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BLISS BOOKKEEPING
OFFIcFPRACTICE

TWO PLANS OF WORK

ACTUAL BUSINESS and FOLDER

IN THE ACTUAL BUSINESS PLAN

all transactions are performed over the counter affording a
complete and up-to-date OFFICE PRACTICE DEPART-
MENT. Each of the several offices is equipped with a dif-
ferent set of laree boobs, including Special Column Boobs,
Loose Leaf Boobs, Post Binders, Card Ledgers, etc. By a
system of promotion the student goes from one office to an-
other, finishing in the bank.

IN THE FOLDER PLAN

the incoming papers are contained in the folder, but all out-
going papers are made out by the pupil the same as in the
Actual Business. Both plans are intensely interesting.
Splendid chapter on Civil Service. Fine Corporation Set.

SCIENTIFIC TOUCH TYPEWRITING

develops touch operation easily and naturally. Every stu-
dent becomes a genuine touch operator. The book includes
a variety of forms, letters, tabulated work, invoices, state-
ments, reports, legal forms, testimony, specifications all ar-
ranged in the exact form in which they should be copied.

NATIONAL DICTATION

bridges the gulf between the text book and the practical
stenographer. Special space is allowed for copying the let-
ters in shorthand which incites the pupil to do his best work,
and also enables the teacher to correct the notes in a mo-
ment's time. Special punctuation feature.

Write for information.

The F. H. Bliss Publishing Company

SAGINAW, MICHIGAN



ACCOUNTANCY



The Bennett Accountancy Courses are
highly commended by the leading Business
Educators of America. This is evidenced
by the fact that they are constantly direct-
ing inquirers to us for information, and in
many cases writing us giving the names of
interested persons. This is a high tribute
to the efficiency of our courses, and one that
is greatly appreciated. Ask any school man
about the Bennett Accountancy Institute,
or send for circular of information.



R. J. Bennett, C. P. A.



1425 ARCH STREET



PHILADELPHIA



J V



METROPOLITAN
SYSTEM OE m
BOOKKEEPING




" Far In advance of any
other bookkeeping text I
have taught or examined"



Our Books are
used exclusively
by the Metropoli-
tan Business Col-
lege of Chicago
and a rapidly in-
creasing- number
of Hlfrh Schools,
Academies and
Business Colleg-es.



By W. A. Sheaf fer, Ph. B., Head of Commercial Departtnent, West Division H. S.,
Milwaukee, Wis., Instructor of 'Accounting, Marquette Univ.

A presentation of bookkeeping and accounting in which one operation or
a new subject is explained, well illustrated and sufficient exercises given to in-
sure mastery of one step before taking up another. This plan is followed from
the most elementary principles through the advanced subjects. Business papers
are used, but the thought side of the subject is emphasized.

You can teach all of this text to your Students.
Supplementary texts not required.

Examination Copy, 75c.

We publish a complete series of commercial texts, including Munson
Shorthand.

Other Texts in the "Metropolitan Series" and the price of examination
copies: — Munson Shorthand, 75c; Typewriting by the Touch Method, 50c;
Theory of Bookkeeping, 50c; Commercial Arithmetic, 50c; Business Law,
50c; Metropolitan Business Writing, 10c; Practical Grammar and Ex. Pad,
20c; Metropolitan Business Speller, 15c; Business Letter Writing and Ex.
Pad, 30c

METROPOLITAN TEXT BOOK CO.

1310, 37 South Wabash Ave., Chicago.

YOUR CORRESPONDENCE IS SOLICITED.



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<!ffi&&uA/nedA&d£Uxi&r &



COMMERCIAL EDUCATION IN
PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS



By F. V. Thompson, organizer and first prin-
cipal of the Boston High School of Commerce;
now Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Bos-
ton.

A book for teachers and administrators of com-
mercial schools.

(rives a descriptive, critical, and construc-
tive discussion of current problems in commercial
education, making a clear distinction between
clerical training and training for business.

Offers constructive proposals based on the act-
ual needs of business as it is and requiring effect-
ive co-operation between business and commercial
education.

In a separate chapter reprints Mr. Thompson's
study of the Commercial High Schools and
courses of New York City, made in connection
with the New York School of Inquiry.

Bound in cloth xiv, 194 pages. Mailing price
$1.60.



WORLD BOOK COMPANY

YONKERS-ON-HUDSON. NEW YORK
6 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE, CHICAGO



What are You Looking for

in .[ system of Shorthand?

Do You Want Prompt Results ?

It was a class of four beginners — nrst-
year students — who had been taught
Benn Pitman Phonography in the Belleville
(111.) High School, that tool; first place over
similar students of all systems in the high
school contest at Normal, till.,) May 22,

Do You Look to the Long Run ?

It was Joseph Neitlich, who studied
Benn Pitman Phonography in a Boston
High School in 1908, that took first place
(with 100% for accuracy) over 444 candi-
dates enrolled in Civil Service Examina-
tion for Official Court Reporter, New York
City, last Ja



Benn Pitman Phonography



Write for particulars to
The Phonographic Institute Company,

CINCINNATI, OHIO.

Benn Pitman, Founder.
Jerome B. Howard, President.



J V



pi. Scougaie s Challenge snorinanfl

adds a very large per cem to Pitmanit safety, eaae, and
speed power.

The Phonographic Magazine (Ben Pitman, Cincinnati) for
June, 1915, criticises right-slant shorthand and shows to
its own satisfaction that shorthand should be written in
all directions of the compass. The Shorthand Writer, (Suc-
cess-Pitman, Chicago* incidentally furnishes conclusive
evidence that The Phonographic Magazine is wrong.

The Shorthand Writer, for the same June. 1915, pp. 275-6-7,
recommends the checking up of possible double-read-
ings, and prints words and phrases, in couples, involving
200 such dangers in Pitmanic shorthand. It says misread-
ings can be avoided (1) by practice in the use of context,
(2) by cultivating better pen control, and (3) by making
outlines more definitely.

An analysis of these 200 double readings, arranged in
the three classes just above numbered, shows 1*37 double
readings presumably avoidable, from that writers Pit-
manic standpoint, by pen control; and 72 of the 167, 43
per cent, involve Pitmanic left-slant strokes, and 21, \2%
per cent, involve right-slant strokes.

On application the full analysis will be furnished, with
etchings, showing Challenge right-slant equivalents for
the Pitmanic left and right-slants. The investigator will
readily see, from examination of these etchings, that by
radically distinctive Challenge outlines a very large per
cent of the dangers are removed.

Left-slants average about 25 per cent and right-slants 20
per cent of Pitmanic shorthand matter.

Challenge verticals and horizontals are Pitmanic, and
its right-slants mainly so, as far as the Pitmans go, save
that, in addition to Pitmanic right-slants, Challenge turns
all left-slant strokes of Pitman to the right, and thereby
Challenge is 55 to 60 per cent right-slant.

Challenge retains Pitmanic brevity. It lacks no useful
stenographic material

The 72 double readings, involving Pitmanic left-slant
strokes, are shown herewith, with Challenge outlines.

Challenge Shorthand can show you better than it can tell you.

The critic of Challenge right-slant tells more than can
be shown.

No specious argument can redeem the relatively bad
character of left-slant characters.

Challenge Shorthand Manual, a Complete Text Hook, $1.00.



M. SC0UGALE, Whetherford, Texas



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Do You Teach
Business
Ethics ?

THE NEW COURSE FOR
BUSINESS SCHOOLS

All business school men and women recognize
that never before in the history of this nation has
there been such an insistent, uncompromising
need for trained young men and women of charac-
ter. America has been thrust into a position of
world-wide responsibility. This responsibility
must be fairly met and the business schools must
have a large part in meeting it. Believing that
the business schools will, as ever before, be found
at the front in any movement to meet the needs of
the hour, we have issued

Letters of a Sctiooiinasiei

A Book of Business Ethics

By C. E. BIRCH



in bound form for use in such schools. To the
series which ran in The Business Educator has
been added twenty crisp, spicy, concise talks to
students. They emphasize, reinforce, drive home
and clinch the things you have been telling your
students. They are corroborative evidence of the
highest type. No student can ever entirely forget
the lessons of this book.



Business Classes ?hould have a definite per-
iod at least once a week to
meet for comments, discussions and debates.
Live questions and topics are suggested in the
book. You can dignify this training and at the
same time arouse and enthuse your school.

Shorthand Classes win find this an ideal

rimshing-up course in
dictation. A vocabulary of nearly one thousand
words is given with spaces for outlines and sug-
gestions for practice.



Price 50c. Rates to Schools.



ZANER & BLOSER, Publishers

COLUMBUS, OHIO



We take pleasure in an- j
nouncing that

New York University I
School of Commerce,
Accounts and Finance

will offer a course in

Gregg Shorthand

beginning with the Fall
Term, September 23, 1915.



The course is open to all can-
didates for the degree of Bach-
elor of Commercial Science and
to special students who are
taking as many as four other
courses.

The action of New York Uni-
versity School of Commerce,
Accounts and Finance adds an-
other name to the list of uni-
versities teaching Gregg Short-
hand.

For information regarding
the course address the Secre-
tary, New York University
School of Commerce, Ac-
counts and Finance, 3 2
Waverly PI., New York City.



The Gregg Publishing Co.

New York Chicago San Francisco



gnu

The New York Board of Education has placed on the
approved list of text books for the day and evening high
schools the following publications by the Gregg Publish-
ing Company: Gregg Shorthand Manual. Rational Type-
writing. Office Training for Stenographers, Whigam's
Essentials of Commercial Law, Gregg Speed' Practice,
Gregg Phrase Book. Gregg's Lessons in Shorthand Pen-
manship, Gregg and Pani's Taquigrafia Fonetica, and also
the series of reading books written in Gregg Shorthand.



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The California State
Board of Education

RECENTLY ADOPTED
FOR FOUR YEARS



The Zaner Method of
Arm Movement Writing

THIS MEANS A LONG
STEP FORWARD IN
PEDAGOGICAL AND



Practical Writing



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THE
Business Educator

IS YOUR MEANS
OF ADVERTISING
AND SECURING
THE BEST IN
COMMERCIAL TEXTS




f the Panama-Pacific International Exposition
ners accompanying the Gold Medal of Honor
vards to the Gregg Publishing Company.



| Gregg Shorthand

Receives Highest
Award at

Pa na m a -Pacific

International

Exposition

| Gold Medal of Honor

Gregg Shorthand

| Gold Medal of Honor

Rational Typewriting

| Gold Medal of Honor

Office Training

Gold Medal of Honor

The Gregg U riter



This supreme award is a splendid
tribute to the superiority and effici-
ency ot the most widely taught
shorthand system in America.



The Gregg Publishing Go.

New York Chicago San Francisco



Gregg Shorthand is taught in 60 per cent of
thecitiesinthe high schoolsof whichshorthand
is a subject. It is taught in more schools than
all other systems combined. It is also taught
in many of the universities, including Colum-
bia University and the University of California,
the two largest universities in the country.



J V.



J/ur3tiuM/ttJjCrtutafrr *&



ANNOUN CEMENT

The Board of Education
of Los Angeles, California

has officially adopted the

Isaac Pitman Shorthand

for exclusive use in the High Schools of that
city, commencing September, 1915, in place of
a light-line system previously taught.

It is interesting to note that the adoption of the Isaac Pitman Shorthand for
these schools was only arrived at after a most exhaustive examination by a special com-
mittee appointed by Dr. J. H. Francis, City Superintendent of schools, of the different
systems and textbooks now on the market, including not only the Pitmanic methods,
but light-line and connective vowel systems as well.

Send for a copy of "Statistical Legerdemain," containing the
Truth in regard to the recent Report of the Committee appointed
by the Shorthand Section of the High School Teachers' Associa-
tion of New York.
Particulars of a free Correspondence Course for Teachers will also be sent upon request.



v..



ISAAC PITMAN & SONS

2 WEST 45th STREET NEW YORK

SUPREMACY by SUPERIORITY

Comparative tests, held May 5th, 1915, under the auspices of the New York Board
of Education, at the Williamsburgh Evening High School for women to deter-
mine the relative merits of the Isaac Pitman and Gregg Shorthand.



Test No. 1


Test No. 2


Percentage of Class Accuracy.


Percentage of Class Accuracy.


PITMAN 96 1-9%


PITMAN 94.53%


GREGG 81/J


GREGG 84%



ISAAC PITMAN & SONS

2 WEST 45th STREET NEW YORK




VOLUME XX I



COLUMBUS, O., SEPT., 1915



NUMBER I



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR

Entered at Colnmbns. O., Post Office as 2nd Class Matter



n=>c



C. P. Zaner,
E. W. Bloser.
Zaner & Bloser,



Editor

Business Manager

Publishers and Owners



Published monthly (except July and August)
118 N. High St., Columbus, O., as follows:
Teachers' Professional Edition, 81.00 a year
(Foreign subscriptions 30cents extra ; Canadian
subscriptions 20 cents extra). Students' Pen-
manship Edition, 75 cents a year (Foreign sub-
scriptions 20 cents extra ; Canadian subscrip-
tions 10 cents extra.)

Remittances should be made by Money Order
or Bank Draft, or by currency at sender's risk.
Stamps accepted.

Two Editions. The Teachers' Professional
Edition contains 48 pages, twelve pages of
which are devoted to Accounting, Finance,
Mathematics, English, Law, Typewriting, Ad-
vertising, Conventions, etc., and Departments
specially suited to the needs of teachers, princi-
pals and proprietors.

The Students' Penmanship Edition contains 36
pages and is the same as the Professional Edi-
tion, less the twelve pages devoted to commer-
cial subjects. This edition is specially suited to
students in Commercial, Public and Private
schools, and contains all of the Penmanship, En-
grossing, Pen Art, and Lesson features of the
Professional Edition.



The Business Educator is devoted to the pro-
gressive and practical interest of Business Edu-
cation and Penmanship. A journal whose mis-
sion is to dignify, popularize, and improve the
world's newest and neediest education. It pur-
poses to inspire and instruct both pupil and
teacher, and to further the interests of those en-
gaged in the work, in private as well as in pub-
lic institutions of business education.

Change of Address. If you change your ad-
dress, be sure to notify us promptly (in advance,
if possible), and be careful to give the old as
well as the new address. We lose many jour-
nals each issue through negligence on the part
of subscribers.

Back numbers cannot, as a rule, be supplied.

Postmasters are not allowed to forward jour-
nals unless postage is sent to them for that pur-
pose.

Subscribers. If we do not acknowledge re-
ceipt of your subscription, kindly consider first
copy of the journal you receive as sufficient evi-
dence that we received your subscription all
right. If you do not receive your journal by the
10th of each month, please notify us.

Advertising Rates furnished upon application.
The Business Educator being the highest
grade journal of its class, is purchased and read
by the most intelligent and well-to-do among
those interested in business education and pen-
manship in the United States, Canada, England,
and nearly every country on the globe. It cir-
culates, not alone among business college pro-
prietors, teachers and pupils, but also among
principals of commercial departments of High
Schools, Colleges and Religious Schools, as well
as among office workers, home students, etc.

"* Rates to Teachers, Agents, and Club Raisers

sent upon application. Write for them whether
you are in a position to send few or many sub-
scriptions. Sample copies furnished to assist in
securing subscriptions.



POINTERS FOR PAY-ENVELOPE
PEOPLE

HINTS TO HELP THE YOUNG WHO DO NOT

KNOW, AND THE OLDER ONES WHO

SOMETIMES FORGET.

By ELBERT HUBBARD, EAST AURORA, N. Y.



ii — ir




BUDGET NUMBER SEVEN

Never conceal unfinished work un-
der blotters, in pigeonholes or draw-
ers, depending on memory to find it.
If necessary to leave unfiished work,
it should be placed on the desk in
sight, under a weight, so if you do
not come back in the morning the
other man will know just where
things are and what to do.

The less you require looking after,
the more able you are to stand alone
and complete your tasks, the greater
your reward. Then if you can not
only do your work, but also intelli-
gently and effectively direct the ef-
forts of others, your reward is in ex-
act ratio; and the more people you
direct, and the higher the intelligence
you can rightly lend, the more valu-
able is your life.

Never carry matches loose in your
pockets — have a metal match-box.

The love you liberate in your work
is the only love you keep.

The man with a debt he could not
prevent, caused perhaps bysickness,
should go frankly to his friend or
his business chief. Shun the money-
loan shark as you would contagion.
Poverty, discouragement, tempta-
tion, too often crime, are the fruit of
that sort of "confidential" financing.



tSfa&uAtneM&i&UM&r* $b




want to know" la the Instinct which leads to
>m. The lnqnlrlng mind discovers the need
ource of troth, and extracts It from countless



The Impulse to answer questions leads to analysts.
comparison and system, and thus the answer bene-
ilts nil parties concerned.

Yon are cordially Invited to ask and to answer
BOCta questions as yoa desire. The BUSINESS EDU-
catok will act as a Clearing House for Penmanship
Qnestlons and Answers.

The spirit of helpfulness to and consideration of
others Is always productive of good resnlts. Liber-
ality in this particular encourages It iu others and
brings answers to oar own questions.

Help to make this department so valuable that it
will become the recognised anthority to which all
may turn for answers to almost every conceivable
technical, pedagogical, or supervisory penmanship
question.

Questions are freqnently sent to people In advance
of publication so that both Qaestion and Answer may
appear together. *



CURTIS ON STANDARDS IN
WRITING.

The first of these is the doctrine of the limi-
tation of training. Formally stated this princi-
ple is that in the development of every me-
chanical skill a level will ultimately be reached
where the law of diminishing returns makes it
uneconomical to continue the training. Put in
aditferentway.it is possible to say that no
matter how important any skill may be, there
will always be a degree of skill beyond which
it will not pay to go. Up to the critical value,
the skill may be of fundamental importance;
once the critical value is passed, however, the
skill in question ceases to be a factor in deter-
mining the efficiency of the individual.

Professor Thorndike pointed out in his mon-
ograph on handwriting that when a child's
handwriting has reached a level of merit equal
to quality 12 or 13 on his scale, further time
spent in direct drill on handwriting is wasted.
The time might much more profitably be given
to learning typewriting, for instance. We
all know that if the whole school time
were given up to handwriting alone, a
very much larger percentage of children
than at present could be taught to write
copperplate. Quality in handwriting, how-
ever, like most other mechanical skills, is
a relatively unimportant product of school
training. Every one without exception, needs
to learn to write, but the elementary school will
have discharged its full duty when all the child-
ren can write with reasonable degree of speed
and quality. My point is that reasonable in
speed does not mean more than 90 letters per
minute, and reasonable in quality dues not mean
more than quality 12 on the Thorndike scale,
or quality 60 on the Ayres scale. Therefore, as
soon as you adopt such objective slandards,
and continue to give handwriting drill to child-
ren of any grade who equal or exceed these de-
grees of skill, your work is inefficient; for you
are wasting both the child's time and the teach-
er's time and effort. Conversely, the ethciency
of your handwriting instrut tion should be judg-
ed bv the percentage of your graduates who
finally reach these standards.

Precisely similar statements are possible for
all the mechanical skills. I am well aware that
in advocating the attainment of standard de-
grees of the mechanical skills by direct drill,
I am running counter to many of the accepted
theories of the day, just as in advocating that
children who have attained a standard should be



excused from attending the drill class, I am
running counter to the accepted form of class
administration. It is my ext erience, however,
that well-motivated drill is not only acceptable
to children, but is absolutely necessary for the
great majority. It is true that the able child
through the incidental dally use of such skill as
spelling, for example, will attain to standard
ability without direct drill, but those who have
wished the "incidental" theory of developing
mechanical skills on the educational world
based their theory on a few selected cases. I
estimate that not more than rive children out of
a hundred will profit to a satisfactory degree by
such incidental training; that for ninety-five
children out of one hundred there must be spe-
cific drills directed toward the attainment of an
objective goal. I grant that the drill must be



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 21) → online text (page 1 of 92)