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dotal vocation has been recognised, aspires to membership in
the Positive clergy.

"With regard to these two preliminary modes, it will he
well, as a compensation for the discredit attaching to their
imperfection, to institute on the two first Thursdays in the
month two accessory festivals, one in honour of art, the second
in honour of science.

The third week introduces us to the priesthood in its
definitive form, when we honour its secondary degree, the
Vicariate, in which the clerk shares in the intellectual func-
tions — teaching and preaching — but is not admitted as yet to
the social functions of consecration or consultation. Vicars
are, as such, irrevocably members of the priesthood; but there
is an indistinctness of character attaching to them, which
makes any additional festival unnecessary, allowing for indi-
vidual distinctions possibly called for by the developement of
the universal religion. So ushered in, the direct glorification
of the full Priesthood occupies the last Sunday of the month,
the inherent homogeneity of the priestly functions rendering
unnecessary any distinctions between the priests, even as re-
gards the High Priesthood. Only on the preceding Thursday,
there should be a festival in special honour of Old Men, the
natural precursors, and ultimately the regular assistants of the

During the twelfth month in the Sociolatrical system, we
honour the Patriciate in its four general divisions as the organ
of the material providence of Humanity. These festivals, as
a whole, ought to give artistic expression to the feelings of

Chap. II.] THE "WOESHIP. 133

veneration and of devotion, of veneration in the inferiors, (ii) com.
devotion in the superiors ; the feelings cultivated in each re- (lii) Manu-
spectively by education and by action. The constituents of (iv)"!^-!-
the temporal power are ranked on the principle of decreasing " ™ '
generality, and increasing independence ; and the worship will
assert the higher dignity of the banking element, which, as the
great condenser of wealth, is at once less easy to understand aright,
and more exposed to envy. With the exception of this highest
Patriciate, from which is drawn the governing Triumvirate,
each of the three essential classes, by virtue of the difference
of their functions, admits of distinctions which would seem to
justify subordinate festivals in numbers sufficient to occupy all
the days of each week. But not to mention the industrial
inconveniences of such increase, it would not be without moral
danger, as giving scope for rivalries amongst the superiors,
an evil ever at the door ; and as occasioning amongst the
inferiors contentions at variance with the homogeneous cha- -
racter of the proletariate. The additional festivals apparently
required for the due honour of commerce, manufactures, and,
above all, of agriculture, may find satisfactory substitutes
in the solemn processions which will close the weekly cere-
monies. When some considerable time has elapsed after the
establishment of the normal state, the Thursdays may be set
apart for the public commemoration of the types which deserve
an individual honour, such distinction being most commonly
national, now and then, however, recognised throughout the

There is, however, a distinct festival required, if we study the ^^^^^^J^ ^j
patrician month as awhole ; afestivalin honour of the protectorate p^j™™^'J-
voluntarily assumed by the nobler industrial chiefs, under a tte Knights.
special vow, either at the opening of their industrial career or
after its close. As their prototypes the Knights of military
chivalry, these Knights of industrial chivalry have for their func-
tion the prevention or the remedying of the oppression to which
poverty is always exposed in women, priests, and proletaries, and
they collectively deserve honour, an honour quite unconnected
with their industrial capacity. Fixed for the first Thursday of the
month, the festival of the Knights is an assertion of the general
obligation on the strong to devote themselves to the service of
the weak, and the more special tendency inherent in the highest
class of patricians to recognise this as the legitimate function


The thir-



The Prole-


The general


(i) Complete
form or
active Prole-

festival of

of great wealth, a function which cannot but render its con-
centration more easy to justify.

The final step in the ideal presentation of the general
Sociocratic constitution is the devoting the last month of the
Positivist year to the honour of the Proletariate, the body in
which we see, by the necessity of the case, the homogeneous
and complementary organ of Human providence. Its natural
tendency to exercise a constant control over the more special
powers will be so drawn out by the identity of education, that
varieties of industrial employment, a consideration of minor
importance yet to be taken into account, will never be able to
impair its unity. The distinction between the four festivals
of the month depends not on difference of occupations, but on
the mode or degree in which the character of the class is

Hence the first Sunday honours the Proletariate in its
complete form, the form in which industrial activity is found
in natural conjunction, not merely with the moral developement
of the citizen or the head of the family, but with the culture
of the intellect, — its scientific, and even its esthetic culture.
This, the leading ceremony of the month, to stand in its true
light, requires, on the preceding Thursday, an introductory
festival in honour of Discoverers and Inventors in general;
Grutenberg, Columbus, Vaucanson, Watt, and Montgolfier,
being taken as special types — types sufficiently diversified to
represent the class. In taking them all from the first stage
of existence of the Great Being, we imply that the second
stage admits of no such personal distinctions. This second
life has to regulate — this is its great task — the powers which
the first threw up ; and therefore it is the social function
of the Proletariate, rather than its industrial service, to which
attention must be given ; not but that there will be a continuous
advance in this latter, though less and less importance will
attach to such advance. The aspirations of the proletaries
after personal distinction will ' for the most part have their
source in public life, depending on their right interference as
indispensable auxiliaries and legitimate controllers of the two
special powers. The preparatory festival must however make
it clear that it is as proletaries that the discoverers are honoured,
even when they seem to be of the Patriciate. It is indeed of
real importance that when in the worship we give the regime

Chap. II.] THE WOESHIP. 135

its ideal expression, we make administrative capacity the
characteristic of the patricians, whilst we represent industrial
discoveries as reserved for the plebeians, recognising at the
same time the diminishing importance in the regime of such

To complete the public commemoration of the Proletariate (U) The at-

■ fecfcive Pro-

in its completest form, the second Sunday of the popular letariate.
month must be set apart for the honour of the proletary
women. In Positive society all women will become strictly
proletaries, as voluntarily renouncing all inheritance ; still the
holy uniformity of their great fundamental function will leave
room for the modifications due to position. Again, notwith-
standing the identity of education, so adapted is the situation
of the Proletariate to develope the leading attributes of women
as to call for this special festival which, at a later period, may
be prefaced by a commemoration of individual types.

On the third Sunday, we enter on the commemoration of (m) The

•^ contempla-

, the Proletariate in its less complete form, as we then honour tiveProie-
the dutiful acceptance of their existence as plebeians by those
members of the class in whom the industrial function suffers
from tendencies to intellectual action which find but imperfect
scope. It is true that the Priesthood even more than the
Patriciate must be recruited mainly from the Proletariate, still
its necessarily limited numbers will not allow, in the majority
of cases, full satisfaction of the aspirations aroused by the edu-
cation. Whilst kept in due subordination to practical duties,
such aspirations give rise in the body of the people to an
unfortunate but honourable class, a class which, over and above
the honour paid to it collectively, may admit of personal dis-
tinctions, by contributing to perfect the social action of the

Carry out to the full the above case, and we are led to end (iv) The
the thirteenth month by honouring the life of the proletary letariate.
when it takes an essentially passive character. This modifica-
tion may be due either to the predominance in excess of
intellectual aspirations, or to a situation adverse to the
developement of the particular talent of the individual. On
the one or the other ground equally, Mendicity, even when it is Mendicity.
the life of the individual, deserves a distinct . festival in a
worship which claims to idealise all actual forms of life, and
which therefore may not neglect an inevitable result of the



Tbe Thurs-
day before.
St. Francis
of Assisi.

. Festival of
All tbe Dead.

sum of imperfections to which Humanity is liable. In the
Middle Ages, Mendicity received its due tribute of honour, for
the Priesthood, in its wisdom, knew how to ratify the instinctive
verdict of mankind ; a fortiori must it receive it in Sociolatry,
as a more sympathetic and more truly synthetical system. The
anarchical repugnance to accept this conclusion shown by meta-
physical empiricism, is but an evidence of an erroneous estimate
of the social function of the Proletariate. Separate the function
of the citizen from that of the artisan, and we shall at once
feel that, in spite of their coexistence as a rule, the first may
deserve honour when the second is entirely in abeyance. Nay,
we may consider this festival as already initiated by the
admirable idealisation which is the salient feature in one of the
numerous masterpieces of the greatest poetical genius of this
exceptional century.

Nor are we limited to this anticipation of a poet's instinct,
the more conclusive, it must be allowed, as originating in a
milieu of industrial egoism and Protestantism, for the past
offers us a direct and collective type of Mendicity in the
remarkable institution of the Mendicant orders. The admirable
founder of that institution must have a special glorification, on
the Thursday before the abstract commemoration of the passive
element of the Proletariate — the complementary element of
which he will ever be the patron Saint, as the characteristic
representative, under the form adapted to the thirteenth century,
of its social action. From the historical point of view, this
festival gives us indirectly an opportunity of honouring as it
deserves— and it is the only one which throughout was honour-
able — the effort to arrest the irrevocable decay of Cathoh-
cism, an effort however destined, such were the conditions, to

The Positivist year ends with consecrating its comple-
mentary day to all the dead, the rulers of the living with an
indispensable and inevitable sway. This concluding festival
recalls the similar institution of Catholicism, and in doing so
evidences the superiority of the Positivist systematisation as
alone able to make the commemoration completely universal in
its comprehension. Connected by feeling with the ceremony of
the eve, it forms a natural introduction to the festival beyond
compare, which on the morrow must open the new year by the
direct idealisation of the love of Humanity.


Chap. II.] THE WORSHIP. 137

Finally, the system of Sociolatry fills up its last void, by F^fi^ro^'
placing at the end of each bissextile year a festival in honour ^eif^°"
collectively of the women who have as individuals attained
holiness. The affective sex, it is true, neither allows nor
requires individual distinctions, save such as arise from its
efficient discharge of its domestic duty, yet the tendency of the
encyclopaedic education is to increase the number of exceptions
even in the sphere of action, still more in that of thought.
There would be incompleteness, then, in the public worship of
Humanity, did it not remind us, by a supplementary festival
every four years, of her highest representatives, some of whom
will attain an individual glorification.

Such are the eighty-one solemn festivals, secondary or The eighty-
principal, which constitute the worship annually paid to the vais. Their
Great Being by its servants assembled in its temples. Well the private
calculated to compensate th^ effort of abstraction required in
the direct worship of Humanity, such public assemblies cannot
but increase the moral effect of the worship by kindling the
natural sympathies of the worshippers, each looking on the body
of his fellow-worshippers as representing the supreme existence.
The influence, however, of such collective worship would be but
weak, appealing rather to our sense of beauty than to our
affections, were there not the habit of solitary private prayer.
Not to dwell on the fact that the personal worship is by its natiure
the basis of the two others, it alone is in the fullest sense free —
a circumstance which must largely increase its natural power.
Although the Priesthood may dissuade the Patriciate from
compelling, in any degree, attendance on religious worship, it
cannot prevent public opinion from blaming those who abstain
from the social sacraments or the public festivals. "We must
not then, in the splendour of these last, lose the sense of the
superior value of daily prayer, in which each believer becomes
his own priest, and labours in freedom for his own moral
improvement, through the veneration he pays in secret to the
representatives of the Great Being within his family circle.
Conversely, however, we must not lose sight of the fact, that it is
only by regular participation in the collective services that we
can secure our private worship against a danger to which dt is
exposed, of evoking tendencies to mysticism, and even selfishness,
tendencies which would direct to the part the worship due to
the whole.


To facilitate the comprehension of the general arrangement
of the public worship, I have given it in a summary form in the
subjoined table (Table A), -where the words in italics and in
parentheses indicate the subordinate festivals. This series of
solemnities honouring every aspect of human life, cannot but
have a powerful attraction for minds capable of grasping the
conception in its fullness. The test, however, of their having
had a deep moral effect, will be if each leaves on those who
have assisted at it a feeling of regret that a year must pass
before it returns, rather than a desire for the next in order,
from a craving for fresh artistic emotions,
ttfe^rtistic'^ In completion of the exposition of Sociolatry two subsidiary
adjuncts. explanations must be placed here; their earlier introduction
would have been an interruption. The iirst concerns the
edifices devoted to the Positive worship ; the second the artistic
aids it requires.
of'Hraian-^^ In the ' Grcneral View,' the symbolical representation of
'*y- Humanity by sculpture and by painting is adequately set

forth. Its architectural expression it is not possible at present
to determine with equal clearness, be it because of the slower
growth of the architectural conceptions proper, or that they
depend on a much larger cooperation for their execution.
Positivism is so real, and the times are so ripe for it, that
suitable temples will rise more quickly than did the churches
of Catholicism, for Catholicism was in open opposition with the
world it came to modify. Still at the outset, the worship of
Humanity in the West must be carried on in the buildings
consecrated to the public worship of her immediate predecessor.
They will be more easily adapted to Sociolatry than the
temples of Polytheism could be to Monotheism. For the
instruction and preaching introduced by Monotheism required
a different form of building from that which sufficed for the
earlier ceremonies, which were mainly in the open air. Posi-
tivism, then, need not introduce such sweeping changes in
religious architecture as Catliolicism was obliged to do ; still its
festivals, from their referring to the external world as well as to
the world of man, will require alterations not to be specified at
Situation o£ Yet ouc TDoiut I mav even now determine, the regular posi-

tion, viz., of the Positivist temple — nay, even the general
features of its internal arrangements — both the one and the

the Temples.

Chap. II.] THE WORSHIP. 139

other being implied in the nature and object of the worship of
Humanity. As it is the dead who deserve to live that ai'e the
chief constituents of the Great Being, so its public worship
must be performed in the midst of the tombs of the more
eminent dead, each tomb surrounded by a consecrated grove,
the scene of the homage paid by their family and their fellow-
citizens. In the second place, the universal religion will adopt
and extend one of the best inspifetions of Islam ; it will direct
the long axis of the temple and the sacred wood towards the
metropolis of the race, which, as the result of the whole past, is,
for a long time, fixed at Paris. This touching convergence, a
convergence which the Kebla of the Mussulman applies to all
the attitudes of worship and to the body after death, will
naturally be similarly extended in the only worship which
admits of entire unanimity. Later in origin and more social in
character than the faith of the West, the Eastern faith was
naturally a better manifestation of the direct aspirations after
true universality.

As for the internal arrangement of the temples of Posi- Jh^Tem°fs
tivism, two directions only can be given at present. In the first
place, the choir, where stands the pulpit with the statue of
Humanity over it, must be able to hold a seventh of the
audience, in order that the interpreter of the Great Being may
be surrounded by the eminent women who are its best repre-
sentatives. Secondly, each of the seven side chapels will
contain the bust of one of the thirteen principal organs of the
education of the race, in the midst of the busts of his four
greatest subordinates, the fourteenth chapel being reserved for
the group of representative women.

The foregoing exposition shows the boundless field opened by Artistic
the Positive worship to art, not merely to the fundamental art,
poetiy, but to the subsidiary arts of sound and form. So
extensive is the field, that at first sight it would seem to require
a special class ; the objection is, that such a class, however
subordinate, would trench on the dignity of the Priesthood,
and might compromise its unity. But if we emancipate
ourselves from the peculiar habits of the "West, we shall be led
to acknowledge that all the needs of Sociolatry may be met,
without devoting any one to the exclusive and constant
exercise of the faculties of expression ; for when made para-
moimt they are no less degrading to the individual than


The chapter
justifies the
ment of the

But the
must be
supported by
the doctrine
and regime.

pernicious to society. For the Priesthood may produce all the
compositions, poetical, musical, or even plastic, required for the
worship, by granting partial and temporary dispensations to
the priests qualified for the particular work required, just as
in the case of scientific labours. As for the social execution of
the dramatic or musical portions of the public festivals, the
completeness in point of art of the common education will so
qualify every believer to take his part in it, that the concert of
all the worshippers will ensure an effectual expression of the
emotions beyond what was attainable in the Middle Ages.

This chapter, viewed as a whole, ratifies, as a natural result,
the systematic anticipations of the introduction as to the
definitive arrangement of the three constituent parts of Positive
religion. We can now see that the preeminence of the worship
over the doctrine is completely in conformity with the nature
of Positivism, and secures its attainment of its objects.
Throughout the exposition here ended, there has been no want
felt of the analytical order which we must adopt in the next
chapter, in examining the doctrinal basis of the system, the
synthetic conception of which sufSces in Sociolatry.

"Were it not that Humanity is so situated, physically, as to
require the constant exertion of intelligence and activity, the
direct cultivation, in the worship, of our altruistic instincts
would enable them to triumph over the egoistic, in spite of
the greater inherent strength of the latter. But the worship
which was enough, while the second stage of human existence
had not as yet called into activity our intellectual and practical
powers, needs in our maturer period the aid of the doctrine and
regime, to protect our moral nature against the disturbing
influences attendant on our advance in thought and action.
Hence the necessity that now lies upon me to explain how, on
the basis of the ideal presented by Sociolatry, sociological
thought and sociocratic action ultimately harmonise, in the
service of our moral advance, these irremovable conditions, by
stamping a collective character on an evolution which in its
earliest stages was individual.

■J-'-A-t^J-lJU -A..




Love as the Principle ; Order fis the Basis ; I Live for Others. (The Eamily, Country,
Progress as the End. | Humanity.)

Embracing in a series of Eighty-one Annual Festivals the "Worship of Humanity under

all its aspects.

("ni-w Tpar'<! Dav i Synthetical Festival oJ
, JXew x ear s JJay ^ ^^^ ^^j, -g^^^g_

^'hUMAOTTY -^Weekly Festivals

[_ Union

2nd Month, — J chaste.

MAEBIAGE 1 unequal.

\ subjective.


3rd Month.—


4th Month.—



The FILIAL EELATION { ^"'"^ ^^^^"^■«'''«'-
5tli Month.— f

Thf! FRATEKNAL RELA- ] Same subdivisions,

f natural.
' t artificial.

f spiritnal.
' t temporal.

6tli Month.— ( «p-™anent

THE RELA TION OF MAS- \ P-^^^anent

flth Month.—


I spontaneous . . .


/-conserrativQ . . . <

8th Month.—

f complete.
( incomplete,

[ temporary Same stibdivUion,

f nomad, (Festival of ihe Animals.')

\ sedentary (Festival of Fire.)

{ sacerdotal {Festival of ihe Sun,)

1 military (Festival of Iron.)

(Festival of Castes.)

/"esthetic (Flomer, j^schyluSf Phidias.)

intPllectual (Sa.\ . f C^*"^^*' Pythagoras, Aris-

7 i- ^ ^*"N scientific and philo-J totle, Hippocrates, Archi-

^'^^^J sophic 1 medes, ApoUonius, mp-

\ \ paixhus.)

social (Scipio, Caesar, Trajan.)

rtheocratic {Abraham., Moses, Solomon,)

n.St. Paul.)
I (Charlemagne.)
,, ,. 1 (Alfred.)

|<^^*^°1^^ i (ffildebmnd.)

i ; (Godfrey of Bouillon,)

I l^iSt. Bernard.)

Mahometan (Lepanto) (Mahomet.)

{ (Dante.)

metaphysical \ (Descartes.)

L. i (Frederic II.)


/incomplete (Festival of Art.)

preparatory (Festival of Science.)

nc r±tiJiOJ.iiuujL/ y ^ *' f secondary

Intellectual Providence, (definitive j principal (Festival of Old Men.)

fbankine (Festival of ihe Knights.)
r ((Festival of Inventors: Gu-

1 active i tevherg, Columbus, Vav-

[ canson, Watt, Montgolfier.)

9th Month.—

10th Month.—


-Moral Providence.

11th Month.—

12th Month.—
Material Providence.

13th Month.— i


General Providence.


passive (St. Francis of Assisi.)

COMPLEMENTARY DAY Festival of All the Dead.

Online LibraryAuguste ComteSystem of positive polity → online text (page 22 of 91)