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with some special advantage. People
will not readily send for a catalog,
booklet or "information." As school
catalogs are planned and offered,
they usually arrive too late. The
prospect sends for the catalog, many
catalogs, because through some in-
centive, he has a desire to attend a
business school. This comparison of
catalogs leads to expensive and de-
structive competion. Instead the
catalog or booklet should have
reached the prospect earlier, and it
should have directed his desire
towards a particular school. As far
as possible enrollments should be
developed, not fought for. A person
will follow a suggested line of ac-
tion, in the absence of a counter at-
traction. If a habitual state of mind
is developed and interest maintained,
the counter attraction, cannot oper-
ate successfully. This state of mind
should be secured before competitive
advertising begins. For fall enroll-
ment this usually begins during July.
The field for fall eniollment is there-
fore open and non-competitive during
May and June and enrollments can
be by using proper incentives and
showing proper advantages, secured
at lessened expense.

A very successful garment manu-
facturer uses this method. He de-
signs a special model, circularizes
his trade for future delivery, promis-
ing exclusiveness, and first showings.
By the time pirating manufacturers
have succeeded in copying his de-
sign, he is sold out and is working
on something else. His success in
selling consists largely in eliminat-
ing the counter attraction.

The reliability of the school con-
sists of its ability and its integrity.
Ability may be considered under two
heads; facilities and experience or
skill.



People'are eager to talk about the
thing .they are proud of. There are
three classes of "copy" the insincere
agency uses to secure the O. K. of
the advertiser who is reluctant to en-
gage in advertising. One is histor-
ical, showing the shack where the
company started back in the seven-
ties and the magnificent buildings it
now occupies. Another is statisti-
cal, giving figures and facts about
the amazing growth of the business;
and the third dwells upon the "per-
sonality of the men behind the
goods" showing pictures of presi-
dent, treasurer and other officials.
A combination of these three rarely
fails to get the advertiser's name on
the contract. It also much more
rarely succeeds in selling any goods.

There is a time to demonstrate re-
liability, but business cannot be de-
veloped by its misplaced use. The
young man who is getting along
pretty well running an elevator,
working in a grocery store, or doing
nothing cannot be affected or stimu-
ated by your showing of furniture,
or equipment. It means nothing to
him for he does not see how he can
use it.

Facilities are of two kinds: finan-
cial and operating. If the school
man will examine his facilities ana-
litically he will see that he has many
not before observed or used in adver-
tising.

Experience may be, not only of
years, but of quality. The quality of
experience is not often demonstrated
completely, this being more difficult
than the demonstration of age.

Integrity has two elements; reputa-
tion and a guarantee. Since we are
dealing in an intangible thing, the
guarantee is not applicable and its
use will lead to expense and mis-
understandings. Reputation maybe
either known or demonstrable. That
which is known is manufactured by
demonstrations of new aspects, new
viewpoints, new applications of the
schools service. It is expensive to
reiterate "This is a reliable, efficient
school, having the complete confi-
dence of the public." This is a state-
ment of a fact. Providing there is no
counter attraction or contradicting
statement, people will believe this if
they are told often enough. The ex-
pense is wasteful. The best ex-
ample I know about of proper, eco-
nomical demonstration of reliability
is the first half column of the Wana-
maker advertising signed in fac-
simile by John Wanamaker. This
rarely says anything directly about
the goodness of the store, but we are
shown, reasonably and very plainly
why a store with the ideals described
must be a good store.

The above outline, amplified as cir-
cumstances warrant, will cover the
available methods of stimulation
which lead to action.



t^lfe^uA/n^A'&dufafrr* &



25



1 — II II


ir ii ii ii ii ii — .

LETTERS OF f


m*\ v


A SCHOOLMASTER


1 1^9


TO HIS FORMER PUPILS


™t-j4|k/


C. E. BIRCH, Prin., Haskell Institute,


1 — ir ii—


Lawrence, Kans. t
ii ii n ii ., •• J



Mr. Allan Brown writes that a young
men's club of which he is a member will
debate the question ''Resolved : That the
amount of injury done by the cigarette has
been greatly exaggerated." Mr. Brown is
sincerely desirous of making a vigorous
and convincing showing for the negative
side, since he sees an opportunity to carry
the whole club with him in a resolution to
forbid the habit among their membership.



LETTER NUMBER FIFTEEN



Helpfulville, Jan 1 , 191 .
Dear Allan :

Although your debate will not
be held in time for your club to make
a New Year resolution against cigar-
ettes, I trust you will convince the
members that every day is the begin-
ning of a year, and that any day is a
good day to make a good resolution.
I am glad you see in this question an
opportunity to make an effective
stand against a habit which is hard
to fight because of its apparent re-
spectability. It is strange that the
hero of the latest bit of fiction must
light a cigarette on every other page,
and every advertisement of a youth
clad in glad college raiment must
"wear" one of the obnoxious little
"coffin nails" in a sagged-down cor-
ner of his mouth or carry it daintily
(?) in his kid gloves.

I think that if I were going to take
the negative of this question (the
only side on which I could bring my-
self to debate), I should stand a cig-
arette up in plain view of the audi-
ence and proceed to indict him on the
following grounds :

1. That he is a spendthrift.

2. That he is a liar.

3. That he is a coward.

4. That he is a thief.

5. That he is a murderer.

6. That he is a traitor.

7. That it is well nigh impossible
to exaggerate his vicious influence.
I should support indictment 1 by

shewing how much he costs and how
little he returns. Most of the men
who use tobacco began by using cig-
arettes. The annual tobacco bill of
the United States is, according to
the last U. S. Census, over $400,000,000.
Figure up some of the things we
could do with that money, good roads
at $5,000 per mile, for instance, or
good country school houses at $10,000
each.

Indictment 2 : The cigarette prom-
ises through alluring advertise-
ments, greater manliness, enjoy-
ment, style, pleasure. He does not



add one ounce of good red blood, does
not increase stature the millionth
part of an inch, does not add courage,
decency nor intelligence in any de-
gree. In states having anti-cigarette
laws he lies by parading under the
label "Little Cigars," or some other
alias.

Indictment 3: He is a coward be-
cause he does not dare to come out in
true colors. He does not tell the un-
suspecting youth of the deadly drugs
he contains. He is afraid to make
the boy sick as the plain leaf tobacco
would do, as he might discourage the
boy, so some paralyzing substance is
added and the whole concoction
"doped" to make it easy for the boy
to become a victim.

Under indictment 4 I should prove
that he has stolen many a boys rosy
cheeks and wholesome plumpness,
his sense of honor, his will power,
his standing in school, his purity and
self respect. Perhaps this may not
be true of some of the young men in
your club, but they cannot deny that
it is true in thousands of instances,
some of which you can quote.

In support of Indictment 5, that he
is a murderer, look up any of the nu-
merous items that have appeared in
the daily press telling of tobacco
poisoning. I am sending you a clip-
ping regarding the death of an infant
from chewing a cigarette stub. This
is but a sample. Reed Knox's Busi-
ness Efficiency regarding personal
habits. Also get McKeever's pamph-
let on "The Cigarette Smoking Boy,"
for indisputable, scientific facts. If
you have time, write to the Division
of Bibliography, Library of Congress,
for a select list of references on cig-
arette smoking. You can startle
those fellows by the array of scientif-
ic facts you can produce. All they
can produce in opposition is that oc-
casionally a fellow lives through the
habit and becomes old probably be-
because he has a cast-iron stomach.
That is not saying that his children
will be any stronger for it.

The Constitution of the United
States defines treason. Crime, ig-
norance, poor health, bad citizenship,
insanity and the host of other ills
that follow in the train of cigarette
smoking, for very few stop with
that, are certainly enemies of the
United States. You can figure out
how to make Indictment 6 stick.

By this time you should have shown
conclusively that it is hardly possible



to overestimate the evil of the cigar-
ette, when it has full license to de-
bauch little boys.

Every one of these indictments
may be amplified and fortified by an
armful of facts and statistics. More
than that, the experience of every
man verifies it. Every person has
seen boys ruined by the cigarette
and the attendant evils it brings with
it. Use your ammunition well and
you will get some game.

In this connection, I remember that
you and I saw "Rube" Waddell pitch
one day. You know that he dissi-
pated. You know his end. I ran
across this soon after his death :

He loved the bright lights of the great white
wav.

He fell for the lure of the life that is gay,

With its wine and its women and song ;

And fate took a mortgage in time to foreclose

On the life that was treading the path of the
rose

In the midst of the reveling throng.

But the man never lived who could travel the
route

Join in each song, lend a voice to each shout,

And never a penalty pay ;

So he turned from the path of the sweet prim-
rose,

Down a lane where the ghosts of the past re-
pose

And point to the end of the Way.

Well, I merely wanted to suggest a
few things and not to tell you all I
might be able to think of regarding
this problem. There must be a stop-
ping point. This reminds me the
story Hamilton Holt, editor of the
Independent, told here once :

A man had just started down the
subway stairs in New York, when a
large woman tripped and stumbled
against him. They rolled and tumbled
together until they hit the bottom, the
woman seated rather firmly on the
small of the man's back. He waited
a reasonable time for her to get up.
She did not. He mildly remarked :
"I beg your pardon: this is as far as
I go."

Yours for increased usefulness,
John Faithful.



Brooklyn, New York, Nov. 13, 1914,
Zaner & Bloser, Publishers.
Columbus. O.
Gentlemen:

I have read with extreme pleasure the articles
in "The Business Educator" by^Kalph H.
Wright, Head of the Commercial Department,
Irvington (New Jersey) High School on Ac-
counting.

As a teacher of Accounting in public high
schools and private schools for the past eight
years, I have come to fully realize the need of
thorough systematic training in up-to-date ac-
counting for our boys and girls who are to enter
upon a business career.

The competition in modern business enter-
prises demands the most efficient management,
which is impossible without accurate and ade-
quate accounting records and these records are
impossible unless those who are to keep them
have|bad thejproper training.

This training must be given by those teachers
who realize the needs, have the courage of their
convictions, and the inspiration and determina-
tion to carry them out.

I believe that such articles as those by Mr.
Wright will materially assist in this work.
Very truly yours.

ISAAC T. CONKLIN.

Head of Department of Accounting, Brooklyn
Central Y. M. C. A. Business & Preparatory
School.



26



^J^iO/n^U^/iu^^r &



dcdc




INTRODUCTARY TALKS ON

COMMERCIAL LAW

ARTHUR G. SKEELES,
Elwood City, Pa.
Head Commercial Dept. High School.
Z3 I I I



UCZIC



DC



No. 5.

Another reason why the contract
cannot be enforced may be that there
was no consideration.

Consideration, in this connection,
has no reference to the ordinary
meaning of the word, when we say
we will "consider"a matter, and then
speak of our thinking as "considera-
tion." In law it has a special mean-
ing; and is defined as "The cause
which moves a contracting party to
enter into an agreement." In ordi-
nary businesss transactions it is the
thing which one party gives, or prom-
ises to give, to the other party. Thus
in the sale of an arcticle, the pur-
chase price is the consideration for
which the seller agrees to part with
the goods, and the goods form the
consideration for which the buyer
agrees to pay the money. There
must therefore be consideration for
both parties; or rather, the subject
matter of the contract for one party
forms the consideration for the con-
tract for the other party, and vice-
versa.

An agreement for which there is no
consideration cannot be enforced.
Thus if I should promise each of you
ten dollars next Christmas as a gift,
and when Christmas came should re-
fuse to pay the money, you could not
collect by a suit at law. Your action
would be thrown out of court because
of the failure of consideration,

Notice that it would not be wrong
for me to pay you the money.
Rather, it would be wrong for
me to refuse to pay it. If I had it,
I would be under moral obligation
to carry out my promise; and if I
should, there would be nothing illeg-
al in the transaction. So there are
many cases where a promise could
not be enforced in a court of law be-
cause of the failure of consideration,
but where the promisor is morally
bound to carry out his promise.

Yet the reason for the rule is easy
to see. The purpose of courts of law
is to promote justice; and they would
be going contrary to this principal if
they should compel a man to do
something when the other party had
not given anything in return. There-
fore the rule: A promise, unsupport-
ed by consideration, does not consti-
tute a binding contract.

This rule applies only to executory
contracts. If the thing has been
done— if the contract has been exe-



cuted — the fact that there was no
consideration will not render the con-
tract void, and enable the one who
has performed to rescind his action,
and demand back what he has given.
In the illustration given above, if I
had paid each of you ten dollars last
Christmas, I could not now demand
the return of the money on the
ground that since there was no con-
sideration the contract was void.

Perhaps the most important exam-
ple of the failure of consideration is
the agreement to accept part pay-
ment of a debt that is due, in full
payment of the debt. In such a case
there is no consideration for the
promise to release the debtor from
the balance of the debt, and there-
fore the promise — even though it be
in writing, perhaps in the form of
a "receipt in full of account to date,"
will not be a defense to a suit to col-
lect the balance. Of course, if a re-
ceipt has been given, it lies with the
creditor to prove that the entire
amount was not paid, and that there
was no consideration for the release
of the amount yet unpaid.

Note that various matters may en-
ter into the transaction, and that
often there is a consideration when
at first thought there appears to be
none. If the debt is not yet due, and
the debtor pays part of it in full of
account, then it may appear that the
consideration for the release of the
amount unpaid was the payment of
the balance before it was due. If the
amount is in dispute and a sum small-
er than that claimed by the debtor,
but larger than that admitted by the
debtor, is paid, the law recognizes
the transaction as a legitimate com-
promise, and will not aid the credi-
tor to collect the larger amount, even
though he may bring proof that he
was in the right. And if any other
article, no matter how insignificant,
is given by the debtor to the creditor
when the money is paid, and the
creditor accepts the money and the
article in full of account, that will act
as a bar to an action to collect the
balance.

The last sentence above illustrates
the point that the court will not in-
quire as to the adequacy of the con-
sideration. If I promise to give you
a horse, you cannot enforce the
promise; but if we enter into aeon-
tract that I am to sell you the horse
for ten cents, or for ten thousand
dollars, the court will not inquire



as to whether or not the horse is
worth more or less than the price
agreed upon. (There are a few seem-
ing exceptions to this, where an offer
was made in jest.) If it were other-
wise, the courts would often be called
upon to decide as to the reasonable-
ness of the price in commercial con-
tracts, and that is beyond their
province.

The test of consideration is this :
Did the promisee give up something?
If he did it is sufficient consideration.
If I offer a man two hundred dollars
for his horse, and he accepts, I am of
course bound to pay him the money.
But the contract would be equally
good if it provided that he should
give the horseto a neighbor, or shoot
it. It is not essential that I should
receive the consideration, whatever
it is; the essential thing is that the
promisee should give it up.



uc



UCDDCDC



I NEWS NOTES

AND NOTICES



DC



DCDDCDC



DC



u

[

I



Alfred J. Lawrence, who was formerly con-
nected with the Coeur D'Alene, College,
Coeur D'Alene. Idaho, now has charge of
the Commercial Department of Adelphia Col-
lege, Seattle, Washington. Mr. Lawrence
writes a practical business hand, and judg-
ing from his interest in penmanship, we
are confident that this branch will be well taken
acre of in his new position.

W. L. Morris, who some years ago was con-
nected with the Tyler, Texas, Commercial Col-
lege, and who for the past three years has been
out of school work, recently became Principal
of the Commercial Department of the Central
Nazarene University, Hamlin, Texas. While
at Tyler, Mr. Morris favored The Business
Educator with some very large lists of sub-
scriptions. He fully realizes the value of prac-
tical penmanship and, if we mistake not, he will
arouse much interest and enthusiasm in this
subject in his new field of work.

Mr. I. R. Stout has been promoted to the
principalship of the Commercial Department
of the Boys' High School. Louisville, Ky ., suc-
ceeding Mr. W. B. Griffin, who is now in Cen-
tral High School of Newark, N. J. There are
four other men. Will H. Matthews, E. L. Milli-
gan, Paul S. iMessersmith and Robert Miller,
devoting full time to the work.

Welche's Business College, Oil City, Pa., is
prosperingi because it does good work. Mr.
Welch is a Ferris Institute graduate of '92 or
'93, and, of course rejoices in Governor Ferris'
recognition by the good people of the State of
Michigan.

A. A. Lang, formerly proprietor of the Kan-
kakee, III., Business College, is now head of
the Commercial Department of the Atchison,
Kans., High School. We wish Mr. Lang much
success in his new location.

In renewing his subscription. H. B.Cole, of
the Girls' High School, Boston, Mass., states
that they have two thousand and two hundred
girls enrolled, and that they have built all the
annexes which they have room for. All of the
seats are occupied, which shows that the " Bean
City" is no "has bean" when it comes to educa-
tional matters.

Prof. W. P. Steinhaeuser, Supervisor of Pen-
manship in the Neptune Township Public
Schools, Asbury Park, N. J., has been honored
with the degree Doctor of Literature by Milton
University. Baltimore Md. Prof. Steinhaeuser
pursued a post-graduate course in English
Language and Literature with this institution
the past year.



J?u ^/Ati/itM &/turs/sr %



27



DCZ1C




COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY



F. M. BEDINGER,



Hancock, Michigan.



DCDC



DC



DC



The Third of a Series of Articles

The methods which different teach-
ers will use in teaching Commercial
Geography will necessarily vary be-
cause of the variety of temperaments
and inclinations which these teachers
possess, not to mention differences
in preparation and attitude toward
teaching in general. It is not the
purpose or the hope that uniform
methods may be adopted through
the agency of these papers on this
subject, but it is possible that some
teacher has been wrestling with the
proposition of how to present the
work in Commercial Geography so
that it will be at once interesting and
instructive, and if this teacher finds
some assistance in the material pre-
sented below and through its use
reaps a benefit for the school, the
student, and the teacher, the stand-
ard of Commercial work will be
raised a mite higher and the object of
this contribution will be accomplish-
ed.

At the outset the teacher must
adopt the method of diligent prepar-
tion of the work to be presented.
Unless the teacher knows the matter
to be taught the student loses confi-
dence and the work drags. A con-
stant search for material to supple-
ment the teaching will keep the
teacher in touch with the subject and
furnish him with an ample supply of
reserve ammunition for emergencies.
The text must be mastered thorough-
ly and the course carefully mapped
around it as the framework. All
material that is collected must be
placed in available form and classi-
fied under some head of the main out-
line as laid down by the text-book.

With this general scheme in mind
the teacher has a definite aim in
every lesson and in every bit of re-
search work that is to be done, con-
sequently no time will be lost on ir-
relevant topics and material. An-
other advantage of this plan is that
it brings out prominently the things
upon which emphasis should be laid,
in itself a great help because too
many instructors do not know what
to emphasize and what to treat as
merely contributory matters. I have
the whole course in Commercial
Geography outlined largely in ac-
cordance with the text as mentioned
above, with mainheads, sub-heads,
and minor divisions down as far as
the importance of the topic requires.



Into this outline I can readily fit a
clipping, a magazine article, a group
of pictures, or any other material
that I am fortunate enough to obtain,
and thus this material serves its pur-
pose in contributing to its part of the
subject and helping to weave the en-
tire course into a connected and in-
telligible whole. Again if the teach-
er goes through and works out an
outline of every subject in the course
this alone will give a preparation
and an equipment that will contrib-
ute largely toward success.

Assuming that the above plan is
adopted I shall turn to the teaching
of products. In this work three
things are essential. They are, ac-
tual specimens of the product, pic-
tures and descriptive material. The
text book affords inadequate space
for the complete treatment of each
product, but the teacher does not
need to throw up his hands in des-
pair at the mention of these three es-
sentials, nor does he need to content
himself with the brief summary of
the text — this is only the essence of
the cup, it must be diluted and
flavored with the proper ingredients
before it becomes wholly palatable
and nutritious. It requires a littla
patience and effort to collect the nec-
essary supplementary material but it
is available to all who desire to seek
for it, and no teacher of Commercial
Geography can afford to be without
it.

I can best illustrate the use of
specimens, pictures and descriptive
material by taking an example from
my own class room. I have before me
a sample case illustrating the differ-
ent stages of wheat as it is manufac-
tured into Gold Medal flour, together
with two large charts showing the
dissected wheat kernel and a sec-
tional view of a simplified flour mill.
Descriptive matter in abundance go
with these exhibits to make them in-
telligible. All of this material cost
just two cents, the price of postage
on a letter addressed to the Wash-
burn-Crosby Co., Minneapolis, Minn.
Any school can obtain this same ex-
hibit by giving in a letter addressed
to the above mentioned company evi-
dence that the exhibit is to be used
for educational purposes.



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 20) → online text (page 43 of 97)