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study as follows:

One for office service available for girls who
have completed two years of high school work,
the course to consist of bookkeeping, office
practice, commercial arithmetic, commercial
law, penmanship, and business English.

One for stenography and higher clerical work
available for girls who have completed three
years of high school work, the course to consist
of shorthand, typewriting, penmanship, busi-
ness arithmetic. English, bookkeeping, politic-
al geography and office practice.

Pupils will be advanced in each of these
courses as rapidly as their progress will permit,
and they will be given certificates when they
have satisfactorily completed the courses with-
out regard to the length of time required for
their completion.

We venture to say that many a staid old edu-
cator, not only in Boston but elsewhile, who
knows more of Greek than of life today, views
with grave alarm the inroads that commercial
education is making upon the so called cultural
and literary courses, but "All's well that ends
well" is an old saying that should remind us
that the outgrowth of this present movement in
the direction of commercial education will
prove to be a forward and not a backward step.

Advertising literature has been received from
the following: Bryant & Stratton Business
College, 1'rovidence, R. I.; Coast College of
Lettering, 519 Germain Bldg., Los Angeles,
Calif.; Cornell Shorthand School, Battle Creek,
Mich.; Drake Colleges Newark and East Or-
ange, N. J.; New Albany, N. Y., Business Col-
lege; The LeMaster Business Institute, East
Orange, N.J. ; Parks Business School, Denver,
Colo.; Brandon Stevens Institute. New Brigh-
ton, N. Y.: Wilkes-Barre. Penn . Business Col-
lege; Spencerian Commercial School, Cleve-
land,!).; Jones North Chicago Business Col-
lege, Chicago, 111.; Seattle. Wash., Business
College ; Gem City Business College, Quincy,
III.; Child's Business College, Providence
R. 1



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2*7




DCZIC



THE FUNDAMENTALS OF

ADVERTISING

M. W. CASSMORE,
Seattle, Wn.



=)[=IC



THF



FUNDAMENTALS OF
VERTISING



Al>-



The greater part of what has been
written about advertising- has been
necessarily misunderstood by the
reader, because such writings have
been so largely snatches of experi-
ence, pieces of practice, and items of
construction without a plan made ev-
ident or a harmonious relation to
each other.

The purpose of these articles is to
speak of the related fundamentals of
advertising as preventives of waste
and to give a better understanding
of the methods used by the most suc-
cessful advertisers.

All effective human activity pro-
ceeds in three stages; conception or
a study of the properties of the thing
and the conditions that surround it;
interpretation, or a consideration of
what should be done; and execution,
or a study of how the required action
is to be performed. All orderly and
thoughtful judgments result from
such procedure. It is only as a thing
becomes mysterious that we depart
from this mental routine and our
judgment then is haphazard and our
decision untrustworthy.

The study of anything, as a whole,
is rarely conducive to its improve-
ment. It is only when we consider
its parts one by one, that we discover
its excellence or its need of improve-
ment. In the adoption of a new
arithmetic, we consider it chapter by
chapter and so arrive at its utility.
From the strength of each chapter
we can be reasonably sure of its ex-
cellence as a whole. We ought to be
able to examine the elements of an
advertisement in the same way; yet
the most of advertisements and cata-
logs are constructed without such
consideration.

This does not apply to school ad-
vertising more than to any other. The
most of school advertising is better
than the most of commercial adver-
tising. However, because the school
has a commodity more difficult to ad-
vertise than that of the merchant or
manufacturer, the school has felt
more keenly any lack of efficiency in
advertising.

Here is as good a place as any to
apply the method to which I refer and
see if we can discover exactly why
business instruction is more difficult
to advertise than gasoline engines



or silk or silverware. It will be Kept
in mind that this method is offered
as a logical way of thinking about,
constructing and examining adver-
tising.

Let us examine business instruc-
ton as a commodity in reference to
its composing elements, the material
considerations and conditions affect-
ing it. This will permit us to exam-
ine each element separately.

In substance, we find it intangible.
The value of an intangible commodity
depends upon two things: the extent
of the advantage given by it and the
skill of the person supplying the ser-
vice. As to group, it is constitutent,
being of no use to the consumer with-
out a particular application of its
utility. Its use to him depends upon
relatively relating circumstances.
Here we discover one of the princi-
pal weaknesses of much advertising
—the absence of what may be termed
relevancy. People are not interested
in things as things unless these
things possess uncommon attributes
of sublimity or beauty. They are in-
terested in things only as they may
be applied to their own needs. Few
persons are interested in business
schools as educational institutions;
no one cares very much about their
size, age, wisdom or equipment as
examples or things; but many people
are deeply interested in how a school
can solve their particular problem.
It is for the school man to find out
what prospects are thinking about
their future careers. If he can show
that his school is a logical solution,
his advertising will by this one fea-
ture become much more effective at
less cost.

The advertisability of a commodity
depends upon the extent of the exist-
ing need for it. A commodity which
is needed by only a few persons is
not, of course, advertisable. Some
form of salesmanship is more adapt-
ed to its disposal. Upon this consid-
eration it appears that business
school instruction can count as logi-
cal prospects not more than 10 per
cent, of the population including par-
ents and influential friends of the
prospect.

Periodicals of general circulation
will therefore not be economical ex-
cept as searchers or prospect finders.
When the bulk of the selling powerof
school advertising goes into periodi-
cal advertising, results will be at a
disproportionate high cost because



of the excessive waste circulation.
There is a certain element of pride in
being connected with a well-known
or popular institution, yet if a firm is
favorably known in its legitimate
market, whatever further publicity is
purchased, cannot produce propor-
tionate returns. Instances can be
given which would seemingly dis-
prove this statement, but these in-
stances will be from observation
of practice and not from net returns.
New York City has several magnifi-
cent department stores, but the one
which is the most prosperous, whose
financial standing is beyond ques-
tion, and which is usually mentioned
as the finest store of its kind in
America, uses less newspaper space
than any other similar store. It has,
however, for years cultivated a logi-
cal clientele as individuals. There
are many other stores more widely
and popularly known but none that
pay as large a ratio of profit.

Further considering commercial in-
struction as a commodity, I hope I
may not be misunderstood when such
instruction is classified as technical-
ly untrustworthy or lacking in stand-
ardization. The trustworthiness of
commodities depends upon their uni-
formity and reliability.

Unitormity depends upon the use
of specific and unvarying ingredients.
The school man's public cannot be
assured of the same invariable qual-
ity of instruction and many schools
encouraged the hesitancy resulting
from this by advertising constant
changes, as improvements in their
curriculum. If a manufacturer does
this, as some automobile makers
have done, the resulting diminution
in sales is soon noticed.

Reliability depends upon certainty
of usefulness. The most of school
advertising over emphasizes this fea-
ture, but since it is done without a
balanced use of uniformity, relev-
ancy and other properly combining
considerations, the representations
of reliability fail to secure confidence.
Other considerations might be
mentioned, if space permitted, to
show wherein commercial instruction
is different from other commodities
and for that reason presents adver-
tising difficulties peculiar to itself.

The foregoing is offered as an in-
complete application of the analitical
method to a particular question. The
application of this method to adver-
tising is as feasible and necessary as
it is to housebuilding. A house, con-
sidered as a house, could not be suc-
cessfully constructed. It is only as
we consider rooms, floors, plumbing,
roofing and all elements that we
make intelligent progress and selec-
tion.

An advertisement built as an adver-
tisement in its entirety is guesswork
and necessarily inefficient and expen-
sive. It is only as we take the time
to consider it in its elements that we
can secure a trustworthy and eco-
nomical result.



28



*!3fe38u&nedA&dfaMfcr A




BUSINESS AND MENTAL
EFFICIENCY

J. S. KNOX,

Pres. Knox School of Applied Salesmanship. CLEVELAND,
< ).. 1426 Illuminating Bldg.



IjCZIC



EFFICIENCY



Efficiency means doing your work
effectively, and it means getting the
maximum of results with the mini-
mum of effort. It should be stated
here that national efficiency, com-
munity efficiency and business effi-
ciency are impossible without per-
sonal, individual efficiency.

The problem then of business edu-
cation should not be mental training
only but mental and technical train-
ing combined in such a way that
in doing a given practical task the
student's mind will do that work,
whether it be running a typewriter,
writing an advertisement or selling
his services in the quickest, easiest
and most effective way. Inotherwords
there is one quickest, best, easiest
way to do anything. The mind should
be taught how to use that one quick-
est, best, easiest way of performing
a necessary task.

The aim of much so called educa-
tion to-day is to train the mind only,
and theoretically rather than practi-
cally. That is the reason so many
thousand High School and College
graduates are yearly released upon
society without any ability to do any-
thing but teach the theory which
they have learned. The president of
Princeton College is reported to have
said that a Princeton graduate is not
worth more than six dollars a week
when he graduates because he neither
knows medicine, nor law nor busi-
ness.

1 want to make it clear that theoret-
ical training is training for mental
efficiency, but not for business effi-
ciency. Latin, Greek and higher
mathematics are a mental drill but
that knowledge, as knowledge, will
not help a salesman to close a sale,
or help a business man to write a le-
gal contract, or help him organize a
business. Herbert Spencer held that
the first object of an education was
to enable a man to make a living.
Many of the High Schools and Uni-
versities seem to have almost lost
sight of Spencer's idea, which is as
true today as it was when uttered by
t he great thinker.

I meet a great many college gradu-
ates who are street car conductors or



driving dray wagons or doing manual
or semi-manual work. They learned
theory in school, but they did not
learn how to make a living and they
gravitated toward manual labor.
Possibly half of the students in the
schools of this country are practical
minded rather than theoretical mind-
ed. When they are taught theory for
its own sake they cannot see how to
apply it. They lose interest and
leave school.

The tremendous increase in attend-
ance in the commercial department
of our High Schools prove my con-
tention. Fifty per cent of the stu-
dents of this country leave school at
the end of the sixth grade. Why?
According to the government reports
eighty per cent, of the young men of
America, at the age of twenty-two are
making only ten dollars a week, and
eighty per cent of the men of Ameri-
ca at the age of thirty-two (practical-
ly the same eighty per cent) are only
making ten dollars and twenty-five
cents a week, an increase of twenty-
five cents a week for ten years. These
young men have only finished the
eighth grade. They received little
busines's efficiency training. While
the technically trained men of thirty-
two are making forty three dollars a
week. Is it any wonder we are living
in a superficial age?

We are told that there are twenty-
eight million students of school age
in this country and that only twelve
million of them are in school. We
are told that four million boys and
girls between the ages of fourteen
and sixteen are out of school instead
of being in school. Where are our
real leaders in the future going to
come from? They must come largely
from the students who stay in school
rather than those who go out.

When the student sees little con-
nection between his studies in school
and the practical, vital business
problems all about him which he
knows he must solve when he gets
into life then he is likely to get dis-
couraged, lose interest and drop out
of school.

But the student must not lose sight
of the mental development side of ed-
ucation What the average student
and the average parent needs today
is more vision, a vision not for today
but for ten or twenty years from now.
A prominent commercial college man
told me not long ago that he could



not remember of a prospective stu*
dent ever asking him anything about
his faculty or the kind of training he
would get. He said there were just
two questions which all prospective
students asked. (I) How much will
it cost? (2) How soon can I get
through? The average prospective
student is interested in the present
and not in the future. He is interest-
ed in rapidity rather than efficiency.
He sees nothing but the practical
side of education. He has little real-
ization of the meaning of mental de-
velopment.

.Some time ago I attended a con-
vention of salesmen. The concern
was a million dollar concern. One of
the head men of the company made a
statement that appealed to me. That
statement was as follows "The first
year I worked with this concern I
made only three hundred and sixty-
five dollars during the entire year.
The next year I made three hundred
and eighty-five. The ambition of my
life then was to make one hundred
dollars a month, but in seven years I
was making three thousand a year.
When I reached the hundred a month
mark my ambition had grown. I
then wanted to make two hundred a
month. When I made the two hun-
dred I was just as anxious to make it
three hundred a month.

This man is now earning a large
salary. But here is the particular
point I want to emphasize. His am-
bition, to begin with, was limited, his
vision was limited. But in his case
both vision andjambition grew. But
that is not always the case. Many
young men become satisfied when
they reach the goal of their first am-
bition. Self satisfaction is one of
the greatest crimes in human life.

I have come to the conclusion that
the average youth is not more than
ten per cent, awake. He cannot now
realize his possibilities. When I look
back twenty five years I feel that I
wasn't then more than two per cent,
awake. The great trouble with the
average young man is that he has a
one hundred dollar a month ambition
and all he wants is a one hundred
dollar a month education to fit it. If
the average young student would get
a three thousand dollar ambition now
and a three thousand dollar educa-
tion to fit it his outlook would be
brighter and in two years his income
would be greater.

Every Business College student
ought to take a combined course.
The stenographer who has finished a
combined course is a better stenog-
rapher, she is a better thinker. From
the standpoint of my own business I
do not care to employ any permanent
stenographer who has not finished a
combined course or its equivalent.
Everything else being equal such a
stenographer is more efficient and
worth more money.



JfAtrj8uJ//i&iy&dutxi6r <S>



20



3CZ1C




COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY

F. M. BEDINGER,
Hancock, Michigan.



DCHC



DC



HC



COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY.



The First of a Series of Three Articles.

(BY f. m. bedinger.)

I realize in beginning this discus-
sion of Commercial Geography that
I am. dealing with a subject which
has been and is received with skepti-
cism and doubt by a great many
prominent educators, and in fact by
educators in general. A great deal
of unfavorable criticism has been ad-
vanced regarding the methods in-
volved in its teaching and its value
as a commercial subject. Much of
this criticism is quite justified and
timely, being elicited by the continu-
ation of certain deplorable condi-
tions in connection with Commercial
Geography which would contaminate
and heap disfavor upon any subject.
However, the growing popularity of
and demand for Commercial Educa-
tion is bringing this subject out into
the open, and a thorough exposure to
sunlight is rendering it more whole-
some and capable of more "hygien-
ic" relations with its fellow commer-
cial subjects. A new significance is
being attached to this phase of geog-
raphy by this predominating influ-
ence of business upon the relations
of man in the present day, and its
importance is undergoing a rapid
growth that will soon label it among
the most attractive and profitable
courses in the curriculums of com-
mercial schools.

Why should we include Commercial
Geography at all when we make up
our course of study for the high
school, business college, or academy?
A well known educator and publish-
er recently gave an address before
the National Federation of Commer-
cial Teachers on the subject, "Non-
essentials in Commercial Work" in
which he dwells upon the great
"waste of time" and "waste of ef-
fort." He sums up in the expression,
"Efficiency is waste eliminated." No
doubt the words of this man will
bring home in many commercial
teachers a sense of their responsibil-
ty and obligations to their students
in the matter of providing essential
and vital subjects, with the elimina-
tion of all dead, useless, and imprac-
tical things. They will prompt us in
this connection to ask, Is the time
and labor applied to Commercial Ge-



ography profitably spent? Is it giv-
en without the entrance of that ele-
ment, waste, which makes for effi-
ciency? To answer these questions
we must look for four things, namely:
(1) The aims of the course; (2) The
conditions under which it is to be
given ; (3) The ground to be covered
and the matter to be included ; and
(4) The methods that are to be used
in teaching the subject.

Of course in making such an exam-
ination as this we can in many in-
stances apply the principles of gen-
eral pedagogy— that is. many of our
measurments of the subject can be
made on a scale and with standards
that are equally and as regularly ap
plicable to all other subjects. As far
as practicable I shall leave such gen-
eralization to the reader, and pass
over to special requirements of this
particular subject.

We owe it to the student, above all
things else, to prepare him as well as
possible for the time when he is to be
thrown upon his own resources, when
he will have to work and do for him-
self, and when he will be forced face
to face with trying situations which
will require quick, decisive thought
and action. Our first aim in Com-
mercial Geography should be to get
the pupil to think, study, and act
upon his own initiative. From the
first he should b° made to feel that
the success or failure of this class de-
pends upon him. He is the one who
is to look up material, study it and
work it over into his own, and finally
to produce it in the class as an oral
discussion, a map, exhibit of speci-
mens, or in whatever form the case
demands. The teacher's work is to
make this material available, to care-
fully classify it, to direct the student
in its use and to systematize his and
the students' efforts so that the whole
course will evolve into an intelligible
and continuous theme.

No greater service can be rendered
the student than that of training him
to express himself in a plain and di-
rect manner. No subject offers bet-
ter opportunities for this than Com-
mercial Geography. The sources of
material for research and oral report
are inexhaustible. Every student
knows something about the commod-
ities which enter his home to feed,
clothe, warm, and comfort him, and
to this knowledge he is eager to add
more. The tea, coffee, sugar, meat,
flour, rice, etc., come into the home



like straight lines, as it were, con-
verging at the dinner table, and all
the boy or girl has to do is to follow
backward along these respective lines
through the many modifications to the
source, and in so doing he has learn-
ed a great part of Commercial Geog-
raphy. The student brings to school
a tiny thread of information relating
to this subject, and by right teaching
this can be gradually woven into a
broad fabric of general knowledge of
man's activities as a trader. Give
the boy a chance and he will gladly
tell his teacher and classmates all he
knows of the subject, and he will
leave the class room to go in search
of more to tell the following day.
i ( oncluded m < >c/od< /



HC



dcddczic



DC



NEWS NOTES \

AND NOTICES V



m



dczidczic



JC



Mr. Pierre S. Brown recently Bold bis institu-
tion, Brown's Business College. Kansas City,
Me., to John J. Pierce, who took charge the
first of June. Mr. Brown has been in school

work for thirty three years, both day anil night .
This is a record that is hard to heat and in-
think our readers will agree with us when we
state that Mr. Brown has served his time in the

work.

Sylvia W". Seagrave, for the past two years
head of the commercial department of the
Waterville, Maine. High School, has heen
elected as a member of the Maiden, Mass., High
School faculty to teach in the commercial de-
partment.

M. N. Bunker, formerly of Colby, Kans., is
now principal ot the (iregg Shorthand and
English Departments of the Kansas Wesleyan
Business College, Salina, Kans. Mr. Bunker is
a live wire in a tine school.

F. H. Metzler. manager of Williams' Busi-
ness College, Waukesha, Wis., was married
June lith at Delta, Ohio, to Miss Geneva Ad
ams, of Portsmouth, Ohio, the groom's father,
Rev.'J.F. Metzler, performing the ceremony.

L. A. Newton, formerly of Maryland, and re-
cently of Maiden. Mass.. has been appointed
head of the commercial department m the Win
Chester. Mass., High School, which means a
good man in a good school system.

E. W. Miller, the commercial teacher and
penman in the Monterey County High School.
King City. Calif., is going to Chaffey L'nion
High School. Ontario. Calif., next year.

Arthur P. Williams, of Highland. Park Col
lege. Des Moines, la., is the new head of the
commercial department of the Illinois State
Normal University, Normal, 111.

C. B. Potter has organized and located the
Potter Business College, at Osceola. Wis. We
wish the new institution all of the success thai
it deserves.

A. B. Curtis, of the Minneapolis, Minn., Bus

iness College, is now connected with the com-
mercial department of the Chippewa halls.
Wis.. High School. Mr. Curtis is a tine fellow
ami will prove a valuable addition to the high
school faculty.

.Mr. A. W. Wllboyte, of Bowling Green,
Kentucky, has been elected to the princii
ship of the Business Department of The Albu- »
querqne, N. M. t Business College, to succeed
Mr. C.M. Drake, who Is leaving September 1,
to engage in another line of work. Mr Wil-
boyte lias had wide experience in whole-
houses, as commercial teacher, and was for tive
years, associated with W. .' . Ashby.of Bowling
Green, Ky. He is a college graduate and has
two degrees.



30



&i^&u&>i^±&faixi/ir &




The Omaha High School of Commerce pub-
lishes a splendid volume entitled "Commerce"
in the interest of that public commercial school
edited by students. It is a very creditable pro-
duction indeed.

The Columbia College, Lake City, Fla., in its
spring bulletin of 80 pages, devotes 3 pages to
the commercial course, presided over by W. H.



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 20) → online text (page 6 of 97)