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be afraid to use it. Keep the amount reduced to the



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EXPOSURES INDOORS 45

lowest poffiible that will give the iUumination And ex-
posure desired and keep the flash itself as far removed as
may be from the direct vision of the lens that its lighting
may be the more difihised. Wherever possible the flash-
rays should travel in the direction of the normal light-
rays even if distantly removed from their source.

There is one situation where the flash
o^bdotf ^«v ^ ^^ considerable assistance and that is
^^2JJlg^ in subjects wherein it is desired to show
both the interior of a room and the
scene without. Several methods of doing this have
been found practicable. First, there is the plan of
setting off a flash behind the camera, the window being
uncovered, and interior and ezteri<^ photographed at
the same time. The flashlight so illuminates the inter-
ior that the exposure mav be equal for both parts of the
subject. How much flash must be allowed it is difficult
to determine, but a judgment may be based on an
accurate calculation of the exposure requirements
within and without the room. A second method is to
take a flashlight photograph of the interior by night,
using the customary amount of flash-powder. Then
dose the lens, leave the camera in place over night,
after clearing the room of smoke, and in the morning
open the shiules and take a brief exposure for the out-
of-doors. This method is rather cumbersome and
requires, above all, locking the door of the room over
ni^t to prevent disturbance. A third method, where
tlMsre are at least two windows, is to block up with an
opaque paper the window through which a view is
desired. Give an exposure of about nine tenths the
time the room requires by the remaining light. Close
the lens, uncover the window and give an additional
exposure for the remaining tenth of the time to secure
the exterior. The second method may, of course, be
reversed, taking the exterior by afternoon light and
kavirig the camera until evening when a flashlight
picture for the interior may be taken.

It win be well before we approach the
end of our subject to glance back at the
faults which we have occasionally
mentioned as attending incorrect exposure indoors.



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46 THE PHOTO-MINIATURE

Chief among these, of couise, is underexposure. In
first attempts at indoor photography this will* result
from under-^estimates of the light-values. The beginner
will do wen constantly to keep tab on the ratio of sur-
face presented by the window which furnishes his light
to the whole wall-surface of the room. That one
observation will ordinarily impress him with the neces-
sity for an inunense increase in the exposure over out*
of -doors where this larger surface would all represent
light-source. Later, imder-ezposure will be apt to
result from the employment of a small stop for the
purpose of securing depth of focus, i. e., sharp focus
on near and distant objects. The ratio of exposures
paralleling the ratio of stops must here be kept in mind.
If we compute an exposure for the//8 stop and reduce
the stop to//33 we must remember to give sixteen times
the exposure computed. It is a question which must
be left to individual jud^^ent as to how mudi abso-
lutely accurate detail is needed throughout an interior
and how much diffusion will serve perhaps more
accurately to mirror the interior as it appears to our
eye. Personally, it has seemed to me with regard to
many interior pictures observed that they would have
benc£ted notaoly by such a softening of the distant
portions as a hunger stop would have given. Finally,
every possible caution against under-exposure m
interiors must be taken. Out-of-doors it is bad enough.
Indoors, with the immense range of light and shade,
it is positively fataL Over-expose indoors always rather
than under-expose.

Once more, correct exposure is an
£^we Al^lute requisite if we are to obtain a
correct rendering of the gradations in
our subject, and the length of fiiese gradations makes
indoor exposure even more difiicult again than out-
door. Cassell's '^Cyclopaedia of Photography" gives this
comprehensive definition of gradation: 'That varia-
tion in a print (or negative) by which are suggested
differences in color or in light and shade; a print (or
negative) has a long scale of gradation when there are
many intermediate tones between the deepest shadow
and the highest light." Such a long scale is imavoidable



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EXPOSURES INDOORS 47

in nine out of every ten interioxs. We found early in
this discussion that incorrect exposure gives us incor«
zect gradations; that under-exposure makes the light
tones too light and the dark tones too dark while over*
exposure runs them aH together in a flat, dreary drab.
Of the two faults the former is the worse and the more
common within doors. It is to be obviated only by
conect exposure; no subsequent treatment can restore
the normal values to the several tones in an incor-
rectly exposed negative. Ftom the practical standpoint,
the idea indoors &ould not be to cut down the amoimt
of light but to keep it difihised, meUow and as widely
distributed as possible. Exposure may be made when
the HglitiTig conditions give slightly less contrast than
desired more safely than when the contrast is heavier
than desired. Positions should be taken to photo-
graph across the light from its source rather than
directly toward the Utter. Excessive contrast is more
easfly controlled by altering and softening the lighting
than it is later. It must be remembered in all cases
that the stronger the contrast the more care we must
exercise to secure as full an exposure as the limit of
the plate will permit. When, subsequently, we approach
the development thereof, the rule which Alfred Watkins
has been to so much pains to promulgate, that contrast
B secured by prolonged development and flatness by
reduced, win stand us in good stead. But use every
precaution to reduce the contrasts to a normal con-
dition in the original. Plates give us a considerable
latitude in the rendition of tones, but too much must
not be asked of them. If the scale of tones in the sub-
ject is longer than is possible in the negative, some of
them must suffer. In such a case the diurker tones will
result in the negative in patches of dear glass, because
even those less intense than the deepest will have
approached that deepest during the exposure given,
BJad the lighter masses, also running together, will give
us dense black deposits in the negative without detail.
Though halation is intrinsically not
a fault of exposure but of light-arrange-
ment and the limitation of plates, it
may not be amiss to refer to it briefly here. Halation



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48 THE PHOTO-MINIATURE

is the fogged appearance often encountered in interior
pictures surrounding bright spots in the original. It is
as if the light had escaped around the sides of the win«
daws in t^ field of view and the escaped portion had
impressed its image on the plate, too. It is a fault that
seldom appears in film negatives because the condi«
tion whidi causes it, the reflection of light off the glass
support into the sensitive emulsion with which a glass
plate is coated, does not exist in non-glass negatives.
Moreover, specially prepared plates are now easily
secured, backed with a preparation which kills this
reflection, and they ought always to be used, or such a
preparation applied to one's own plates, when interior
photography is essayed. Even then some halation may
at times obtrude but it will not usually be a defect; in
fact, the eye itself discerns some slight spreading of the
light about a bright window from a very dark interior
and does not find it disagreeable. Rays of light that
strike the plate at right angles pass right through
without this reflection, so that increased obliquity to
the bright light-source causing the halation wUl often
exaggerate the fault

^ The value of the actinometer in
^^^ interior work has been previously men-
tioned as well as the hardly explainable
fact that, in spite of this worth, it is so little used.
Without it the photographer is thrown back upon his
own resources of experience and judgment, and this in
the face of variations in conditions almost as wide as
they possibly could be. Out-of-doors the photographer
may depend upon either actinometer or experience just
as indoors, but he is provided as well with tables and
calculators of various sorts which are simple in form,
easy to use and go a long way toward materially
assisting him in his task. Such tables, for instance,
are those printed in various photographic magazines
and annuals. For interior work he is not similany pro-
vided to any degree of comprehensiveness. It will be
our remaining task to provide him with tables as nearly
perfect as the widely variant conditions imder whiw
he works will permit. It must be warned at the out*
set that similar tables for exterior work are proverbi-



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EXPOSURES INDOORS



49



ally only partially satisfactory, not only because con-
ciitioDs are so variable but also because individual
judgments regarding tbem are so apt to eir; that the
foimer element is more exaggerated within doors and
the latter not less so. These difficulties contribute to
the smaUness of number of such tables which have
been offered to the photographic public Henry W.
Bennett, to whose work we have had occasion previ-
ously to refer, has made some progress in this line,
especially with church interiors. W. K. Burton's
tables contain brief reference to interior work. The
Eastman Company prints a general guide in a short
table in its manuals. These may be here reprinted for
quick reference, reduced in each occasion to apply the
very rapid plate (200 H. & D.) and a lens working
•t//8.

Bennett's Table
OrdiDary rooms in modem houses. . 15 seconds to 3 minutes

Workshops 7 seconds to x minute

Same with skylights 3 to 6 seconds

Portrait in wdt-lighted room 2 to 6 seconds

StiU-lile, floweis, etc, in window. . 2 to 15 seconds

Burton's Tabijb

Fairiy lighted interior 20 seconds

Badly lighted Interior, up to 4 minutes

Portraits, good studio light 2 seconds

Portraits,' ordinary room, up to 8 seconds

More complete are the Eastman Company's tables
which, reduced to //8 stop and a very fast plate, are
as follows:

Easthan Tables



WaD-Tona


Windows


Blight


Sbuy


Cloudy
Blight


W^


White


2 or more


I


2


4


8


White


I


i^


4


7


14


Medium


2 or moie


2


5


9


It


Medium


1


3


7


U


28


Dark


2 or more


5


10


20


40


Dark


z


10


20


40


80



Above times are ail given in seconds.



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5© THE PHOTO-MINIATURE

Bennett's tables for exposures in churches have
been previously summarized. Piatt gives the fol«
lowing hints: Window portraits — sunny, 8 seconds;
diffused light, z6 seconds; dull, 24 seconds; very dull,
40 seconds; s^oomy, 60 seconds. Interiors, upward of
the foUowin^^— sunny, zo seconds; difhiaed, 12 seconds;
dull, 20 seconds. More variation I
n^xAi mux If we keep constant the factors of a

^|12« *«°* working at //8 and a very fast
plate (200 H. & D.)» we find our remain-
ing conditions to be included in any table to consist
of the following: the color of walls, hangings, carpets,
furniture, clothing worn by portrait subjects, etc; the
windows, their size, hei^t, distance from subject,
outlook, aspect as regards the position of the sun, etc.;
the distance of the nearest window or windows from
the subject, and the considerations oonmion to all
kinds of daylight photography, viz., the time of year,
time of day and the sky conditions. In computing the
tables which follow, a dark room is considered to be,
for instance, one finished in the now popular weathered
oak with its usual lack of varnish, the dull-finished and
dark furniture that goes with it and the similarly dark-
toned hangings. Red carpets and hangings would
contribute to the innate characteristics of sudi rooms.
Other oak finishes than the weath^ed are usually
surrounded by plastering and other accessories that
make them but medium dark rooms. Mahogany fin-
ishes would, however, come in the first dasafication.
Light rooms would be those that had white or very
li^t walls and hangings, such as we may find in many
modem dining-rooms and ivory-fimsh drawing- and
ballrooms, or light blue finish, as is presented inmany
boudoirs. Garments worn by the sitter rule the light-
ness and darkness similarly to these. Furniture partic-
ularly dose to the camera, unless of the very latest
tone, will contrive to darken the subject. A window,
as understood in the tables, is 25 square feet
of deal glass, fully exposed to the light of the sky and
not shaded by trees, vines or neighboring houses. If
the whole window is diffused by screening the exposure
must be increased about one third. Since the number of



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EXPOSURES INDOORS



SI



Hindoos is takoi care of more or less adequately in a
SQWzate classificatioii, the light falling upon the subject
from the nearest window b to be observed for the factor
in the third division of the s^ipended tables. Suchtables
might be ccmstructedy so far as their mere form is con-
cerned, in many different ways. This is divided into six
considerations as recently mentioned. Against each is
given a factor, the sum of all six of whida factors, ap-
plied to the second division of the table, will indicate
the requisite exposure. In the second division. ezcq[>t-
ing from "31" to "37" inclusive and beyond 40," the
figures indicate seconds; there they indicate minutes
and seconds.

Table for Indoor Exposurks
Division I



WaUs mtd Hangmis —

li^t I

Medium 2

Dark 3



One 3

Two 2

Three or more i

Disiance Nearest Window-^

One foot I

Four feet 9

Ten feet 21

Sixteen feet 33



Tkm of Ytof^
March 15 to August 15, i
August 15 to Maidi 15, 3

Thw of Day—

8a.nL to zo a.m a

zo a.m. to 2 p.m i

a p.nL to 4 p.m 2

Weather CondUums—

Bright 1

Hazy 2

Light clouds 3

Diurk douds 4



Division II



7.
8.

9-
zo.

ZI.
Z2.

13-

14.



:^

.1'

■.r
I



15.
z6.

17.
18.

19.
20.

21.
22.
23.



J:
f
S

12'



24.

26.
27.
28.

2g.
30.
31.



8'



32
ss

34
35
36
37



.1'
.2'

I



30-



38.. 6'
39 .15'



40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45-
46.
47.



.2 45
.4

I'



We have to photograph a room
about 20 feet long and 14 feet wide
lighted by five windows, two of which
are directly in front of the lens and need to be



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52 THE PHOTO-MINIATURE

blocked out. The room is finished in dark oak with blue
"sunfasf curtains and dark furniture, some of this
rather dose to the camera, the window nearest the
darkest part of the room. The distance is some zo feet
therdErom. It is zi o'clock on a September morning
and the sun is slightly veiled by a haze. We find our
jseveral factors to be as follows: Dark walls, 3; three
windows, i; distance of nearest window, 21; date, 2;
time of day, z; weather conditions, 2; total, 30. The
exposure-time given in the second division above for
this total is 45 seconds.

Once more the warning must be
Wwaiiig given that such tables as these, bv
the very imcertainty of the data with
which they have to deal, are open to innumerable
variations. The best they can offer, the best that is
claimed for this, is an approximate idea of what the
exposure ought to be. I want to impress upon the
reader, finally, that this very uncertainty, far from dis-
couraging him from indoor work, ought to tempt him
to frequent and repeated essays until his experience has
ripened to such a point that he goes about adjusting
his exposure more or less mechanically. Lastly, if he
must err, let him err rather on the side of over-exposure
than under-exposure; seek diffused, mellow light rather
than concentrated; shorten the scale of gradations by
every means that will soften glaring highlights and dense
shadows; make use of diffusing screens and reflectors
generously but of artificial lighting as an adjimct to
daylight only in emergency, and miss no opportunity
whatever for putting his growing ability to Uie test.
Roy Hakszsom Damtorth



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THE ENSIGN



POPULAR REFLEX

FITTED WITH

Original Carl Zeiss Tessar Lens, F 4.5
Ross Xpres Lens. F 4.5
Cooke LensySer. 11, F 4.5

The Reflex tjrpe is the choice of experts, but former prohibitive prices have
heretofore placed it in a class by itself.

The Ensign Popular Reflex has broken the rule, and we offer this model,
equipped with the celebrated Ensign Self-Capping Focal Plane Shutter, at no
higher cost than the ordinary anastigmat-fitted camera.

Yoa can s«car« BETTER RESULTS with th* POPULAR REFLEX

Picture size. 3K X4>4 in.; dimensions, 6>3 x6^a x6K in.; weight, 4 lbs.

Suitable for all phases of photography ; selective shutter speeds from time and
bulb up to Viooo part of a second—all set by one dial.

Price complete, ^9^r\ HS"f'i Camera, without

A^^ SiK Single MeUl - ^ ^^ ^^

$90 puflioiaer. lens, $42.50

G. GENNERT

NEW YORK. 24-26 E. 13th St. LOS ANGELES, 455 S. Olive St.

CHICAGO, 320 S. Wabash Ave. SAN FRANCISCO. 693 MUsion St



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For work in cramped situations, a wide angle lens is a
positive necessity. If you cannot get working distance (or
your lens, you must use a shorter focal length.

Bauscir|omb

EXTREME WIDE ANGLE LENS

PROTAR SERIES V

is an anastigmat, with a wonderfully large image circle,
nearly all of which may be utilized by stopping down. It is
absolutely rectilinear, and is suitable for extreme architec-
tural work in narrow streets, for interiors, flashlights,
machinery installations, etc.

At F.I 8 it covers listed sizes, and stopped down, it can
be worked on one to two sizes larger.

A FEW USTED SIZES



No.

T

2
3
4
5



Size Plate



4Kx6H
5x7

6y2xSH
8x10
10x12



Focus



5ft



Lens in


In Volute


Barrel


Shutter


.$20.00


$37.00


20.00


37.00


25.00


42.00


31.00


48.00


39.00


56.00



Booklet "What Lmns Shall i Buy?" now ready
for dUiribtttion

Bausch ^ [pmb QP^ic^^ ®-

634 ST. PAUL STREET ROCHESTER, N. Y.



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F

Ipai



FtEDOI

A DBVeLOPING AGeNT FOR I

PAP£RS.f ILMS ^PLArESL.4

Has Won On
Sheer Superiority

We have received scores of letters from dealers,
finishers and professional photographers, who assert
that FREDOL has proved to be entirely satisfactory
for every class of developing.

The amateur buys FREDOL in F. Q, tubes for
papers, plates and films; the commercial finisher uses
FREDOL as a tank developer for films, and in a
stronger solution for papers; and the portrait photog-
rapher is delighted with the ease with which he
secures the much sought after olive tones when using
FREDOL for developing his professional papers.

FREDOL meets every developing requirement.

Order an ounce today from your dealer — ^Accept
no substitute.

New reduced prices now in eflfect:

i-oz. bottle $ '^5

4-oz. bottle 3.15

J4-lb. bottle 6.25

i-lb. bottle 12.00

Bnfke & James m

g^g 240 East Ontario St., Chicago ml^Sa

Sole WholeBole Disiribaiora

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Color Photography

for Amateur as well as Pro-
fessional with the Hiblock

THOUGH the previous issues of this series have dealt more
especially with the use of the Hiblock by the professional
photographer, we desire in this letter to deal more with its
use by the amateur. Every day we are receiving Hiblocks from
amateurs who are delighted with the results they are obtaining.
It seemed hard at first for these amateurs to realize that with
the application of this invention they can use their own camera
and obtain color photographs. Heretofore, the necessity for
the purchase of a special camera has deterred many: but now
that all that is needed is the Hiblock, the number of amateurs
who are determined to get color results in their photographs
is multiplying daily.

For the benefit of the thousands of amateurs who have had
the longing for color photography and who now have that within
their grasp, let us describe agam this new invention, the Hiblock.
Two plates are bound together face to face with an interposed
film. One of these plates is sensitive to blue, the film to green
and the second plate to red. This block is placed into our
special plate-holder, and there is a plate-holder and Hiblock in
every size to fit your camera. Only one exposure is needed and
you may make as many prints in color as you desire. This inven-
tion has reduced color photography to its simplest terms.
Realizing this, amateurs as well as professionals throughout the
country will make their coming spring camera campaign pro-
vided with the Hiblock. They can then with the camera with
which they are familiar and without the cost of special apparatus,
and with the Hiblock, obtain color photographs when they
desire or use their camera for black and white.

A booklet describing more specifically the Hiblock and its
operation will be sent to you free upon request.

Respectfully,

THE HESS-IVES CORPORATION

1105 Race Street, Philadelphia

January 16, 1917 ' President

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japhic
k, Special



Pictures^
post-card size



Hand-camera photography has its
ideal realized in the 3 A Autographic
Kodak Special.

Optical and Mechanical efficiency
resulting in a photographic fitness that
the word ^'Special*' can only indicate
provides the advanced amateur v^ith all
that he could wish and offers to the |
novice practical features that he never
knew existed.

THE PRICE

No. 3A Autographic Kodak, Special^ Kodak Anastigmat

lens,/.6.3, 6^-inch focus and Optimo Shutter . . >55.oo

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY
ROCHESTER, N. Y., The Kodak City

At your dealer s

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Used in connection with the

Kodak Flash Sheet Holder

EASTMAN

FLASH SHEETS

provide a reliable, efficient method of
lighting at any time — whether, for
interior work, they be employed
as a supplement to the sun in the
daytime or as its substitute at
night.

The Kodak Flash Sheet Holder,
priced at one dollar, makes the ama-
teur's control over his illumination
absolute.

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY
ROCHESTER, N. Y.

At your dealer* s

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Far Indoor Exposures

Kodak Metal Tripods



Light weight, compact and rigid
construction are characteristics com-
mon to all the Kodak Metal Tripods
while Nos. 1. and 2 have the added
feature of a revolving head allowing
the camera to be swung from side to
side and the No. 6 is a pocket tripod,
folding flat so as to fit the pocket.



The price ranges from $2.25 to $6.00 according
to size and style.



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY,

ROCHESTER, N. Y.



At yowr dealer's.



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KODAK DRY
MOUNTING TISSUE

only becomes sticky when you say the word —
while you are handling it, it is simply paper.

But when the print is in position and a
hot flatiron is applied, Kodak Dry Mounting
Tissue out-glues glue and there can be no
cockling or curling on even the thinnest album
leaf.



PRICE



Size, syixs}^, 3 dozen . . ^.08
Size, 3><X4X, 3 dozen . . .08
Size, 3XX5K, a dozen . . .08



Size, 4 X 5, 2 dozen . . $0.08
Size, 4X X 63^, I dozen . .08

Size, 5 X7, I dozen . . .08



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY

ROCHESTER, N. Y.

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FOR EXPOSURES INDOORS USE

COERZ LENSES

THERE ARE NONE BETTER

nPHE best possible lens equipment is required to make
"■• successful indoor pictures. For portraiture the Goerz
Portrait Hypar^ F:3.5-F:4.5, meets the requirements for
speed, drawing and perspective. The Go^rz CeloTy F:4.5-
F:5.5, iswell known for its remarkable work under un-
favorable circumstances — especially in home-portrait
photography. For all-round work no lens can quite take



Online LibraryAuguste Le JolisThe Photo-miniature, Volume 14 → online text (page 5 of 52)