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it, but it is better than no practice at all. You
should keep conditions favorable at all times by
being reasonably firm and exacting in your re-
quests. It is better to change the mental atti-
tude of your pupils, if possible, so they will
readily respond, and earnestly toil to succeed.



.y/u .J6m,u^ C</<««f<r &



Sometimes firmness is necessary in order to
bring about this state of mind.

Always give specific directions in formal
writing so the pupil has a definite thing to per-
form. For instance, tell him how many letters,
words, or groups of exercises to put on a line.
This will help him judge space, size of letters,
and unconsciously teach him orderly arrange-
ment and neatness.

Nu nerous suggestions might be made, but
the teacher is the spirit of any lesson. The
teacher who respects her own writing, who is
careful and earnest; who is ever watrhful and
reasonably firm; who estimates her work by re-
sults instead of effort: who carefully p'ans each
lesson, possesses the reserve forces which wil[
make the presentation of any lesson easy and
interesting, and the resuUs sure and *atisfac-




"I want to know" 1b the Instinct which leads to
wisdom. The Inquiring mind discovers the need
and source of truth, and extracts It from i

The Impulse to answ
comparison and systci:
fits all parties concerned.

Yoa are cordially invited to ask and to
snch questions as yon desire. The Business It.
cator will act as a Clearing House for Penmanship
Questions and Answers.

The spirit of helpfulness to and consideration of
others Is always productive of good results. Liber-
ality In this particular encourages it in others and
brings answers to our own questions.

Help to make this department so valuable that It
will become the recognized authority to which all
may turn for answers to almost every conceivable
technical, pedagogical, or supervisory penmanship
question.

Questions are frequently sent to people In advance
of publication so that both Question and Answer may
appear together.



THE WRITING LESSON

If you are very, very bright

You will move your arm just right;

Slide your fingers along,

Make your muscles very strong.

Move your hand out and in,
Then you will be the one to win;
Do it as good as you can,
Do it until you become a man.

Raymond Buel,
Grade 4-A Clayton School, Pitts
burgh, Pa.



The above wa9 contributed by the Director of
Commercial Education, Elmer G. Miller, and
clearly indicates that they are teaching
language expression as well as penmanship,
and that poetry is a Pittsburgh product as well
as smoke— holy smoke at that and not mere pot
black soot.— Editor.

; How can one learn to space names in
lettering diplomas? J. C. II'.

In lettering: lion- can one learn to
space a name on a diploma or resolu-
tion accurately and quickly'?

If one will do enough lettering and study
spacing, he can in time become fairly accurate
; in judging how much space a name or word
will occupy.



Beginners will find it a good plan to rule a
light, sharp pencil head lin'e, then indicate
lightly with pencil, between the head and base
lines, where the letters are to be placed. In
timethehead lines should be omitted in the
cheaper class of work.

Another plan is to put the pencil marks sug-
gesting the spacing on the blotter and not on
the paper. The name on the blotter can be
centered and placed up close to the line upon
which you intend to work. In this way you can
see how much space will be required and avoid
getting pencil marks on the paper. This saves
erasing and insures good spacing. The pencil
marks do not have to be put in carefully, except
for space values. E. A. Lupfer.




umlrlrr



focf or &£orr&?



Letters, wlien writing:, are always
riewed at one angle and at anotlier
when reading:. Js there no remedy for
this, so that tlie first impression of the
letter would l>e the same as when writ-
ing: that letter?

H. 1. J.

There are two parties concerned in
nearly all writing— the writer and the
reader; or at least two functions or
acts, the writing and the reading.
The best position for writing is not
the best position for reading, and the
best postion for reading is not the
best position for writing. There is
but one logical remedy or course to
pursue, which consists of turning
the paper about half way between
the writing and the reading position,
which is shown in the accompanying
illustration.




HUBBARD

( Continued from page 9.)
If you must vilify, condemn and
eternally disparage, why, resign your
position, and when you are outside,
damn to your heart's content. But, I
pray you, so long as you are a part of
an institution, do not condemn it.
Not that you will injure the institu-
tion — not that— but when you dispar-
age the concern of which you are a
part, you disparage yourself.

And don't forget— "I forgot" won't
do in business.



Style and Method.

In the teaching of writing, we hav e
Stylists and Methodists, each think-
ing they are right and the other
wrong. And each is in part right
and in part wrong. They do not per-
ceive that only to the extent that one
is both formal and mannerly it is
possible to be right.

The Stylists or Systemists or Form-
alists, whichever name you prefer,
believe that some one style or form
of letter is better than any other, lit-
tle perceiving that there cannot be
one that is best for all. They seem
to fail to consider that people differ
in mental taste and mechanical man-
ual makeup.

On the other hand, the Methodists
or Mannerists or Movementists, as
you may prefer to designate them,
imagine that manner is of more con-
sequence than stereotyped perform-
ance.

Now the facts are that the old world
has moved along tolerably well with-
out formalism or mannerism in writ-
ing, at least so far as the thinking
few and the plodding many are con-
cerned. Each generation has
brought forth some self-styled form-
alist or methodist, who conceived the
whole writing world to be wrong, on-
ly to find that the world after all
moved on and on in a compromise,
semi-efficient way, breathing now an
immortal poem and then a never-
dying proclamation, or writing some
new divine declaration, or recording
a law which shall shape anew human
conduct and relation, doing it all in-
formally and unconsciously.

As teachers of writing and as pen-
men, we need to place excellence
above style 01 method, product above
process, and the personal before the
material. That is to say, goodness
is not a matter of anyone slant or
curve or space, nor is result the prod-
uct of only one process, nor is per-
sonality second in importance to the
inanimate or unfeeling and commer-
cial.

Flexibility is necessary, else con-
sideration and the ten command-
ments were in vain; method is im-
portant, but only when subservient
to mind; and system is desirable but
only inasmuch as it serves spirit.

Plainness in writing is not a matter
of style but of details; ease is not a
matter of manner but of co-operation
and adaptation.

Stylists would rob the world of va-
riation; methodists would rob it of
natural selection. The two combined
and modified and fused would give
the maximum results in serviceable
writing.

Let us talk and teach more good
writing and less this, that, or some
other style or manner.



12



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BUSINESS
WRITING

By S. E. LESLIE,

PITTSBURGH,



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/ 2 -3 t/3~£ j f c/ o
/ 2 -3 *t 3~ & 7 <?■ f o

7 2 3 ^2 3~ £ 7 r f o
/ z 3 t£ 3~ £ 7 f e?.o
/ 2 ^3 i2 3~& 7 /^

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/ o l/- f-3 2-
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7 / f 3~s/ <?
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EXERCISE 21

This copy is given as a movement exercise, and in writing it you should give practically all your attention to using correct action ratber than to
the formation of the letters. Note the easy swings in the finishing strokes. Your work should show just as free movement.




EXERCISE 22

The beginning stroke for the c is like that of the a. Make a short hook at the top of the letter, retrace and swing around on the finishing stroke
the same as in n. Make eighty letters per minute The word "ice" should be written at the rate of 25 or 30 words per minute.




EXERCISE 23



Practice the straight line exercise one-half space high. The first part of the x is made precisely like the last part of the n. Note the slant of the
cross stroke which is usually made upward.



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EXERCISE 24

The curved line movement exercise here is very valuable. Turns at top and base line are round. The finishing stroke is like the last part of w.
Write about fifteen words per minute aiming to show good free action by making light smooth lines.



.Jte.jbu<H,H**&*«*t&r &




EXERCISE °5

The beginning stroke for tbe r should be made a little longer than the hrst slr< ke in tie i, then w ilh a slight pause at the top and a short swing
to the right and downward, and another slight pause and change of direction, the letier is finished precisely like the i. The two pauses at tbe top
of the r may give you trouble. At first malse these pauses quite decidi d. Study the large form. Some other go< d words fcr practice are : river,
raven, roar, error.




EXERCISE 26

Begin s like r, making initial stroke same length as in r. Swing downward aDd to[left connecting with the begi
ing tbe pen make the usual finishing stroke with an easy swing to the right. Make four letters without lifting im.



ing stroke, then without lift-




EXERCISE 27

(Review.)

These words may be practiced as a spelling lesson and furnish a most valuable review of all the small letters practiced thus far. While mo9
attention should be given to free action, sorre care should be given to the slant, spacing and forms of letters. The complete list of words should be
written in from lVa to 2 minutes.






EXERCISE 28

(Review.)

By this time it should be quite easy for you to maintain the correct position of the hand and body. It is easy to forget, however, so I wish to
remind you that the best writing is done while the writer is in a good positkn. Think of the position, movement, etc., always tefoie beginning
practice on a new copy.

This copy is a review of the Capitals and small letters and gives you good practice in joining capitals to small letters.




EXERCISE 29
These sentences should extend half way across the page. The words are short and easy and the hand should move to the right with consider-
able smoothness and freedom. Note the spacing between words.



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EXERCISE 30

You will observe that the sentences in this copy contain only capitals and small letters which have been given in previous lessons. Your
movement will be given a good test on these sentences. Ease of action and graceful lines should be your aim. Watch your beginning and finish-
ing strokes as well as spacing between words.



Are you working
to win a B. E.
Certificate ?



BUSINESS
WRITING

By I. Z. HACKMAN,

Elizebethtown, Pa.

Send specimens to Mr. Hack-
man with return postage for
free criticism.



The B. E. Certifi-
cate is evidence that
you have succeeded



aA>- y cl^ y clA^' €l<1^ ' €lJ^ aJ^ y a^' Q-A^
a^ a^u y CL<£y a^L y cl^l^ o^l^ a^^ouy a^u y a^







Plate 41. No. 1. — Follow previous instructions. Nos. 2 and 3. — Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, pause, finish. Nos. 4 and 5. — Curve the up-
stroke and make the "s" ' 4 higher than the other small letters, excepting the "r." Count 1, 2, pause, finish. Nos. 6. 7, 8 and 9. — This
is a difficult plate to master. Do not feel satisfied until you have mastered every part.



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16



A^A^AT



T^7



7 7



A^A^A/



Plate 42. No. 1. — Use a gliding movement. Observe the part at "x." Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, G. No. 2. — Study the compound
curve. Count 1, 2. Nos. 3, 4 and 5. — Follow instructions closely. No. 6. — Observe the space between the stem and the finishing
stroke above. Cross the downstroke. Count 11,2, finish.



THINK CLEARLY AND ACT CAREFULLY.



^^.^^^^^c^^^^^oAtAAWA*^



^^^^^/^^AAAAAAAAAA-AA A A A




7" 7" 7 7 / V- / / 7 7 7 7 7 V " 7

<^^Z t^cA ^A^ ^A t? A 2 A^ A 2 - A^A^^A AAAA^A^ tA

P/ate 43. No. 1.— The first part is similar to the figure 7. Count 1, 2, pause, 3, finish. No. 2 — Make this capital rapidly, count-
ing 1, 2. No.3.— Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, (5, 7, 8, 9, 10. 11, 12. Execute rapidly. No. 4. —Count 1, 2, finish. Nos. 5 and 6.— Keep all
loops the same height. Space accurately, and make smooth lines. No. 7. — Count 1, 2. No. S. — Count 1, 2, pause, finish. The fin-
ishing stroke is parallel to the stroke on the line.











Plate 44. No. 1.— Count 1, 2. No. 2.— Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. No. 3.— Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, finish. No. 4.— Count 1, 2, 3, and
cross carefully. Study ea:h part of this letter clo3ely. Do you see the small "i"? No. 5. — Count 1, cross. No. C. — Count 1, 2, finish,
Nos. 7, 8 and 9. — See how rapidly you can write these words.



STUDY AS WELL AS PRACTICE




JJJJJJJJ



Plate 45. No. 1. — Observe the compound curve in the upstroke and the downstroke. Ke"p each opening the same size. Practice
freely, and make it two spaces high. Count 1 for each loop. No. 2. — Follow previous instructions. No. 3. — Place the loop flat on the
line and count 1, 2, .'!, 4, 5, •>. No. 4. — Start with a compound curve, placing loops horizontally. Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. No. 5. — Count
1, 2. Nos. <> and 7. — Follow previous instructions.



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C^?z~£^e^r~




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' ^LsL^p—? -



_-^2-«a>^-^ - *^-z«-^'














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This remarkable specimen of penmanship was written with no thought of being: engraved and published, tut it was so unusual that we could not
resist the temptation to reproduce it and pass it on to inspire thousands. It has greatly depreciated in the engraving process, as the original is ex-
ceptionally light in line, free in movement, graceful and accurate. We have never seen such good writing by any one else as old. It is still more
wonderful when one considers that Mr. Flickinger's thumb has been afflicted with writers cramp for some years. Here's hoping he may continue
to enjoy life among us and to continue to inspire us to higher and nobler endeaver. Only those who know how extremely modest he is, will be
able to appreciate his embarrassment upon seeing his letter in the B. E.



^3t>u<u/uu<>6</um/<r *



EDITOR'S PAGE

Penmanship Edition

A forum for the expression of convic-
tions relating to methods of teach-
ing and the art of writing
OUR platform: FORM AND FREE-
DOM FROM FIRST TO FIKISH



3C



DDC



TECHNICAL TRAINING

The proper teaching of writing to
pupils of different ages, involves
emphasis upon the various essentials
of good writing to the age, need and
condition of the pupil.

The child needs to be handled
somewhat differently than the adult.
The daily need of writing on the part
of the pupil has a modifying influ-
ence upon the instruction. And the
habits of the writer and condition of
his writing should be carefully noted
and met.

Thus eye training is important;
the first essential. At a later stage
of growth, muscle training is of first
importance.

If the pupil has writing to do daily,
then the training needs to be of the
kind that will improve, while using,
the vehicle of expression. If form is
better than movement, then the latter
needs emphasis and vice versa.

After the essentials of legibility
have been stressed in the matter of
form, and after arm movement has
been established, a finer quality of
form as well as of movement needs
attention. This we can call the
technical stage, and naturally comes
in the grammar grades, when eye
and muscle training have preceded
in the primary grades.

By "technic," we mean those ele-
ments of form, such as size or align-
ment, of slant or inclination, and
spacing or width of writing. These
are the elements of goodness in writ-
ing, just as turns and angles, re-
traces and loops are the elements of
legibility.

But technic involves quality of
act quite as much as of result, and
therefore movement needs to be re-
fined as well as form. In fact, the
improvement of either is bound to
help the other. If it is not recipro-



cal, it is questionable whether the
training is correct.

After the more basic or cruder
phases of form and movement are de-
veloped, a refinement of both is in
order. Form needs to be examined,
analyzed, and described more min-
utely by teacher and pupils, and
movement needs to be watched, felt,
and managed with greater care.

The Fifth and Sixth grades are the
places for this emphasis, and at later
periods until mastered. Thus stu-
dents in high commercial schools are
trained in the fundamentals of plain-
ness and ease before real technic of
form and action are attempted.

Arrangement of writing upon the
page with proper margins, correct
spacing between words, and uni-
form quality or color of lines are all
phases of technic which need atten-
tion, if good writing is the goal.

The careful use of pens, the selec-
tion and care of writing materials,
and the habit of attention to details
are all technical questions which
affect writing materially for the bet-
ter.

To keep the down strokes uniform
in slant; to see that the minimum or
short small letters are uniform in
size; and to space regularly between
letters, are all essentials to goodness
in handwriting.

To think clearly is the prelude to
acting skillfully. Care is the secret
of excellence, backed by good judg-
ment and training in writing as in
most worth while things.




*?&rrf



Mr. and Mrs. C. W. (). Behne

announce the marriage of their daughter

Alice

to

Mr. Forrest Scntt Kitson

Tuesday August the thirty-first

nineteen hundred and fifteen

Defiance, Ohio



Mr. Samuel Quarles Dearborn

announces the marriage

of his daughter

Emma

to

Mr. Harold Edward Cowan

on the twenty-fifth day of September

one thousand nine hundred and fifteer:

Westtield, Massachusetts




Mr. andMrs.Chas. R. Hill

announce the birth

on September the fourth,

nineteen hnndred and fifteen,

of their son
ten and one-fourth pounds
Robert Emerson,
Newark. N.J.



PARTIAL CONTENTS



Of the Professional Edition of

this Number of the Business

Educator.



Marshall's Mental Meandkbings,
Carl C. Marshall, Cedar Rapids, la.



Business English, Miss Rose Buhlig,
Chicago.



Accounting, Chas. F. Rittenhouse, C.
. P. A., Boston.



Arithmetic, J. Clarence Howell, De-
troit.



Commercial Law, P. B. S. Peters, Ka
sas City.



Efficiency, Harold S. Cowan, Passaic,
N.J.



Diary Snap Shots, Miss Alice M. Gold-
smith, Philadelphia.



Convention Announcements and
Reports.



News Items and Miscellaneous
Timely Material.




An easy, running style of penmanship suited to correspondence.



^i^3Bud/neU^Uua&r &




DDE



Marshall's

Mental

Meanderings



unc



DC



Regarding the There are two main purpos-
Axe Grinders es of a teacher's convention ;
first, to afford earnest teachers an opportunity
to discuss ways and means for doing better
work; second, to gel a renewal of professional
zeal and inspiration, by personal contact with
successful and enthusiastic teachers. There is
a constant tendency, however, on the part of
certain, interested persons, to intrude various
things into the program that are outside of
these two purposes. Business schools each
year, use up a lot of material in the way of
books and other supplies, and there are numer-
ous serviceable and alert folk, who have these
supplies to sell, It is entirely proper, and sup-
ported by long-standing custom, for these ma-
kers and sellers of books, machines and sup-
plies of various kinds, to be on hand at the con-
ventions, with their most seductive smiles and
warmest hand-clasps, and to make ttiemselves
agreeable in divers ways, to the teachers and
schoolmen who do the buying. Neither is it
out of place for the sellers to take samples of
their wares with them, and to avail themselves
of such proper opportunity as may offer for ma-
king their merits known to any teachers or
school proprietors, who may be interested.

But when these gentlemen seek es-
pecial and official recognition, on the con-
vention programs, or the establishment of
"sections," in which some machine or sys-
tem of instruction, is to be particularly
presented the case is different. The ex-
ploitation of a teacher's convention in the inter-
est of some book, or machine, or schoolroom de-
vice, is not within the legitimate purposes of
the meeting. Toattempt anything of this kind,
is an impertinence as improper as it is unfair.
At one time, it looked as though the Federation
of Commercial Teachers, would be divided into
as many different "sections" as there were sys-
tems of shorthand, but the absurdity of this sort
of thing became manifest, and was soon discon-
tinued, It was also the unblushing policy in
times past for the members to accept the "hos-
pitality" of certain typewriting companies,
which was offered in the form of banquets, thea-
tre parties, trolley car excursions, etc. The in-
delicacy of these bare-faced schemes of adver-
tising was also so m realized, and they have
happily been discontinued.

Recently, however, the promoters of a certain
writing machine have formed an organization
that has been recognized on the official pro-
grams, and there are indications that some oth-
er convention "side shows" are to be conducted
by publishers who have organized groups of
teachers who are using their books. For my
part, I should like to see every vestige of this
sort of thing "cut out." Let the teachers as-
semble for the general interchange of educa-
tional ideas and experiences, and entirely free
from collusion with the sales organization, and
any maker of books or machines. 1 hope the
Federation at its next meeting will serve no-
tice, in no uncertain terms, to publishers and
others that the exploitation of the occasion for
their private interests will be regarded in the
language of President Wilson's Lusitania note
as "a deliberately unfriendly act."
Taking a Sometimes I am tempted to think
Chance that gambling is a fundamental hu-
man instinct. There seems to be something al-
most fascinating in "taking a chance" even if
the chance is not worth taking. In a town I
was in not long ago, a street crossing was
blocked by a passing freight train. It would



have been out of the way in three or four min-
utes, but there were a half dozen pedestrians,
who wonldn't wait. They "took a chance" and
climbed over the bumpers between the cars.
Suddenly the train started up, and one fine
young fellow was thrown down, and had both
legs cut off just below the knee. He will have
fewer chances to take hereafter, poor fellow. A
bank in our town had in its employ a young
and promising assistant cashier, who was trust-
ed completely. The boy (he was hardly more)
had a young wife and baby, also an aged moth-
er to support. He earned SI, 500 a year, but he
wanted more. So he got to speculating in land.
He bonghton narrow margins, and the interest
demands began to come in. He had the gam-
bler's confidence that his holdings would make
him big money, but he had to pay the interest
or sacrifice his investment. So he "took a
chance" and "borrowed" $10,000 from the
bank funds in his care. Facing exposure in his
desperation, he staged a take "hold up" story,
which was quickly riddled by the detectives,
and now he faces a five-year sentence for em-
bezzlement, and his life is ruined and hisfam-
ily heart-broken. Taking a chance. Why can't
the poor fools learn ?

The Persona! A good many ingredients en-
Touch ter into the success of a business
school. I want to offer a few remarks here
aboutone that is often left out by school men
who think they know all about the game. I re-
fer to the saving grace of friendliness. I am
not talking about that artificial "jollying",
which certain cute schoolmen handout to the
student when he is being enrolled, and when
the smiling proprietor is fingering tenderly the
soft yellow backs fir the first term's tuition.
That sort of thing is so transparent as hardly to
fool the simplest student. It is so cheap and



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 21) → online text (page 22 of 92)