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somewhat abbreviated, yet it sub-
stantialy represents what is treated in
the "Federal Calculator" mentioned in
the preceding article. This table of
contents is given in the same order in
which it appears in the book, and it is
well to note the sequence of the sub-
jects, also to compare a table of con-
tents in a present day commercial
arithmetic.



Contents

Numeration

Addition

Multiplication

Subtraction

Division

Tables of Money. Weights, and
Measures

Compound .\ddition

Compound Multiplication

Compound Subtraction

Compound Division

Reduction

Proportion, or the single rule of
three

Double rule of three

Practice

Tare and Tret

Interest

Compound Interest

Insurance, Commission, and Brok-
erage

Discount

Equation

Barter

Loss and Cain

Fellowship

E.\chan.ge

Fractions

Decimal Fractions

Position

Double Position

Involution

Evolution

Square and Cube Foot

Progressions

Coinpound Interest

Annuities

Perpetuities

Combination

Permutation

Duodecimals

Many of these subjects would seem
strange today in commercial arith-
metic, yet we have them only under
different headings, and as a matter of
fact many others are omitted.

It is impossible to convey an ade-
quate idea of these books by writing
about thern. They must be seen and
studied to be appreciated. They cer-
tainly could not have produced a pro-
duct equal to that of the present day.
This must account in large measure
for the long, poorly paid terms of ap-
prenticeships so common in the early
days.

It is also interestin.g to note that
during this same period of time our
country was undergoin.g a great
change in economic conditions. Up
to this time the United States had
been an agricultural and trading na-
tion, but. however, attempts to en-
courage manufacturing were begin-
ning to meet with success. Factories
were springing up all along the east-
ern seaboard from Baltimore to
Maine.

This .great industrial activity de-
manded better training on the part of
those who entered into it. Where
there had been home manufacturing
there were now factories eiriploying
hundreds, and where no well trained
office assistant was needed forinerlv



there was a demand now for hundreds
of well trained persons. Where were
they to come from? Certainly thf;
public schools had not met the situa-
tion fairly and frankly. They were
clinging to an old idea of education
that was good, extremely good, but it
did not answer the purpose simply
because new conditions had arisen
that required a new purpose of edu-
cation.

There were many who saw this sit-
uation and immediately set about to
meet it. The result was that a num-
ber of private schools began instruc-
tion in subjects that would prepare
the learner for this new field of ac-
tivity. But in doing this they had
only the old tools to work v/ith. or if
they wanted better tools they had to
make them.

The result was that new tools were
made. We find that about 1850 a new-
line of books began to appear. They
were put out by the private schools
that were giving instruction in these
special subjects. These books were
excellent and served the purpose in a
masterful way. They co-ordinated
the class room with the practical af-
fairs of life as nothing before them
had done.

In no way can this be better under-
stood than by a careful examination
of the problems, rules and comments
found in the two classes of books.
This comparison will appear in the
next issue.



MORTON

(Continued from page 30)

of wage earners, and into occupations
and vocations for which they should
lie trained, and in which with such
training, they would be of much
greater use and beiiefit, both to them-
selves and society in general. Not
every sixth grade student who re-
ceives a work certificate is to be
classed as dull, and lacking in brain
power, for a certain percentage at
least are promising, but, because of
circuinstances over which they have
no control, they are forced to discon-
tinue the education that they would
gladly and eagerly continue. No
doubt the same statement may be
made, and even stronger, and with
less opportunity of successful con-
troversy, when high school graduates
are considered. Many of the promis-
in.g young men and women graduat-
ing from the high schools, who ought
to have the opportunity of continuing
in college work, are forced by circum-
stances beyond their control to fore-
go the privilege of a course of further
study, w-hich they would ea.gerly and
anxiously embrace, were the opportun-
ity theirs. Perhaps, as we shall sug-
gest in a later article, a means may
l)c devised whereby such students,
with proper earlier training, begin-
nin.g in the earlier grades, might be
alile to overcome even this handicap
of insufficient funds, and yet at the
same time earn the right to this extra
training, by reason of their own abil-
ity, and as a result of their own
earnin.gs.



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VOCATIONAL
GUIDANCE

F. E. H. JAEGER

East Side High School. Newark. N. J.

In these days of keen competition,
wlien every business house is striving
for greater efficiency,
it behooves our
schools to do every-
thing in their power
to be of assistance.
As labor is the most
important factor in
the finding of costs,
we, who supply this
element of cost, have
our work laid out for
us.
It is not sufficient to merely send a
business man a boy when he calls for
htlp. but it is necessary for us to send
him a boy who is adapted to the work
for which the business man wants to
use him.

Many boys take courses in our
schools for which they are not fitted.
and being bright, get fairly good
marks, and then are sent out to posi-
tions in which they will not do their
best work, and in which they will not
be happy. The boy loses, the house
which employs him loses, and the
school which sent him out loses its
prestige.

Xow who is to blame for this state
of afifairs? Surely not the business
man. He had a right to expect that
the school would send him a boy who
was adapted to the work. Neither is
the boy. He perhaps had no one to
tell him that he was not adapted to
the work he was taking up in school.
Perhaps he took that course because
a chum was going to take it, or be-
cause not wanting to go to school lie
took a course which he thought would
be a snap. Then, if neither the busi-
ness man nor the boy is to blame, the
blame must fall upon the school, and
I believe no one will deny the fact
that the school is, to a greater or less
extent, to blame.

It is only just recently that our
schools have awakened to the fact
that something must be done to help
tlie boy find his right place in this
world, and a few schools are now do-
ing some pioneer work along this line,
namely. Vocational Guidance.

It ma}' be well at this point to make
clear just what we mean by \'oca-
tional Guidance. Anytliing which the
school does which will cause the boy
to think about what is the proper
work for him to take up as a life work
is \'ocational Guidance. The mere
fact that a school has a course in
Manual Training or Stenographv is
not Vocational Guidance. They are
simply schools which teach a certain
line of work.

.\ boy who wanted to be a lawyer
would get little guidance in a \'oca-
tional or Commercial school. Of
course, if he were to enroll in a \'oca-
tional school he would soon learn
tlipt he did not like that kind of work;



allowed to enroll he should be watch-
ed to see if he has made the proper
choice. In the plan which I have
worked out, and which I will present
later, we aim to keep before the boy
during his entire course this one im-
portant question "For what am I
fitted?"

Any plan for \'ocational Guidance
must apply to one of three cases: the
first for those children who must go
to work as soon as they leave the
grammar schools; the second, for
those who will only finish high school;
and the third, for those young people
who are fortunate enough to be able
to go through college. Those I am
interested in are those who can go
through high school, and to a limited
extent, those who can go through
college.

Each class requires special study,
and any teacher who is interested in
helping his pupils find their right vo-
cation will study more carefully that
class with which he is working.

There are not more than one hun-
dred and fifty schools in this counti"y
which are doing any systematic work
along this line, and of these T doubt
if a great deal is being done other
than to say that they are, and to ap-
point \'ocational Guidance commit-
tees which exist in name onlj-. To do
this work efficiently requires more
than a committee, more than one
teacher who is interested, more than
a little reading about vocations, more
than a lecture by some business man;
it re(|uires the co-operation of every
teacher and all the time, as it some-
times takes several years before a boy
can find himself.

There is not a great deal of litera-
ture for the teacher who wishes to
study this important work, and the
reason is c|uite plain when you have
read the aliove paragraph. If only
one hundred and fifty schools are do-
ing iinything along this line, and none
have been doing it many years, there
has not liecii time enough to nave
many books on the subject which can
be used as authorities.

I have found the following books
of great help to me, and I take pleas-
ure in recommending them to any
teacher who desires to make a study
of this important work:

Jesse B. Davis — \'ocational and
Moral Guidance.

Meyer Bloomfield — Youth. School,
and \ocation.

v.. W. Weaver — Profitable \'oca-
tioiis for Boys.

l-~. W. Weaver — Profitalile \'oca-
tions for Girls.

Katherine M. H. Blackford — The
Job. the Man. the Boss.

National \ ocational Guidance Con-
ventions — Proceedings.

Xational X'ocational Guidance Bul-
letin.

Frank Parsons. Ph. D. — Choosing a
\'ocation.

There has lieen some work along
scientific lines to determine a boy's
aptitude, and I have been much in-
terested in the experiment made, but
perhaps no one would tell him that
he was not adapted to that kind of



work but that he should go to a school
which taught subjects for which he
was adapted.

This is where systematic Voca-
tional Guidance finds its work. Be-
fore a boy is allowed to enroll in a
certain course which has a definite
vocation as its object, he sliould be
examined for his aptitude for that vo-
cation, and even after he has been
I am not satisfied that these experi-
ments are successful enough to justify
using the method. I should be very
glad if we could use any of the meth-
ods which have been tried, as it would
simplify our work, and one man could
examine each pupil, and in a few min-
utes tell him just what course he
should take, and then in a few years
we would have a world of happy and
contented people, as Carlyle says,
"Blessed is he who has found his
work, let him ask no other blessed-
ness."

In my limited experience I have
found the pupils quite willing to con-
sider any talk over their likes and
dislikes, and if you approach them in
a free and cordial manner, they will
do their part, and this has led me to
suggest that the schools then should
do their part.

With the high cost of education, in
high schools it runs from $7.5 to over
a hundred dollars per pupil for a
school year, it seems to me that the
finished product should be more effi-
cient. As an example, just this last
week more than six of our graduates
who had been taking a general course
came to me for positions. They
wanted clerical positions but did not
want to work for five or six dollars a
week. I could have placed them in
factory positions where they could
have learned a business, but no, they
wanted nice, clean, office jobs, but
they had no commercial training so
that they could demand the .$10 and
$12 a week which our commercial
course graduates are .getting. Don't
you agree with me that there is sofne-
thing wrong with our high schools
when such a condition exists'

If we teachers really knew how
much better work we would get from
our pupils, how much better the dis-
cipline would be, how much greater
interest the pupils would take, when
we have gotten ever\ pupil to take
the course he really is fitted for, not
one of us would lose any time study-
ing this important, interesting sub-
ject, and getting it into practice in
our schools.

In my next article I am going to
outline the plan we have put into our
scliool'the past semester, and T should
be glad to receive any suggestions or
criticisms that my fellow teachers
have to make of it.



Remington

"Remington Xotes" for September
is. as usual, unusually attractive and
helpful. If you are a typist and not
on the free mailing list you are miss-
ing an opportunity to secure informa-
tion, inspiration, and entertainment all
at the same time and in as inviting
form as it is possible.



^ f^J^ud/n^U^^^i^^fu^i^^




ADVERTISING

THOS. E. CUPPER, Inc. Acct.
Bingen, Ga.

ADVERTISING TALK No. 7

The point has now been reached
where it may be well to consider the
intrinsic value — or
profit side — of adver-
tising, and, with this
end in view, the few
following simple ques-
tions are submitted
merely to impress
upon the reader the
importance of logical
thinking and plan-
ning.
In tlie first place. Does it pay to
create a place among the commodities
of the world for a new article? Sec-
ond, Is it wise to advertise a Nation-
ally known or reputed one? There
must be an answer and a reason for
the conclusion, and whatever it may
be — the important question then re-
mains, How do you KNOW whether
or not you are correct?

Would it be possible to wedge into
the public's heart and mind a new ar-
ticle — a new idea — a new method, and
thus secure for it a footing worthy of
its mission without publicity of some
description.

Will advertising alone produce
popularity and standardization?

Is it possible to maintain standard-
ization of any product of brain or
brawn without, some manner of pub-
licity?

Why do many l)usinesses set aside
and expend each year a certain sum
of money for Newspaper. Journal or
Magazine advertising, or pay various
amounts to printers for pamphlets,
circulars. booklets, catalogues or
other matter for direct advertising?

Along what lines should one seek
to attract?

Advertisin.a is being given greater
attention and more closelv studied
now than formerly, BECAUSE it en-
ables the manufacturer, the producer,
etc.. to market his ofiferings to the
best advantage. The general recep-
tive mood of a community, or a com-
bination of communities may vary to
some extent in several details, but the
.general attitude of the public will, to
a greater or less extent, lean toward
the advertised product.

Through effective advertisint
possible TO

Secure Inquiries
I ocate new fields
Introduce a new creation
Build up a new enterprise
Hive impetus to an old firm
Increase sales and expell stagna-
tion
Standardize an article, a product
or a business.
It .stimulates trade conditions gener-
ally and induces
Manufacturing
Buying
Selling
and
Trading



It IS



uliich in turn produces

Familiarity with subject
Familiarity with quality
Better market conditions
An outlet for surplus
New and greater possibilities

resulting IN

Greater demand
Greater sales
Greater profit.



SHERWOOD

(Continued from page 2i;

and then while holding a position take
up the civil service preparation in the
evening school. This plan is meeting
with considerable success. There are
several reasons for it. One is that
it enables the student to be earning
a salary in less time, .\nother reason
is that the experience obtained in this
way gives the students more confi-
dence in their ability when they take
the examination, and confidence
means a lot to them at that time.

My next article will deal with the
subject "Planning a Civil Service
Course." Following that will appear
articles on such subjects as: "Federal
Civil Service Examinations," "Specific
Information concerning some of the
clerical and commercial examinations
of the Federal Civil Service," "Trial
First-grade Clerical Examination,"
"Trial Examination for Stenographers
and Typewriters," and a "Trial Exam-
ination for Bookkeepers."

(Mr. Sherwood is willing to receive
questions to be answered in these col-
umns. — Editor. )



NATIONAL COMMERCIAL

TEACHERS' FEDERATION

HOTEL SHERMAN

December 27-28-29-30

Tliere has been consideraljle discus-
sion through the columns of some of
the educational magazines regarding
the conduct of the National Conven-
tion, which has not passed unnoticed
by the Committee on Arrangements.
It is, therefore, with pleasure that we
announce that everything possible is
being done to conduct the National
Convention in a way that will please
its members and all concerned. In
this connection we wish to announce
that a program is being ar;anged
whereby the entire body will be bene-
fitted through the discussions which
are being planned. Anyone who has
anything to say regarding the conduct
of the National , Convention will be
given an opportunity, and if he does
not take advantage of this opportun-
ity to criticise or to discuss the con-
duct of the National Conveiition, he
should forever remain silent on the
subject.

Further mention will \ic made in
regard to the program as soon as it
is more definitely arranged, but we
wish to say that no greater effort
could be put forth than is being done
at the present time to have the big-



gest and best Convention ever held
since the organization of the National
Commercial Teachers' Federation.

Watch the columns of the Business
Educator for further information.
C. E. LEE,
Northwestern Bus. Col., Chicago. 111.



NEWS NOTES

One of the neatest pieces of aviverlising
comes from the Spokane, Wash., Expert
School of Business. It represents not only the
school in clear-cut, convincing English, but it
represents the work done in the school, it
having been produced in the printing depart
ment of that institution.

"Salesmanship and Advertising" is the title
of another little booklet published by the
same institution, containing the speech de-
livered by Mr. Hugh Chalmers at the Spo
kane Ad 'Club. April 12, 1916.

The "Reveille" is an excellent Annual pub
lished by the pupils of the La Junta. Color
ado. High School. It is well printed and
spicy and bespeaks a lively high school stu
dents' organization.

The Montana Institute, Miles City. Mon-
tana A. H. Dixon, Principal, publishes a
creditable catalogue and reports a prosperous
year.

"The N>w Spirit" is the title of the Year
Book published by the class of 1916 of the
Mississippi Normal College located at Hattys-
burg, Mississippi. It is composed of ^hort
essays by the class. The material in these
essays is the outgrowth of the studies pursued
during the past year. We wish to con-
irratulate all concerned upon the excellence of
the material in these essays. Mr. C. B. Bo
land has charge of the penmanship of the
institute.

Advertising literature has been received
from the following: Macon & .Andrews,
Memphis. Tenn. ; Hotel Vendome, Minnea-
polis. Minn. ; New Mexico State Normal
Pchool, Silver City. N. Mex. ; Duff's College,
Pittsburgh. Pa. ; Midland College. Atchison.
Kans. ; The American Commercial School,
Allentown, Pa. ; The Lawrence Business Col-
lege, Lawrence, Kans.; .1. S. Sweet Publish
ing Co.. Santa Rosa, Calif.; Waynesboro,
Pa.. Business College.

■•King's Business College" is the illuminated
title of a forty-eight page catalog with il-
luminated and highly colored initial letters.
The illustrations are excellent and the printing
attracitve. 'The catalog bespeaks prosperity
and progress.



Th(



The New Gregg Manual

cd edition of the Gregg Shorthand
• led retains all



jal which has just b.

the good features that made the book so
popular with teachers. For example, the rules
have l)een so worded as to make them more
easy of comprehension by the young student,
and their application has been more fully
illustrated.

Greater uniformity in the amount of work
/riven in the various lessons, permits of a
more thorough drill in the principles and
greatly lighten the work of the teacher.

A feature of this edition is the incorporati^T
of the recent extensions of principles as \^'^ll
as those that have been announced from tini.
to tiiue in the Greeg Writer. One entire lev
SO" is devoted to the tr principle.

The early introduction of a few of tlu
important prefixes and suffixes and of the
commoner beginnings and ending of business
letters makes it possible to begin giving sim-
ple business dictation earlier than could be
done with former editions.

The reading and writing exercises are en-
tirely new. In the selection of words for the
practice exercises, full advantage has been
taken of both analogy and contrast to deepen
tlie impression and give students readiness in
the application of the word building prin
ciplcs.

The book is well bound in green cloth, and
costs $1.50. special discounts being given to
schools and teachers. It is also issued in
parts, each part bound in red cloth.



sellii



for 60



^ t^^Jf3Bu^n^d^(S^/iu:a/fr^ ^



Side Lights On

COMMERCIAL LAW

p. B. S. PETERS

Manual Training High School
Kansas City. Mo.

Sunday Contracts

Sunday is the name of the first day

. the week. It is so called because

it was anciently dedi-

9cated to the worship
of the sun: it was the
Sun's day. Among
Christians it is ob-
served as a day of rest
from secular employ-
ment, and is devoted
to religious worship.
Other names which
are used to designate
this day, in Christian usage are the
"Sabbath" and the "Lord's Day."

In some of the New England states
Sunday begins at the setting of the
sun on Saturday, and ends at the same
time the next day, while in one of
these states it extends from sun rise
till sun set. In other parts of the
United States it generally begins at
twelve o'clock on the night between
Saturday and Sunday, and ends
twenty-four hours thereafter.

The earliest known regulation
touching Sunday as a civil institution
is an edict of Constantine. A. D, 321,
which declared that "on the veneral
day of the Sun let the magistrates
and the people residing in cities rest,
and let all workshops be closed." This
edict was modified by various provi-
sions of the civil law in succeeding
years. And in the year A. D. 409 it
was ordained that all legal proceed-
ings should be prohibited on Sunday.
These regulations were subsequently
confirmed by William the Conqueror
as a part of the common law.

In the year 1.5,")2 it was declared by
an act of Parliament that nothing in
the scriptures prescribed any certain
da\ upon wliich Christians should re-
frain from labor, and it was enacted
that Sunday, and certain other days
should be oljserved as holidays pro-
vided that when necessity might re-
quire it should be lawful "to labor,
ride, fish, or work any kind of work."
At common law only judicial pro-
ceedings on Sunday were unlawful.
There was no distinction betvveen
Sunday and week days in regard to
the making and performance of con-
tracts. If the contract was illegal it
was void regardless of the day on
which it was made, and also whether
it was one of mercy, cliarity, or neces-
sity.

Statutes prohil)iting the doing of
any work on Sunday, except for char-
ity, f roni necessity, or from some
other special excepted acts, are very
general in the United States. This
law is based upon what is known as
the Lord's Day Act passed during the
reign of Charles II, which provided
that "no tradesman, artificer, work-
man, laborer, or other person what-
soever, shall do or exercise any



worldly labor, business, or work of
their ordinary calling upon the Lord's
Day, Cworks of charity and necessity
only excepted)."

In the United States religion is
neither opposed nor supported by law,
so that Sunday under the law is
viewed purely in a secular light.
Therefore, the scope and intent of the
statutes pertaining to Sunday are to
make it a day of rest, irrespective of
creed or religious belief, and they are
based upon the theory that one day
of rest in seven is for the general
good of mankind in that it provides
for their well-being, mentally and
socially, morally and physically.
Hence, the law is not concerned with
Sunday as a day of worship, hut only
as a day of rest.

Works of Necessity
What is meant by work of neces-



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 22) → online text (page 14 of 115)