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ing? Better schools, 2: 63-67,
March, 1916.

National Association of corporation
schools. Vocational guidance. In
its Papers, 1915. 331-478.

National vocational guidance associa-
tion. Proceedings * * * 1914. Pub-
lished by the Association, 1915.
03 p. 80.

Odencrantz, Louise C. Placement
work for women and girls in New
York City. Report of the commit-
tee on placement of girls of the vo-
cational guidance association of
New York. Manual training and
vocational education, 17: 169-77,
November, 1915.

Reed, Mrs. Anna Y. Seattle children
in school and industry with recom-
mendations for increasing the effi-
ciency of the school system and for
decreasing the social and economic
waste incident to the employment
of children 14 to 18 years of age.
Seattle, Washington, Board of
School Directors, 1915. 103 p. 120.

Ivichter, Leonard. The curriculum
and vocational guidance. Elemen-
tary school journal, 16: 369-80,'
March, 1916. Contains bibliography.

Smith, W. R. Vocational guidance.
Teaching, 1: 19-30. April, 1915.

.Spaulding, F. E. Problems of voca-
tional guidance. School and Society,
1: 180-84. April 3, 1915.

Thompson, F. V. Vocational Guid-
ance in Boston. School review, 23:
105-1:2-, February, 1915.

Davis, Anne S. Report of the Bureau
of vocational supervision from
April 1 to October 1, 1914. Educa-
tional bi-monthly, 9: 200-307, Feb-
ruary, 1915.

Gives statistics showing the num-
ber of children dealt with through
the Bureau, also information con-
cerning the placement of children
and "follow-up" work.

Davis, Jesse B. Vocational and Moral
guidance. Boston, New York (etc.)
Ginn and Company, 1914. viiii. 303
p. 120. Contains bibliographies.

Vocational guidance in the

rural school. School Education, 35:
4, 38. October. 1915.

Gowin, Enoch Burton and Wheatley,
William Alonzo. Occupations; ■ a
textliook in ^'ocational Guidance.
Boston, New York, etc. Ginn and
Company (1916) xii, 357 p. illus. 80.

Greany. Ellen M. A Study of the
vocational guidance of grammar
school pupils. Educational adminis-
tration and supervision, 1: 173-94,
March, 1915.

Great Britain, Board of Education.
Vocational guidance and placement
work. In its Special Reports on ed-
ucational subjects, vol. 28: London,
Eyre and Spottiswoods, Ltd. 1914.
p. 160-65.

Gruenlierg, Benjamin C. Why is Vo-
cational Guidance? Middle - west
school review, 7: 5-7, September,

Harper. Jane R. h survey of oppor-
tunities for vocational education in
and near Philadelphia. Philadelphia,
Pa.. Public Education Association,
1915. 138 p. 80.

Hartford Vocational Guidance Com-
mittee. Report of the Vocational

Guidance Committee, Hartfonl.
Conn. January, 1914. (Hartford.
1914.) 23 p. 130.

Hill, David Spence. The problems of !
vocational guidance in the South.
School and Society; 1: 257-63, Feb-
ruary 30. 1915. Reprinted.

Horton, D. W. A plan of vocational
guidance in a small city. School
Review, 2:i: 336-43, February, 1915.

Hunter, Fred M. Organization of
departments of vocational guidance.
American School. 3: 47-48, Febru-
ary, 1916. Lincoln, Nebr.

Iowa State Teachers' Association.
Committee on vocational education
and vocational guidance. Voca-
tional education and vocational
guidance; a survey and preliminary
report * * * Issued by the Depart-
ment of public instruction. (Des
Moines?) 1914. 96 p. 80. (Iowa
Department of Public Instruction.
Bulletin No. 13.)

High School Graduates: Occupations

Alsup. F. E. The vocational status of
high school students. Missouri
school journal, 33: 161-68, April,

The number of pupils who have
made vocational decisions, the vo-
cations chosen, and suggestions for

Austin, F. P. What high sclfool grad-
uates do. Journal of education, 65:
355, March 28, 1907.

Beard, E. J. H. What the boys who
graduate from our schools do. Mid-
land schools, 24: 392, June, 1910.
Statistics. (Occupations of gradu-
ates from the Newton, Iowa, high

Boston. Committee on drawing. What
becomes of our grammar and high
school graduates. In its Special re-
port * * * on the evening drawing
schools. Boston, Municipal office,
195. p. 67-68. Chart.

Buckner, Chester A. High school
graduates who teach. Midland
schools, 28: 300-302, June, 1914.

Gives figures showing the number
of Iowa high school graduates who

High School graduates in business.
School journal, 75: 780, Tune, 1908.
Statistics. Commercial department,
Springfield, Mass., high schools.

Pittenger, B. F. The distribution of
high school graduates in five North
central states. School and society,
3: 901-907, June 17, 1916.

.Statistics of graduates in different
departments of higher institutions
of learning, and among different oc-

Winship, A. E. Commendable high
school practice. Journal of educa-
tion, 75: 471, Apri"l 25, 1912.

Every year the high school class
of Oklahoma City, Okla., which
was graduated five years before
meets and the members report as
to their occupations.

\\'inship, A. E. Yonkers, New York.
(ournal of education, 72: 6-7, Janu-
ary 1, 1914.

Gives statistics showing what be-
comes of high school graduates.

,^J^u<i/ned^<^e/iua^ ^


Planning a Civil

Service Course

J. F. SHERWOOD, Ft. Wayne, Ind.

Formerly in the Department of Commerce,

Description of Examination for Rail-
way Mail Clerks

I. This examination is open to
men only.

'.'. Applicants must he between IS
and io years of age.

3. Time allowed for
t h e e.xamination, 5

4. Applicants must
lie at least 5 feet 5
inches in height, ex-
clusive of boots or
shoes, and must weigh
not less than 130 lbs.
in ordinary clothing

without hat or overcoat, and must
have no phj'sical defects.

.). The use of eyeglasses will not
necessarily render a person illegible
for examination.

6. Entrance salary is $900 per year.

T. .\ny attempt to deceive in re-
■.;ard to height, weight, or age will be
ileemed sufficient cause for barring
applicants from future examination.

S. Applicants must provide them-
selves with pens, penholders, pencils,
erasers and ink; but not paper or blot-

!). Each examination is complete in
itself, and all the subjects in an exam-
niation must be taken.

in. All applications must be in ink
and in the English language.

11. Xo recommendations other
than those called for by the commis-
sion will be considered.

12. A person who passes an exam-
ination, but fails for any reason to re-
ceive an appointment, will not be eli-
uihle for re-examination for the same
1 position until approximately one year
after the date of the former examina-

13. Under section 28 of the Crimi-
nal Code of the United States any
false statement in an application, al-
teration of a voucher or certificate, or
the presentation to the commission of
any such paper, is a violation of the
law. .\ number of persons .guilty un-
iler the statute mentioned, have been

14. The following are the subjects
of examination and the relative
weight of each subject on a scale of

Spelling 10

Arithmetic 20

Letter Writing 20

Penmanship 20

Copying from Plain Copy.. 20
Geography of the U. S....10



Note: Items 7 to 13 inclusive ap-
ply to all Federal Civil Service exami-
nations. The examination in the last
two branches is second-grade; all the
other branches first-grade. There are
three different grades of examinations

conducted by the Civil Service Com-
mission. They are known as first,
second, and third-grade — the first
grade being the most difficult.

The Post Office Service

Such positions as clerk, city carrier,
assistant postmaster, rural delivery
carrier, and fourth-class postmaster
come under this classification. A
board of examiners is organized at
each classified post oflice for the pur-
pose of furnishing information in re-
gard to examinations and to hold ex-
aminations. For information relative
to appointment to positions in third-
class post ofiices, application should
be made to the Postmaster General,
Washington, D. C. Apply for infor-
mation concerning examinations for
positions in first and second class post
offices, to the board of examiners at
the post office in which employment
is sought.

Description of examination for clerk
and city carrier:

1. Applicants must be between 18
and 4.5 years of age.

3. Time allowed for examination,
4 hours.

'^. Application form 1371 is re-

*. .\pplicants for examination for
appointment to the Post-Oflice Service
should apply for the "post-office clerk,"
"post-office carrier," or "clerk-carrier"
examination, depending upon the po-
sition or positions desired.

.">. Male applicants must measure
not less than 5 ft. 4 in. in height in
bare feet, and must weight at least
125 pounds. This does not apply to
female applicants.

0. Applicants, for the Post-Office
Service are required to be physically
sound and in good health.

7. Women will be examined for
the position of "clerk" only.

8. The following are the subjects
of examination and the relative
weights of each subject on a scale of

Spelling 10

.Arithmetic 20

Letter Writing 20

Penmanship 20

Copying from Plain Copy., 20
Reading addresses 10

Total 100

Note: This exainination i$ known
as a second grade or minor clerical

Assistant Postmaster

\'acancies occurring in the position
of assistant postmaster in first and
second class post ofiices are usually
filled by the promotion or transfer of
competent persons already in the ser-
vice. When they are not so filled, ap-
pointment is made from the same ex-
amination as for clerk and carrier de-
scribed above, but a person who is
under 21 years of age on the day of
examination will not be eligible for
appointment as assistant postmaster.

Rural Delivery Carrier

Examinations for the position of
rural carrier are held only when the
needs of the service require.

.applications are not accepted until
examinations are announced. Age
limits are 18 and 55 years. A copy of
the regulations may be obtained from
the U. S. Civil Service Commission at
Washington, D. C. or from the secre-
tar3' of the board of examiners of the
civil service district in which employ-
ment is sought.

The subjects of examination and
relative weights are the same as for
the Post Office service. See above.

Time allowed for the e.xamination,
4 hours.

Fourth Class Postmaster
A copy of the regulations governing
the appointment of four-class post-
masters may be obtained from the
U. S. Civil Service Commission,
Washington, D. C, upon request.

Following are the subjects of e.xam-
ination and relative weight of each
sul)ject on a scale of 100:

Elementary arithmetic and

accounts 50

I'enmanship 10

Letter Writing 20

Copying Manuscript Ad-
dresses 30

Total 100

For Bookkeeper, Departmental

1. This examination is open to men

3. Applicants must be 18 years of
age or over.

'.;. .\pplicants are allowed 7 hours
for the e.xamination.

4. Applicants will be examined in
the following branches:

Spelling 10

.Arithmetic 15

Penmanship 15

Report Writing 10

Copying and Correcting

Manuscript 10

Practice of Bookkeeping.. 40

Total 100

5. Competitors who fail to receive
a rating of at least 70 in the subject
of "Practice of Bookkeeping" will not
be eligible for appointment and the
remaining subjects will not be rated.

6. This examination is known as a
first grade e.xamination in so far as
the common branches are concerned.

Clerk, Departmental Service

.Ks,e. 18 years or over; .Application
form 304; time allowed 5 hours. Sub-
jects of examination and relative
weights of subjects on a scale of 100:

Spelling 10

.\rithmetic 25

Penmanship 15

Report Writing 25

Copying and Correcting

Manuscripts 15

Geography and Civil Gov.
of U. S 10

Total 100

Competitors who fail to attain a rat-
ing of at least 70 in Arithmetic or 65
in report writing will not be eligible

(Continued on page 22)

^ f^^^ud/^t^ii^£^/iu^i/^^

Making the Letter
Head Make Money


For a long tune Mr. Eytinge's articles in
various business and teclniical magazines have
been considered the most authoritative ever
written on the important subject of business
correspondence. Ihis present article is one
of the best that has ever come from his pen.
See the November number for the first in
stallment. — Editor.

(Continued from January)

Dozens of banks use a sydicated
letter, written by that master-strate-
gist, S. Roland
Hall — a letter, if
you please, ad-
dressed to the
.i ,^^^< newly - born baby!

'\ -r r^^ No, the baby can-

not read, yet the
finesse shown in
addressing the let-
ter to the tiny tot
makes sure that
Mamma, Papa,
Grandma, Nurse and Neighbors are
delighted with the delicate courtesy
and happy phraseology of the letter.
Be sure, too, that all of them read it
smilingly. It congratulates the little
one on his long-expected arrival —
tells a bit of the longing and pain of
the happy parents — says that the
l;)ank wants to help start things for
that baby's future, for school and col-
lege, for home and happiness and in
other generations of little ones. The
bank has a desire to further that fu-
ture and if Papa drops in on his way
downtown, the Cashier would be de-
lighted to congratulate him and hand
him a small iroti savings bank in
which may be deposited the small
coins going to form the nucleus of the
larger deposit under the careful min-
istrations of that downtown bank.
There is hardly a line of business
which may not advantageously use a
"selling to Baby" letter — the grocer,
baker and candle-stick maker, it is all
the same. A clothier sends baby a let-
ter in which the hint is conveyed that
Papa will carry his honors better in a
Blank suit. A laundry tells Baby that
it takes the greatest pains with in-
fant's clothes and now that Mamma
needs all her strength, it will relieve
her of all laundry bother. A whole-
sale grocery house sends to each
child born to any of its dealers, a
baby's year book with a letter that
hopes the first entry will be: "When
Baby takes over the store, it will then
buy its supplies from Roe and Doe."
.\nd so it goes — in almost every line.
I've records of over thirty successful
"selling to baby" campaigns and some
day I'll write a chapter on this topic
for The Business Educator, as it is a
winning strategy.

A change in stationery, in colors,
shapes and sizes — all these are forms
of strategy, just as the aeroplane and
the submarine. Charles "Happy"
Sassaman. who directs the business
f)f the famous Leathersmith Shops of
Philadelphia, makes every one of his
letters a personal message and one

of his successful strategies consisted
an making the lettersheet three inches
wider, using this excess for an order
blank, which may be torn off and re-
turned. The older letter, with its first
page for the missive and the inside
pages for descriptive matter and the
like, is now much in vogue and when
not too cheaply built, is quite effec-
tive. The strategy back of it is sim-
ply to lessen the enclosure nuisance,
to prevent loss of price-lists and en-
closures and to permit more illustra-
tive printing. When the folder letter
is well handled, it is more resultful
than the single sheet with several en-
closures. However, let me add this
word of warning: Its efficiency de-
pends entirely on the handling, this
covering copy, printing, processing
and plan.

A real estate broker wanted to
make a quick sale of a $15,000 country
home. He had 68 photographic prints
of the house in its tree-setting, made
from an 8x10 negative, and these he
tipped in on one part of a sheet of
lirown cover stock, on the other part
pasting in a strong sales letter, the
uhole folding down the center into a
portfolio. On the outside of this a
skilled penman wrote in ornate long-
hand, "A Home Waiting for Ycfti."
Mailed in one of the large magazine
envelopes to a selected list, it brought
him more than 25 inquiries and offers
and three of these were slightly
above the price he had planned to
name. The whole thing cost hiin less
than $75, still it was not the cost, but
the strategy, which made the sale. It
was the same way when Evan John-
son sent out a Birthday Celebration
letter of his magazine Office Appli-
ances. First he built a chaste folder,
of deckle-edged stiff stock, printed in
dignified black and white, using the
inside pages for his main message,
while to the front page he tipped-in
a perfectly processed letter, designed
to get the folder read.

Speaking personally, I have had
soiue unusually good results, in cam-
paigns of clients, with a variation of
the ordinary folder. A little over a
year ago I originated an end-opening
folder letter — that is, it opens from
the bottom rather than the side as in
the common forms. A full sheet of
standard 17x23 stock is trimmed one
inch short, on one side, and then
folded «o that we have a folder of
four pages, 8^x11 on the bottoin or
third and fourth pages, and 8^^x10 on
the upper, leaving the under page ex-
tending out nearly an inch. On the
first page is processed the letter. The
printed heading rarely carries the
firm's name, rather soine slogan, de-
sign or legend in harmony with the
business or product. The usual busi-
ness card, common stationery, is just
as plainly read as ever, but it is
printed on the third or under page,
so that it shows plainly in the exten-
sions. Frequently this lower portion
of the bottom pages is used for order
blanks. Thus in selling business
books, the top page carried a two-
color heading. "Business Helps for
Busy People," and peeping out from
below the top page was the name

and address of the vendor. The ab-
sence of the usual heading, when the
letter is folded accordeon style, ap-
peals to one's sense of curiosity and
IS often a factor influencing sales. If
your coal bills are high these wintry
months and you open a letter which
bears no meaningless picture of fac-
tories or strung-out lists of officers,
rather the simple words, "Cutting
Coal Costs," you are more inclined to
go ahead and read, even though your
trained senses may recognize it as a
form-letter. Again comes a word of
warning, for this end-opening letter
must not be used to extremes, nor to
carry too crowded a message. It
should be used only on propositions
demanding dignity or distinctiveness,
where an effort at quality and charac-
ter is aimed at, as this end-opening
folder is at its best when only the
third or under page is used for the
printed copy and the first page for
the letter. I have checked the returns
in one campaign where the ordinary
stationery and printed loose enclos-
ures, the average reply carried an or-
der for but one of the two products
sold. It was rare to get an order for
lioth — but — when the up-ending fol-
der was used, with its order blanks
imprinted on the lower third page,
the replies carrying orders for both
products were well in the majoritv!

A list of 2400 names was evenlj' di-
vided and the same letter, identical
in body, was mailed to each part. On
letters which went to one-half this
list, we processed a little marginal
note, running lengthwise, which read:
"Ask President Blank about these
books," naniing a man well known in
this field. "The ordinary letters pro-
duced about 23-4%, while that with
the marginal note ran almost up to
0%. Right here, let me pass this
tip: Do not neglect the postscript.
It can serve as important a purpose
in letter strategy as the scout in war-
fare. Phrased in question shape it
often makes certain of reply that of-
fers particular information — phrased
as a time limitation, it often spurs to
a speedier acceptance. In one in-
stance, more than One-fourth of the
replies brought additional orders for
that specialty named in the foot-note
— this, too, with no extra selling cost.
Often it is used by big advertisers,
for repeating the name and address of
the local dealers, when replying to

One of the most profitable jobs ever
sent out by DeWitt Clough for his
magazine, "Clinical Medicine," carried
two bright copper pennies at the top
of the sheet, with which to defray
reply .\nother bright Chi-
cago advertiser pastes in the top-cen-
ter of his letter the flaring headline,
"'^'ou Don't Throw Money Away" —
the cent to pay for a green stamp to
be stuck on the return card, and he
reports that the extra expense has
lieen well worth-while. Claude .King,
of the Beacon Adjustment Company,
when replying to inquiries about his
"Posterettes," attached the original
inquirv to the form-letter reply, with
one of these poster stamps. The in-
quirer has lost the train of thought.

^ ^i^^uJi'/i^^(^'ii£fU¥if/^r^ %




r'rr/(,'j.i//((H Moving Picture Ad - ' - •

Old enough to appr-
. I ', ■ " our tine .

-'o tell the truth i.

P, ict-arr adver+isin;

1ms! .S,r
/Vr.v.svrf V.
Pi'i iiliarili

Impression of Fingers of
Right Hand

S^iiS;^. ., ,i»



•n in your locality ARREST HIM Ion
Third Degree ^ ..



iZitxuj.^ ",,0 'make gooa" auy pai'
icture advertising propositi


An interesting and unique piece of Direct Mail Advertising successfully used by Mr. Rothacker of the

Industrial Moving Picture Company. 223-233 West Erie Street. Chicago, to secure the

attention of prospects. Plate loaned by Postage, Boston. Mass.

^ r^J^uJ//t^d^^'^/iu^f/fr^

Side Lights on Bookkeeping


al Dapa

High School. El»

and Teachers
discussed in


invited to write to Mr. Skeeles regarding the questions
; series, or any other bookkeeping topics.

Double-Entry: Why and How

■'Hmw can I tell how much I spend
for myself and how much the ex-
penses are?" asked
John Merchant, after
I had made the state-
m e n t s s h o w n in
Part I.

"Easily enough," I
told him. "You will
need only a Cash
Book, a Journal, and
a Double Entry Led-
ger. That is, you will
need to keep a simple set of Double
Entry Books."

"What is the need of double en-
tries?" asked Mr. Merchant. "Isn't
one entry for each transaction

"Because each transaction affects
your business in two ways." I replied.
"For instance, you should keep an
account of all the merchandise sold,
and of all the cash received; and to
do that, you will need to enter every
cash sale twice; once to show the
amount of cash received, and once to
show the amount of merchandise sold.
And so of every other transaction.
You will find, as you go along, that
two entries are needed for every,

"Do you mean that I will have to
put down every cent I receive and
pay out?" asked Mr. Merchant.

"Yes. That is the only way to keep
your books, and know where you
stand at the end of the year."

"Then I can't do it. Why, for me
to run over to the Cash Book and
enter every sale, would take more
than half my time. My customers
would think I was crazy. If that is
what it means to keep books, I will
have to get along without them."

"Oh. I don't mean that you must
put down every separate sale. That
isn't necessary. What you want to
know is the total amount of your
sales, and the purposes for which the
money is spent. It will be sufficient
if you enter the total received each
day. You can readily do that. Sup-
pose you have five dollars in change
in your cash drawer in the morning.
In the evening w'hen you count your
cash you deduct the five dollars, and
the difference v.'ill be the money re-
ceived that day. less any cash paid
out. The payments made from the
cash drawer during the day must be
entered somewhere when they are
made. If a freight bill or other paper
is received, that will be sufficient.
These items should be entered in the
Cash Book each day."

"What- are the items that go in the
Expense Accounts?" asked Mr. Mer-

"Everything that is paid out on ac-
count of the business, that is not in
paj'ment of merchandise to be sold,"
1 replied. "Freight and drayage are
really part of the cost of the goods,
and should be charged to Merchan-
dise. But Rent, Light, and such small
items are charged to Expense."

"\\ h}- not keep a separate account

Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 22) → online text (page 70 of 115)