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books presenting modifications
are placed upon the list there is
serious danger that they will be
introduced into some schools to
take their place side by side
with the standard text-books.
Dr. Stevens's facsimile letter here-
with shown, fully accounts for the
omission of the names of the com-
mittee making the report. In con-
nection with the above matter, we re-
produce herewith a paragraph from
the New York Globe and Commer-
cial Advertiser of November 24, 1904,
in which it will be seen that the City
Superintendent of Schools ex-
plained the necessity of having one
system for the schools and that
after a hearing the Board had se-
lected that system (Isaac Pitman's)
which they had deemed best. The
paragraph from the Globe reads as
follows: "Chairman Dix, of the
supply committee, presented resolu-
tions awarding the contract for
stenography text-books, which had
been la'd over owing to a protest
from James E. Munson. Mr. Dix
explained that the specifications
called for books of one 'system,' as
that system had been adopted by the
superintendents. Mr. Stern pro-
tested against restricted bidding,
unless the board knew the reasons
for adopting one particular system
of stenography. Dr. Maxwell ex-
plained that it was necessary to have
one system for all schools and the
superintendents, after a hearing,
had selected that system which they
had deemed best. Mr. Jonas favored
the selection of one book, as he be-
lieved it was a step toward uniform
text-books. What had been done in
stenography should be done in other
subjects. It would mean a great
saving each year."



ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, 2 West Forty-Fifth Street, NEW YORK

Publishers of the following works adopted by the High Schools of New York City:
"Course in Isaac Pitnian Shorthand," $1.50.
"Practical Course in Touch Typewriting," 75c.
"Style Book of Business English," 85c.



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HEN PEP-SCN"- NY -



VOLUME XX



COLUMBUS, O., MARCH, 1915



NUMBER VII



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR

Entered at Columbus, O., Post Office as 2nd Class Matter



C. P. Zaner,
E. W. Bloser,
Zaner & Bloser,



Editor

Business Manager

Publishers and Owners



Published monthly (except July and August)
118 N. High St., Columbus, O., as follows:
Teachers' Professional Edition, $1.00 a year
(Foreign subscriptions 80 cents extra ; Canadian
subscriptions 20 cents extra). Students' Pen-
manship Edition, 75 cents a year (Foreign sub-
scriptions 20 cents extra ; Canadian subscrip-
tions 10 cents extra.)

Remittances should be made by Money Order
or Bank Draft, or by currency at sender's risk.
Stamps accepted.

Two Editions. The Teachers' Professional
Edition contains 48 pages, twelve pages of
which are devoted to Accounting, Finance,
Mathematics, English, Law, Typewriting, Ad-
vertising, Conventions, etc., and Departments
specially suited to the needs of teachers, princi-
pals and proprietors.

The Students' Penmanship Edition contains 36
pages and is the same as the Professional Edi-
tion, less the twelve pages devoted to commer-
cial subjects. This edition is specially suited to
students in Commercial, Public and Private
schools, and contains all of the Penmanship, En-
grossing, Pen Art, and Lesson features of the
Professional Edition.

The Business Educator is devoted to the pro-
gressive and practical interest of Business Edu-
cation and Penmanship. A journal whose mis-
sion is to dignify, popularize, and improve the
world's newest and neediest education. It pur-
poses to inspire and instruct both pupil and
teacher, and to further the interests of those en-
gaged in the work, in private as well as in pub-
lic institutions of business education.

Change of Address. If you change your ad-
dress, be sure to notify us promptly (in advance,
if possible), and be careful to give the old as
well as the new address. We lose many jour-
nals each issue through negligence on the part
of subscribers.

Back numbers cannot, as a rule, be supplied.

Postmasters are not allowed to forward jour-
nals unless postage is sent to them for that pur-
pose.

Subscribers. If we do not acknowledge re-
ceipt of your subscription, kindly consider first
copy of the journal you receive as sufficient evi-
dence that we received your subscription all
right. If you do not receive your journal by the
10th of each month, please notify us.

Advertising Rates furnished upon application.
The Business Educator being the highest
grade journal of its class, is purchased and read
by the most intelligent and well-to-do among
those interested in business education and pen-
manship in the United States, Canada, England,
and nearly every country on the globe. It cir-
culates, not alone among business college pro-
prietors, teachers and pupils, but also among
principals of commercial departments of High
Schools, Colleges and Religious Schools, as well
as among office workers, home students, etc.

~ Rates to Teachers, Agents, and Club Raisers

sent upon application. Write for them whether
you are in a position to send few or many sub-
scriptions. Sample copies furnished to assist in
securing subscriptions.



DfZDC



POINTERS FOR PAY-ENVELOPE
PEOPLE

HINTS TO HELP THE YOUNG WHO DO NOT

KNOW, AND THE OLDER ONES WHO

SOMETIMES FORGET.

By ELBERT HUBBARD, EAST AURORA, N. Y.



DCDC



Budget Number Three




The chewing of gum, tobacco or
paper as a jaw-exerciser should be
eliminated. The world is now pro-
nouncing them vulgar, unbusiness-
like and dangerous. Keep ahead of
your foreman and of the Board of
Health in this thing.

Having promised to obtain goods
or information, or to deliver goods
by a certain time, do not start the
thing going and trust to luck for the
rest. Do your own part in full, and
then follow up to know that the rest
is moving on schedule time. Re-
member that the thing specially
promised and of special importance
needs most watching. "Accidents"
and life's "various hindrances" get
after just those things with a keen
scent.

Accuracy in business is a virtue
beyond esteem.

If your business is to wait on cus-
tomers, be careful of your dress and
appearance. Do your manicuring
before you reach the store. Dental
floss is a good investment. A sales-
man with a bad breath is dear at any
price. Let your dress be quiet, neat
and not too fashionable. To have a
prosperous appearance helps you in-
wardly and helps the business.

Graft, grand or petty, is moral'
financial and spiritual skidoo for any
man who indulges in it.



io



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"I want to know" Is the instinct which leads to
wisdom. The Inquiring mind discovers the need
and source of troth, and extracts it from countless
reservoirs.

The impulse to answer questions leads to analysis,
comparison aud system, and thus the answer bene-
fits all parties concerned.

Yon are cordially invited to ask and to answer
each questions as you desire. The BUSINESS EDU-
CATOR will act as a Clearing Hoase for Penmanship
Questions and AnswerB.

The spirit of helpfulness to and consideration of
others Is always productive of good resultB. Liber-
ality in this particular encourages it In otherB and
briagB answers to our own questions.

Help to make this department so valnable that it
will become the recognized authority to which all
may torn for answers to almost every conceivable
technical, pedagogical, or supervisory penmanship
question.

Questions are frequently sent to people in advance
of publication so that both Question and Answer may
appear together.



In our 7th grade, no time allotment
has been made for writing. Therefore,
the time we can give to penmanship
this year will be limited. Would you
drill them upon movement exercises
and then emphasize like and unlike
qualities of letters? It seems impos-
sible to get the writing upon a move-
ment basis in the time we have to work.

Answer— You can make no mistake in empha-
sizing healthful postures and efficient penhold-
ing. Neither can you makr a mistake in drill-
ing rather thoroughly and vigorously on move-
ment exercises, forthe confidence and skill thus
gained will lighten the touch of the fingers and
increase the general facility of writing. You
are also safe in emphasizing the like ami unlike
qualities of letters. Stress especially those
things which make for legibility, saying little
about slant or style in writing. The good that
will come from such a course of action will not
show up so much at the end of the year as it will
be felt years after when the pupils have much
writing to do.

1. (A) What is your estimate of the
value of good materials for the use of
pupils in writing, classes?

(B) What would you include in the
list ?

2. Name some exercises that max be
practical to secure muscular relaxation
of arm, hand and fingers, before taking
pens for work.

3. (A) In what way could pupils be
ta ugh t a rm or m use u la r movement
where copy books are used?



(B) How may jou break up the finger
movement?

■1. What is a movement drill?

J. C M.

1. (A) Poor material is dear at any price.
Good work cannot be done with it, nor can the
proper progress be made with poor material.

(B) Pupils should be equipped with good
pens, good holders, good paper, and a good
text or copy, and, more important still, the
teacher should know how to teach practical
writing.

2. Calisthenic exercises help in the matter of
relaxation, but getting into position and going
through the motion of writing without a pen in
the hand leads more directly to relaxation in
writing, than general movements.

3. (A) By drilling upon movement exer-
cises leading up to the copy found in the book,
by giving at least two-thirds of the time toprac-
tice leading up to the material in the book, and
then by modifying the style of writing found in
the book, if it is not modern.

(B) Finger movement is best broken up by
drill upon exercises, first ; letters, second ;
words, third ; and sentences and pages last.

4. Exercises such as the oval and straight
line forms, practiced with a view of gaining
control of the arm movement so as to lead up
to letter forms.

Is there any rule for making mono-
grams so one can tell with certainty
which letter should be read first and the
order in which all the letters should be
read?-W. H. Wright.



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These questions were recently asked applicants for teachers' certificates.
also willing to print other questions. Who will submit the best set i



We are willing to print the best set of answers received. We are
Now is the time to contribute and secure valuable material.



Jfad&UiUfUM&tllUXlU/ *



11



Yes, there are rules for making
monograms so that one can usually
tell which are the first, second and
third letters. Ordinarily, the initial
letter of the last name is made larger,
or heavier, or darker. The initials
are frequently made the same size
with the third initial larger. Some-
times the first one is made smallest,
the second next in size, and the third
largest. When the sizes cannot so
well be shown, then the difference
can be indicated in color or in tone
by making the last initial more con-
spicuous by making it lighter or dark-
er than the others.— Editor.

What is your opinion about such exer-
cises as fancy club swinging aud play-
ing ball'? Do they affect the penman-
ship seriously? Respectfully,

Raymond dinger.

Fancy club swinging, playing ball,
doing gymnastic stunts, interfere lit-
tle or much with penmanship depend-
ing to what excess they are prac-
ticed.

If they are practiced in moderation,
they help rather than hinder one's
progress in penmanship by keeping
the health good and giving general
training and exercise to the muscular
system generally.

If, however, they are done strenu-
ously, then they affect penmanship
detrimentally.— Editor.

I would appreciate an article on fa)
How to prepare work for engraving ; (b)
Where to get engraving done; (c) Cost
of various kinds of engraving used in
various works on penmansliip';(d) And
how to get out a work on penmanship';

(a) Use India, or some other dead black ink.
If the ink is a trifle brown, it is better than if it
is blue, as blue photographs miserably. Make



the copy as near perfect as desired. For the en-
graving it may be written some larger than de-
sired as it can be reduced in photographing.
After the copy is written, the engraver photo-
graphs it, and through chemical manipulation
secures a reproduction of it on a piece of zinc
with acid proof ink. The zinc is then placed in
a bath of acid, and the plate is eaten away,
leaving the penmanship lines in relief; it is
then mounted upon a block, type high, for the
printers.

(b) Photo engraving can be procured in any
large city.

(c) First-class script photoengraving costs
about ten cents per square inch. Hand engrav-
ing costs more and is done by wax, copper and
steel processes, in which the skill of the engrav-
er rather than that of the penman is shown. For
such engraving, copies drawn with a pencil
serve the purpose quite as well as if written in
ink.

(d) Know the subject and be able to execute
it. After writing up copies and having them
engraved, write up the necessary instructions,
go to a first class printer and secure rates on the
size and numbei of books desired, after which
the contract can be let.— [EDITOR.

How would you distinguish between
writing and penmanship ?

Roy F. Kraber, Philadelphia. Pa.

Penmanship refers particularly to the script
characters used in writing and the manner of
their executh n, while writing refers more to
the use of script characters in the expression of
written thought. There is a tendency to use
the term writing, both as concerns script forms
and their method of execution, as well as the
use of these characters in written expression.

Penmanshipjrefers especially to the office of
the pen, its manner of producing script forms,
etc., and refers also particularly to systems, ar-
rangements, script characters alphabetically ar-
ranged, etc.

Writing takes the alphabet and by rearrang-
ing it into innumerable combinations produces
words and sentences and expresses and recoids
thought along the line of literature.

The terms writer and author are U6ed inter-
changeably, referring to literary people. On
the other hand, writer and penmen arenot used
interchangeably referring to those who follow
penmanship as a profession.



It would be much better if we as penmen
would be more particular in the use of the terms,
speaking of Shakespeare and Herbert SpeDcer,
as writers, and, P. R. Spencer and Madarasz, as
penmen.

What other means may be employed
besides movement exercises to in-
crease the efficiency of both form and
movement in writing?— R. U. W.

There is no doubt in my mind but that large
writing can take the place of movement exer-
cises. Until recently, I had my students mak-
ing large and small exercises from one-fourth
to two spaces, in every shape and form, for at
least fifteen minutes out of an hour's recitation.
I did not let them make the minimum letters
mire than one-fourth of a space, capitals not
more that three-fourths of a space, and other
letters in proportion.

A short time ago, I had several left-handed
students. I began teaching them very small
letters with their left hands. After a time, 1
found that they were making very little pro-
gress because they thought it impossible for
them to learn to write well and gave up in de-
spair.

I wrote page after page of very large letters
with my left hand. I found it impossible to
write a small legible hand, so I kept practicing
large writing day after day until I learned fairly
well with my left hand.

One day I persuaded my left-handed students
to take up writing again. This time I let them
make the minimum letters one space, as I could
not make them smaller with my left hand. At
the same time, I let the others make the same
letters one-fourth of a space and other letters in
proportion. At the end of six weeks the left -
hand-ri students had made more progress than
the others. Afterwards, I let the entire class
practice large writing and found it to be very
satisfactory. Since that time, I do not believe in
movement exercises after writing becomes au-
tomatic. These exercises become automatic in
three or four weeks after beginning, and should
never last more than five minutes at a time.

If the students practice large writing, they
will get plenty of movement, and in a short time
they will write automatically. Why not teach
them to write at the same time they are learn-
ing movement?— [C. B. Boland, Hattiesburg.
Miss.]




12



M*3Bu4nuMr&&ux*&r &



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BUSINESS
WRITING

By I. Z HACKMAN,

Elizabethtown, Pa.

Send specimens to Mr. Hnck-

man with return uostaEe for

free criticism.



DC



DC



DDC



DC



NOW IS THE TIME TO WORK DILLI-
GENTLY ON THE TWO COURSES IN
BUSINESS WRITING WITH A B. E. CER-
TIFICATE IN VIEW.



No 7. -Make this exercise three spaces high, and afterward two spaces. Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Plate 7. No. 1.— Notice the curve at initial stroke. Count 1,2.

No. 2. -Count 1, 2 and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

No. 3 —Count 1, 2, 3. 4, 5, 6.

No. 4. -Count 1, 2.

No. 5.— Observe the letters "a" and "i" in "d." Count 1, 2, 3, 4.

No. 6.— Count 1, 2.

Plate 8. No. 1. -Make one space high. Count 1, 2,3,4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9,10, 11, 12, rapidly.

No. 2.— Count 1. 2.

No. 3.— You cannot spend too much time on this line.

Nos. 4. 5 and 6 —Observe initial and ending strokes; also the height of the letters and the spacing between letters and words. Write this until

you can dash them off rapidly.

Plate'.), 10 and 11— No. 1.— This is called the indirect retraced oval. Make it fourspaces high in the beginning, and afterward two spaces.
Count 1. 2, ■'., 4. 5, 6.

No. 2. — Make this exercise the usual height and count.

X i. rt -Mate this exercise the usual height and count. Use the indirect motion.

\ i. 1. — Make this as instructed previously.

Plate 7.








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Writing for f
Business

H. L. DARNER,

Brushton High School.
Pittsburgh, Pa.

Meiul specimens to the pub-

Ushers ol the B.E. with return

pustage fur free crltlolBm.



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The lesson for this month is a Columnar Cash Book. It will give you some idea of what is demanded in the way of penmanship by the business
world. The writing was done ut on forms furnishetl by the South-Westem Publithing Co., and used in their 20th Century Bookkeeping. Notice the
size of the figures. See if you can find a single one that could possibly be mistaken for another at the first glance. Business writing must be as
plain as typewriting. A bookkeeper will not hold his place very long if he does not write legibly as well as rapidly. See pages 14 and 15.




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Top two lines by W. G. Wiseley, Benton Harbor, Mich. Last four by Jennie L. Sargent,
student of S. O. Smith, Hartford, Conn.





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Mr Kizziah of Spencer, N.C.has been following the lessons in the B. E. odIv a few
months, and has made remarkable progress.







1
















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S& -^^A^ls A~?. & ' . fcJs?*-^-»c~- r^*/




By Anna Ku9ta t 7tb ^rade pupil public schools, Two
Kivers, Wis., Miss Mary E. Kumbalek, supervisor of
writing.






By A. B. Tolley, Washington, D. D.



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17




First specimen by VV. R. Rutledge, Ensley. Ala. Second specimen by Miss Hazel Shields, Polytechnic High school,
Santa Ana, Caiif., A. P. Meub, teacher of Penmanship.





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By Fred S. Heath. Concord, N. H.



18



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3.DC



EDITOR'S PAGE

Penmanship Edition

A forum for the expression of convic-
tions relating to methods of teach-
ing and the art of writing

OCR platform: FORM AND FREE-
DOM FROM FIRST TO F1KISH



=)C



DC



IDC



THE DISEASES OF PENMANSHIP



By C. E. Doner, Beverly, Mass.



BEING PARAGRAPHS SELECTED FROM A PA-
TER READ BEFORE THE NEW ENGLAND
PENMANSHIP ASSOCIATION AT BOSTON.
JAN. 9, 1915.

N LIMBER ONE

The penmanship practice and handwriting of
pupils must constantly and persistently be ex-
amined for errors common faults, etc., just as a
patient's body must be examined by a doctor
for disease. Medical examinations are neces-
sary before a physican knows what to do. When
he has found out what is wrong, he can begin to
give exercises, and medicines if need be, that
will cure the trouble. This is precisely what
must be done in the teaching of penmanship.
A letter, a word, a sentence, a paragraph must
be examined, or diagnosed, for mistakes— the
most common ones first, I should say— and then
the writer must be shown or told, either by def-
inite instruction or through the well printed
copy, what to do to make his writing more
healthy, vigorous, legible, strong and business-
like. I admit that, to do this and to do it most
efficiently, it requires skill, tact and judgment,



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 20) → online text (page 58 of 97)