrificed, to confiscation of goods and
banishment. Paganism practiced only in secret. Life and doctrines
of the Neo- Platonist Proc/ws (d. 487). Manifold intermingling of
Paganism with Christianity 103-106

Justinian (527-565), despot in spiritual as well as temporal matters, —
forbids the philosophical lectures at Athens. The noble Platonist
SimpUcius, — his lively sense of religious need (one original essence
and evolution of the same. National religions. Sacred actions.
On revelation and reason. His attitude towards Christianity. On
alms and prayer). His flight and that of other philosophers, to
Persia, and return thence, brought about by Chosroes . . . 106-110

B. Pdemical writings of the Pagans against Christianity; general charges

which they brought against it ; manner in which these charges were met by
the teachers of the Christian church, 111-115.

Julian (see above). Lucian's (?) Philopatris Ill

Christianity (it was said) depended for its spread on the favor of
princes (reply of Theodoret). Reproach on account of the honors
shown to the images of the emperor. Impeachments against the
conduct of Christians, and against the Christian princes. Augus-
tin's de civitate Dei, in reply. Christianity ^it was said) is some-
thing incompatible with the life of the state. Augustin's reply.
Eunapius, Zosimus, and Paulus Orosius 111-115

C. Various obstacles which hindered the progress of Christianity among the

heathen ; means and methods by which it was promoted ; different kinds of
conversion, 115-124.

Hindrances to Conversion,

Partly the ruling sensuous element in a superstition commingled with
immorality, — partly the ruling intellectualistic element in a conceited



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