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which is to figure prominently in the
mark which the pupil is to receive,
should be examined carefully, all er-
rors indicated, and comments made
in writing by way of suggestion or
encouragement. The pupil should be
taught to look forward to the return
of his work not merely that he may
know the mark which he has receiv-
ed, but that he may learn of his
shortcomings and profit by them. In-
formal comments on the quality of
the work and in explanation of errors
made add greatly to the benefit de-
rived by the pupil from the task
which he has completed. An effort
should be made to examine and re-
turn all work promptly while the
pupil's interest is still alive and be-
fore he loses touch with the exercise
from having undertaken an entirely
different piece of work.

8. The Journal a Business Diary:

In our teaching, we should encour-
age the use of the journal as a diary
of important .events that take place in
the life of the business, rather than
confine its use entirely to entries
which do not properly belong in any
other book of account. Memoranda of
an historical character, of contracts
and agreements entered into for which
no entry is yet required, circum-
stances associated with routine busi-
ness affairs; all should be written up
in narrative form. The opening of a
new sets of books incident to the be-
ginning of a business, the purchase
of a "going" concern, the incorpora-
tion of a business, all require that the
terms and conditions thereof be com-
pletely written up in the journal.
The space in the cash book for the
explanation of an entry is quite lim-
ited and rather than attempt an ex-
planation therein of certain import-
ant and perhaps exceptional entries,
directions should be stated something
as follows: "For explanation, see
J. p...."

If pupils are encouraged to write
up such things in their own words,
they gain much in resourcefulness
and in the habit of full explanation of
all details.


The students of the Commercial
School of Dakota Wesleyan Univer-
sity, Mitchell. South Dakota, have
organized a Commercial Efficiency
Club under the leadership of Prof.
Carl Naether, the new principal of_
the Dakota Wesleyan Commercial"

The purpose of the club is to pro-
mote real and lasting interest in com-
mercial subjects, to make the stu-
dents of commerce thoroughly ac-
quainted with modern, up-to-date
business conditions by seeking the
earnest co-operation of prominent
local business men.

Though the new organization has
held but few meetings, great interest
is already being shown in the new
undertaking on the part of all stu-
dents, and the club promises to be a
big success.

Social as well as business meetings
are held. At the business meetings
we have local business men and clul)
members address the club on live
tonics connected with our work. In
addition to that, various kinds of con-
tests, such as Typewriting, Short-
hand, Rapid Calculation, and Spelling
contests are held. Good business
magazines and house organs of prom-
inent business firms circulate con-
stantly to stimulate reading along
business lines.

One of the most important aims of
the club is to study local business
conditions thoroughly, and especially
the needs of the local business men
with reference to office help, for the
club intends to furnish the local busi-
ness men with efficient, "home-made"
office workers, who are thoroughly
acquainted with local business condi-

Prof. Naether, of Dakota Wesleyan
University, Mitchell, South Dakota,
would be very glad to assist other
schools in the organization of similar
clubs. He would also be thankful for
any suggestions submitted on this
subject by other school men.

D. M. Evans has severed his connec-
tion with the Eastman College,
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and has accept-
ed a position with the Morse College,
Hartford, Conn. We wish Mr. Evans
much success in his new position.

W. Elmer Maltby, Stoughton, Mass..
has changed the name of The Maltbv
School of Shorthand to The Maltby
School in order to better represent
the school and the work they are now
doing in commercial subjects. He
reports the following named pupils
from their Normal Department, the
holders of our certificate, have se-
cured teaching positions as follows:
Mary G. Barry, head of the commer-
cial department. Gardner. Maine.
High School; Mary V. Rideout.
teacher in the Miner Business Acad-
emy, Brooklyn, New York; Margaret
A. Barry, teacher in the Magnus
Business College, Providence, R. I.

Goldey College, Wilmington, Del.,
held its Thirty-first Graduating Exer-
cises Novemlier loth, in The Play-
house, a fine program being rendered
to a large and appreciative audience.
Mabel Miller is handling the com-
mercial subjects in the Ligonier, Ind..
High School.

^ f^Jr^u4//i^U/^(/iu¥i/iir' ^



The B. F. Goodrich Rubber Co.
Akron, Ohio

By special arrangement with the above
company we are privileged to reprint a series
of Copyrighted booklets the company is l)ub-
lishing for their correspondents. We consider
them exceptionally excellent and our readers
specially fortunate in having the opportunity
to study these monthly messages to corre-
spondents. — [Editor.]

Some Suggestions for Correspondents

The beginning and ending of every
business letter is very important.
These are the places to put anything
' emphatic that you have to say. You
; should not forget to put your strong-
! est points in these places. Do not
I waste the most important position in
'' your letter by filling it up with ster-
eotyped expressions that are time-
worn and meaningless. The examples
given below are introductory sen-
tences taken from our letters and we
\ would like to discuss them in this
I booklet. You may have noticed them
many times and may possibly have
ji used them or similar ones yourself.

"Your favor of the 13th inst. re-
ceived, and contents duly noted. In
reply would state, etc."

Why use the word "favor?" Isn't
"letter" a better word? Isn't "letter"
what the correspondent is really
talking about? "Favor" is now con-
sidered ineffective and stereotyped
and should in most cases be avoided.
Then there is the expression "con-
tents duly noted." Much good letter
paper has been wasted on this useless
phrase. You naturally expect that
before a writer replies to a letter that
you have written him, he has given it
enough attention to know what he is
going to tell you. This expression is
a good one to avoid. Of course, if a
letter has interested, surprised or
particularly pleased you, say so, but
don't use time and space by convey-
ing the information that you have
read it.

The e.xpression, "In reply would
state" is almost as bad as "contents
duly noted." If you have mentioned
receipt of the letter, it is obvious that
your letter is in reply to the one
mentioned, and it is unnecessary to
state the fact. Again, why not sim-
ply state what you have to say with-
out telling the reader that you are
about to do so? There are five un-
necessary words in the second sen-
tence, and many more superfluous
ones in the opening sentence. At the
very moment when the reader's mind
is most susceptible to the impres-
sions that the writer wants to make,
it is repelled and disappointed by
these meaningless and stereotyped
phrases. If you do not make an im-
pression at the beginning of your let-

ter, you are at a disadvantage in se-
curing the reader's interest.

"We beg to acknowledge receipt
of your favor of the 29th ult., and
in reply permit us to advise, etc."

"We beg." Why beg? Is permis-
sion necessary before one may reply
to a letter he has received? It is far
better to simply acknowledge receipt
of the letter and ask no permission
to do so. There is also in this ex-
pression, the word "favor," which for
reasons already given should not be

Then there is the term "29th ult."
"Ultimo," "instant" and "proximo"
are all old Latin words. Today the
best authorities on letter writing con-
sider them stilted and unnatural, and
they are gradually dropping out of
the vocabulary of the progressive
correspondent. He uses rather the
expression, "I have your letter of
October 2!)th," or "We are glad to
comply with your request of Sep-
tember 26th."

In this Second Example, there is
that clause, "Permit us to advise."
We have said why it is unnecessary
that you make any reference to the
fact that you are replying to the let-
ter that you have just mentioned.
"Permit us to advise" is in the same
class as "We beg to acknowledge."

"In reply to yours of the 27th, I
beg to state that, etc."

The faults of this introduction have
been generally mentioned already. In
addition to those that have appeared
in the first two examples, there is an-
other, the word "yours." Of course,
every one knows what this possessive
means, but why be discourteous for
the sake of brevity? If a man writes
"Yours" instead of "Your letter," you
have a possible reason to surmise that
your letter was so unimportant to
him, it did not deserve the slight time
and attention that would be required
to write all words out fully.

"Replying to your fav
2nd, we will say that we

of the

This introduction has faults that
already have been discussed. In ad-
dition, there is that peculiar expres-
sion, "We will say that we will send."
This is similar to "Would state," in
the first example. We should not
continue to load our letters with
needless verbiage like this. Instead
of going to the trouble of saying that
we are going to say something, let us
go ahead and say it at once.

The first sentence is the place to
say something important; none of the
introductions we have considered is
worthy of the place of emphasis. It
is possible to phrase the first sen-
tence or two in such way as to in-
clude the date of the letter to which
reply is being made, and at the same
time make a direct emphatic state-
inent in the place where it will do
the most good.

The following are what we believe
to be bad beginnings of letters, and
directly under them is a suggested

BAD: "We have your favor of the
1.5th inst. at hand, and we take pleas-
ure in forwarding our catalogue in
accordance with your request."
IMPROVED: "You will be particu-
larly interested in our special offer
on Page 5, of the catalogue requested
in your letter of October 15th."

BAD: "Your favor of October 6th
received and contents carefully noted,
and in reply we would say that you
must be mistaken about the date of

IMPROVED: "It is fortunate that
you advised in your letter of October
6th that you expected shipment of
your Order No. 7919-B previous to
November 15th. Our records show,

BAD: "We beg to acknowledge re-
ceipt, etc."

IMPROVED: "We acknowledge,"
(could not acknowledge anything un-
less you have received it.)

While many Goodrich letters are
weak because of these "timeworn"
e.xpressions, we can show an imme-
diate improvement if each dictator
will help by seeing that every letter
he dictates is started by a paragraph
that means something.

Do not get the mistaken idea that
we would have you write mechani-
cally; that is just what you should not
do. Develop a personal tone in your
letter that will convey an impression
of sincerity and interest to the person
addressed. Write just as you talk,
cordially and personally. Picture
yourself face to face with your cor-
respondent. Try to see the proposi-
tion from the reader's point of view,
and feel the situation as you think he
feels it.

The Western Kentucky State Normal
School, Bowling Green, Ky., publish-
es a journal entitled "Normal
Heights." The August issue of 16
pages, one-half newspaper size, is de-
voted and dedicated to war issues. It
abounds in patriotism and enthusiasm
and a sincere endeavor to do its bit
in furthering the cause of democracy
and liberty.

F. S. Kitson, for some years head of
the commercial department in the
Defiance, Ohio, High School, last
year in Dunkirk, N. Y., High School,
and this year in the Troy, N. Y., High
School, has accepted an accounting
position at Defiance, O., where he is
now happily located. This means a
loss to our profession and a gain to
the commercial world.
A. H. Ostoff, last year with the New
Rockford, N. D., Collegiate Institute,
is now teaching in the Central High
School, Aberdeen, So. Dakota.
Emma Bohn, of Meadow Grove,
Minn., has b'een elected teacher of
typewriting in the Lincoln, Neb., Bus-
iness College.

Effie Butler, Lincoln, Neb., began her
new duties as commercial teacher in
the Shawnee, Okla., High School, in

*^^^u4/n^d^^/iu:a/^ ^


Gervis G. Hill, A. B., Pd. B., Goldey
College, Wilmington, Del.

To the commercial student, the
discounting of commercial paper, es-
pecially bank discount, is either one
of the most interesting operations or
one of the most confusing. It should
be extremely fascinating. If it is
fascinating, it is because the student
thoroughly understands the processes
involved. On the other hand, if the
student "despises" the subject of dis-
counts, the trouble can almost invar-
iably be found in the lack of knowl-
edge of the subject. It goes without
saying that the first requisite to ob-
taining a thorough knowledge of a
subject is a perfect understanding of
the various operations involved.
When this is accomplished interest in
that subject is almost sure to follow.

Some time ago a certain student
who had recently come in from an-
other school, came up to my desk af-
ter the other students had been dis-
missed, and requested that the sub-
ject of bank discounts be explained
to him. A little deductive reasoning
soon convinced me that he had a very
good knowledge of simple interest.
This gave me an easy case to handle,
and the rest was simple. I explained
to him the various kinds of notes,
and how- they are made and ex-
changed; why they exist at all and
the various uses for them. Then I
took a note from my desk — one that
had been handed in by a fellow book-
keeping student several days before —
and we discounted it. That made the
work real to him. Then the boy
worked the various operations
through and explained them to me.
His face was beaming with the re-
alization that he had "learned how to
work discounts," as he said. The
secret is that the lad did not "learn
how to work discounts" or anything
else in those few minutes, exactly.
The fact of the matter is that he had
learned to organize what kno\yledge
he already possessed. This is the
great secret in almost any mathemati-
cal process. We must learn to or-
ganize that which we already have in
mental store, and adapt it to the par-
ticular case at hand.

I once heard a teacher say to his
class: "Now we are through with
the subject of interest; we will next
take up the subject of bank dis-
counts." Subsequent success of the
class proved the truth of his state-
ment. What could be more silly or
fallacious! The two subjects should
never be separated, as we all know.
The transition from simple interest
to liank discount — if one might call it
a transition — should be made without
the student's realizing the fact. Stu-
dents should be made to thoroughly
understand right from the start that
interest is money paid for the use of
money, and that discount is the same
thing. Have the student to see clear-
ly that a note for .$.500 does not re-
present $.500 cash until Jt is due and,
collected or paid. Make him under-

stand that to get $500 for that note
thirty days before it is legally due, is
just the same as borrowing that $500
for just 30 days, for which he has to
pay interest. Explain how the other
fellow will then have to wait until
the note is due before he will get the
money on the note, just as you would
have to wait if you did not have it
discounted by him. Have the student
understand why the other fellow is
willing to do this for you. Do not
permit one point to go by not thor-
oughly understood.

When the student sees these simple
tilings clearly, it is a comparatively
easy thing to teach him the more
complicated phases of the subject.
Have you ever tried this plan? In a
conspicuous place on the blackboard
put the following outline:


Date of note

Runs how long

When due

When discounted

Face of note


Maturity value of note.

Term of discount



Utilizing columns I and II of this
outline, discount before the class and
with its assistance, a note without
interest in the first column and in the
second column discount an interest
bearing note. By inserting the results
opposite the proper title, the student
will acquire a vivid picture of the
whole operation that will mean much
to him. Let each student take a
copy of this outline on a piece of
good heavy paper or cardboard, and
preserve it for subsequent need. This
will give him an outline to follow as
well as a theory to study out. It will
also assist him in locating and cor-
recting any possible error.

Being very familiar with the sub-
ject ourselves, we are prone to forget
that those less experiencd have trou-
ble with this simple process, and we
do not make it clear enough to stu-
dents. Hence, so many errors in the
bookkeeping class later and in busi-
ness practice still later. The simpler
we can make the subject at first, the
better, even if we do have to speak
"street" English.

Much more might be said about
this interesting subject, but we are
all familiar with the story. Much has
been said; but the fact still remains
that students are still having their
troubles. To eliminate as many of
these troubles as possible, is the mis-
sion of teachers.

well as for saving, and learns the
practical value of thrift.

Among all that has been written
about thrift and saving, during recent
years, I have seeji nothing that really
gets down to this fundamental need
of training children to apply business
sense in the use of money. This can
be taught both in the school and in
the home, and until it is done, we
may expect no permanent improve-
ment. Mere appeals to put money in
savings banks will not produce thrift.
The problem goes much deeper than


(Continued from page 18)

ance on hand at the end of the week,
her father pays her an equal amount,
and the whole goes into the savings
bank, on the girl's a'ccount.

,By this plan, the girl has a mo iv?
for speiiding her money wisely, as

The Unco Robert Burns has fit-
Busy t i n g 1 y lambasted the
"Unco Guid," — those
pious frauds and hypocrites who are
good — for what there is in it. I wish
I had Bobby's power to blister those
other humbugs, who are always ex-
cusing themselves for failure to do
things, because they "are so awfully
busy." Most of these fellows draw
big salaries, and are "at the head" of
something, it may be a school, a
newspaper, a shop, or perhaps some
kind of a fussy charitable organiza-

Their first care when you call on
them on a business matter, is to im-
press you with their tremendous
busyness. It is mostly bunk. When
you make two or three efforts to see
one of these supposedly dynamic and
important persons, and are finally
given a scant quarter of an hour to
present your proposition, it is more
than likely that he will take up most
of the time in talking about himself
or telling stories or experiences that
have nothing to do with the matter
in hand. Also he is likely to remem-
ber that he was to call up the Smith's
on the telephone and arrange for an
auto trip or a theaterparty. With an
"excuse me just a minute, I want to
talk to a party on the phone," he will
call up Smith and jabber with him for
ten minutes or so, all on your time!
"Awfully busy?" O, yes, to be sure!

Most of these over busy ones are
just plain and conscious liars, but
some of them are probably self-de-
luded, (as liars often are), and really
think they are busy.

The really busy man, the one who
gets things done, seldom says much
about his being busy. If your busi-
ness is a matter that concerns him,
he always has time for you, and he
allows you to use the time he -ives
you to advantage. He knows better
than to flustrate you by fussing
around with his office -~apers, or pull-
ing out his watch and saying, pom-
pously, "I can give you just ten min-
utes, I am an awfully busy man!" If
a man is too busy to attend to his
business, he is usually too small for
his job, or else, he is a malingerer
who uses the "awfully busy" bluff as
camouflage, to conceal his own idle-
ness., .'V has the unco busy!

^ ^^^u4/n^ii^^(/iu:a/(fr'



Pulaski Public Schools

Edinburg, Pa.


We find here an instance where a
Latin phrase has become English by
g e 11 e r al adaptation
and use. In transitu
means "in the tran-
sit," and the EngHsh
phrase may just as
well be used, but the
Latin one is used
much oftener. The
meaning of the whole
phrase "Stoppage in
transitu" is this:
A seller wlio has sent goods to a
buyer at a distance, and after sending
them learns that the buyer is insol-
vent, may stop the goods at any time
before they reach the buyer, thus be-
coming entitled to the same rights in
regard to the goods as he would have
had if he had never parted with the
possession. His right to do this is
i termed "Stoppage in transitu," but
if the goods are sent to pay a pre-
cedent and existing debt they are not
subject to this right.

There are several conditions, how-
ever, that are necessary and must be
present before the seller will be per-
mitted to exercise a ri.ght of stop-
page in transitu.

1. There must have been a sale of

2. There must be an unpaid seller.

3. Title of goods must have passed
from seller to buyer.

4. The goods must be in transit
from the seller to the buyer.

5. The Ijuyer must be insolvent,
or have committed some act amount-
ing to an act of insolvency.

6. There must not intervene the
rights of a third party arising from
the resale of the goods by the buyer.

The right exists only in actual in-
solvency; but this need not be formal
insolvency, or bankruptcy at law; an
actual inability to pay one's debts in
the usual way being enough. If the
seller in good faith, stops the goods,
in a belief of the buyer's insolvency,
the buyer may at once defeat the
stoppage and reclaim the goods by
payment of the price, or if the sale
be on credit by a tender of adequate

The stoppage must be effected by
the seller and evidenced by some act;
but it is not necessary that he take
actual possession of the goods. If
he gives a distinct notice to the party
in possession, whether carrier, ware-
house man, middle man, or whoever
else, before the goods reach the
buyer this is enough.

A notice of stoppage in transitu to
be effectual, must be given to the per-
son who has the immediate custody
of the goods, or to, the principal
whose servant has the custody, then

at such a time, and under such cir-
cumstances, as that he may by the
exercise of reasonable diligence,
communicate it to his servant in time
to prevent the delivery of the goods
to the consignee.

Goods may be stopped only while
in transitu and they are in transitu
only until they come in possession of
the buyer. But his possession need
not be actual, a constructive posses-
sion by the buyer being sufficient to
prevent the stoppage. As, if the
goods were placed on a wharf of the
jjuyer or on a neighljoring wharf with
notice to him, or in a warehouse with
delivery of key to him or of an order
of a warehouse man.

The entry of the goods at the cus-
tom-house, without payment of dut-
ies, does not terminate the transit.
If the buyer has demanded them and
marked them at the place where they
had arrived on the termination of the
voyage or journey, personally or by
his agent; or if the carrier still holds
the goods, but only as the agent of
the buyer. In all these cases, the
transit is ended. But if the carrier
holds them by a lien for his charges
against the buyer, the seller may pay
these charges and discharge the lien,
and then stop the goods in transitu.

If the buyer has, in good faith and
for value, sold the goods, "to arrive"
Ijefore he has received them, and in-
dorsed and delivered the bill of lad-
ing, this second purchaser holds the
goods free from the first seller's right
to stop them. But if the goods and
the bill are transferred only as se-

Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 23) → online text (page 34 of 93)