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arranged with the bank to grant this
extension, but we must | urge upon
you the necessity of meeting this re-
newal note promptly when due.

The interest on I the old note
arnounted to $U0, and we have given
the bank our check to | cover. Kindly
forward us your check for like
amount.

With sincere regards, we remain
Yours very truly. (3 m.)



Test No. 2



State Date



Mr. C. W. Martin,

First Trust Bldg..
St. Louis, Mo.
Dear Sir:

Recently you were notified i that
your account was in arrears.

We appreciate how easy it is for a
busy man 1 to lay a statement of
account aside, fully intending to take
it up at a later \ hour, and allow the
matter to be overlooked.

Your account amounts to $72.60
(1 m.). Now that we have brought
the same to your attention again, will
you not favor us i with a remittance
by return mail, and oblige

Yours very truly,

Mr. F. H. Gray,

47 1 West Madison Ave.,

Portland, Greg.

Dear Sir:

How would you like to make a con-
tract with I a Thirty Million Dollar
Company, to send you, after a certain
age, a check each month (2 m.) the
balance of your life: should you die
before that age, to have the check
mailed 1 each month to some one you
would like to protect from want?

This is absolutely safe | and as good
as it sounds. You will be doing your-
self an injustice not to know | all
about it.

Full information will be furnished
on receipt of the enclosed card.
Yours very trul}% (3 m.)

(Copyrighted 1817 by Ina Thomas)

In answer to letters to teachers of
advanced shorthand in various parts
of the country, seeking co-operation
in the conduct of these tests, hearty
responses came from many schools.



So many teachers spoke of their need
of a standard, and their belief that the
proposed plan was the only logical
metnod of solving the problem. The
final results show the work of 557
students, representing 23 schools in
20 cities of 13 states, as follows:

Alabama — Birmingham.
Calofornia — Long Beach. Stockton.
Iowa — Ames, Cherokee, Des
Moines, Dubuque, Independence.
Kansas — Kansas City.
Michigan — Detroit.
Minnesota — St. Poul.
Missouri — Kansas City.
Neliraska — Omaha.
New York — Buffalo, Rochester.
Texas — Dallas. Galveston.
West Virginia — Wheeling.
Wiscojisin — Madison.
Washington — Seattle.

As a summary of a number of tests
is always fairer than one alone, two
were prepared, one to be given about
the middle of May and the other
about the fi rst of June. These tests
were sent in sealed envelopes. With
them a copy of instructions for con-
ducting the test. Briefly those in-
structions were:

Dictate at 65 words per minute for
three minutes. (The material was
divided into quarter minute sec-
tions.)

Collect the notes immediately; give
them to the student after he is
seated at the machine ready for
typing.

No carbons to be made, nor en-
velopes addressed.

All start transcribing at the signal
of the teacher.

Papers to be submitted to the
teacher as soon as finished, the
teacher to note thereon the time
used in transcribing.

All papers were sent to me at my
own expense for grading. I leave it
to you to estimate how much of my
time has been spent in the criticism
of these manuscripts from 557 stu-
dents and the tabulation of results.
.\X\ my hearers who have graded
manuscripts will readily see that as
these papers were all graded by one
person there is little likelihood of
variation in judgment. It is true, this
meant much work, but what is ever
accomplished that is worth while ex-
cept through an expenditure of much
thought and effort.

The following deductions for errors
were made:

For transcribing that affected- the
meaning in such a way as to ren-
der the letter unusable, 5%.
(Faulty sentence structure due to
weakness in English charged un-
der this.)

For any slight error not afifecting
the meaning, 1%.

Spelling, 5%.

For any type error chargeable un-
der international rules, 2%.

Erasures neatly made, 1% (untidy
erasures, 2%).

Punctuation, including paragraph-
ing, commas, etc., 1%.



^^^^u^'/i^U^^/uojfi^ ^



Each paper was given a grade on
the 100% basis, such iinal grade being
listed in all summaries of "Accuracy."
The rate was found liy dividing the
time into 200, the total words of each
test. Following is a specimen of the
typewritten reports on individual pu-
pils sent to each teacher:



Vo



Av. Rate 21



Medial
Medial
Mediar



While the survey was conducted to
ascertain transcribing speed of fourth
semester students, papers were sub-
mitted from classes having had only
three semesters, also from a few
classes having had more than four
semesters work. Papers were accord-
ingh' thrown into three groups:

liy Survey :

Rale 14

Accuracy 86

Accuracy



of Time.,
of Rate .
Accuracy.



thrown
Medi;



r.


A


1.


C.


I


1)


IM


i)


M


U


H


H



Time


Rate


Trans.


Sp.


Pet.


Typing |






5%


1%


5%


1%


2%


1%


11


18.2





1





1


1





9


22.2


3


1


1


1


1





8^


24.2











1





1


15


13.3





1


2


1


5





27


7.4





3








4





10


20.


3


2


1


1


6






Averages of time, rate, and accuracy
were estimated for each class. Med-
ians of time, rate, and accuracy were
also determined. The median is the
middle point, above and below which
are found an equal number of grades
or records. To find this, list all
grades or records in regular order
from lowest to highest. If there are
an odd number, say 19, the tenth, or
middle, is the tnedian. If an even
number, say 18, the median is the
point midway between the ninth and
tenth.



96%
92



27



Fourth Semester, 30 classes; Third
Semester, 7 classes; Classes Having
Had More than Four Semesters, 4
classes. It is with the first group that
we are most concerned. The medians
of time, rate, and accuracy of each
class were tabulated as follows:

FINAL RESULTS OF SURVEY OF
FOURTH SEMESTER CLASSES

School Time Rate Accuracy



Nn.


2


No.


3


iSlo.


4


Nn


6


Nn


7


No.


8


\n.


9


\o


10


No.


11


No


12


Nn


13


Wo.


14


Nn,


15


No


16


Nn


17


Nn


18


No


19


No.


20



From the medians of th.
ERAL MEDIAN of SPEED
14 words per minute.
IAN of ACCURACY



16.6


86


5


20.6


89




20.


92




14.4


89


5


12.8


87


5


8.5


85


5


10.8


89




7.6


91




12.8


82




10.5


69




7.6


83




e twenty,
D was foi


a GEN-


nd to be


GENERAL MED-


found to


be 8


%■



The foregoing graph places the
twenty Fourth Semester classes in
their relative positions. By drawing
median lines in both directions across
the chart, we find that 25%- have
neither speed nor accuracy (as deter-
mined by the group); 15% have speed,
but are inaccurate; 25% do not have
sufficient speed, but are accurate; 35%
have both speed and accuracy. A
copy of this graph was made for each
school, in each instance a red ink
square locating that particular school.

What think you of this? Are you
satisfied with this result? You may
say that in any group there will al-
ways be the weak ones who tend to
lower standards. True, but as the
weak element usually bears the same
proportionate relation to the medium
and stronger elements, it rs clearly
our duty to improve the general
standing of any group, thereby bring-
ing up the weaker element. And as
the median improves, the standard
can be placed at a higher mark.

What can we do to raise this med-
ian? First: Demand of your students
a more practical knowledge of short-
hand. Give them more dictation.
Require more transcription. Time
them and bring them to a realization
of their own possibilities. Second:
Train more accurate typists. The ac-
companying chart shows that 3%
could have been added to the median
through accurate typewriting. At
least teach students to make neat
erasures.



SPEED— ACCURACY GRAPH




ACCU1?ACr



M e « i" a 1

t, «. u -f- a. c i-f



ti^ f^^^U<^^l^M^^lfi^l^^^^^



EFFECT OF TYPEWRITING ON
FINAL RESULT



times each word
was misspelled







•s


■•=.= ■ -












S


si?


2 o c


^


«


■ " a'H


•= •^ S S ^v


g





SB. S


rt «~ *" -


7^


£


t!.&§




No. 1


89%


3%


92%


No. 2


86


3.5


89.5


No. 3


82


3


85


No. 4


84.3


3—


87.3


No. ■ 5 .


88.2


3 +


91.2


No. 6


86


2 +


88


No. 7


77.5


4 +


81.5


No. 8


84


3—


87


No. 9


71.5


4.5


76


No. 10


86.5


3


89.5


No. U


89


3


92


No. 12


92


1 +


93


No. 13


89.5


5.5


95


No. 14


87.5


5.5


93


No. 15


85.5


3


88.5


No. Ifi


89


2


91


No. 17


91


2


93


No. 18


82


3.5


85.5


No. 19


69


2


71


No. 2)


, 83


2 —


85



Third: Teach spelling. Look at
this chart. Remember these figures:
.50% of all students participating _ in
this work misspell one or more words.
If perfect spelling had been submitted,
the median of accuracy would have
been 89J/^% instead of 86%, an in-
crease of 3>4%. Five schools could
have put themselves in the highest
group by spelling correctly. Let these
facts sink deeply into your minds and
then go home and teach spelling
more dili.gently than ever before.



EFFECT OF SPELLING ON FINAL
SPELLING





_:. <~




■s=


■ -^Ji-














w^u'H


g


S"


"c * "




fio*


«


•2 g


«5 '-^ ^ ^










en




E


J-l


?:s2S.I


No. 1


50%


89%


3%


92%


No. 2


62


86


4


90


No. 3


73


82


8


90


No. 4


56


84.3


3


87.3


No. 5


49


88.2


3.5


91.7


No. 6


64


86


3


89


No. 7


70


77.5


6


83.5


No. 8


63


84


4


88


No. 9


67


71.5


5.5


77


No. 10


30


86.5


9


88.5


No. 11


25


89


1 +


90


No. 12


40


92


3—


95


No. 13


50


89.5


2.5


92


No. 14


50


87.5


2.5


90


No. 15


55


85.5


3


88.5


No. 16


55


89


3.5


92.5


No. 17


30


91


1.5


92.5


No. 18


50


82


4.5


86.5


No. 19


60


69


5


74


No. 20


60


83


4


87



In order that the need of teaching
spelling might be brought more for-
cibly to the attention of each school,
I compiled a list of all mis-spelled
words, and sent a copy to each teach-
er. Notation was made in a second
column of the words mis-spelled by
that particular school.



.\ study of indiv. duals reveals a
variation in rate, greater than that
shown bv classes.



2 absolutely
2 accept

5 advise

2 amounted

1 arranged
23 arrears

8 aside

2 balance
18 bears

1 dollar
1 due

4 endorsement
123 extension
1 furnished
8 Galveston

6 herewith

3 injustice

1 instructions

2 Jackson
8 know

26 later
1 necessity



:ified



7 Oregon
100 overlooked

1 payable

2 position

1 promptly

3 receipt
44 referring

1 regards

9 remittance
17 renewal
146 some one

2 statement

2 until
10 urge

3 yourself



words misspelled
by (approx.) 280
students.



Certainly the variation of ability is
alarming. Speed ranges from 7 words
per minute to 22 words.




.\ccuracv ranges from 69% to 93%.



ACCURACY


TT


V ^^




■ ■"




■ '°




■ ■■ '^


W -^


■■ ^Tl "


n


^ — -^-±1


fs _|


IS




n


n ■


a


'' ■■


f>


II j


II




!•




71


lil ■


11




n




ii




T


,^


21




"










V


,a


7*


41B


^ "



^Ot Sp



One or a combination of several
conditions might cause this variation:
Poor teaching (perhaps poor teach-
ers); a great variation in student abil-
ity (e. g.. foreign population); unfav-
orable school conditions such as atti-
tude of principal or board toward
course: insufficient time devoted to
the work, due to overcrow'ded curricu-
lum; lack of correlation of shorthand
and typewriting (one school reported
two years of shorthand before type-
writing was introduced); placement of
stenography in dififerent grades. (A
comparison of medians from sopho-
more, junior and senior classes
demonstrates very conclusively the
superiority of results when the work
is taken later in the course, there l>e-
ing 5J4% difference in accuracy be-
tween sophomores and seniors having
had the same amount of training.)

What does this survey show as a
logical speed STAND.\RD for grad-
uation from FOURTH SEMESTER?
T\\'EL\'E WORDS PER MINUTE.
How determined? Bv the median of



f^^^u^/ied^^ti^iua/i^ ^



tlie lowest points of the span of the
middle 50%. (See "Speed" chart.)
By reviewing the individual rates in
each of the 20 groups, cuttinug off the
upper and lower quartiles, the middle
jO% of the class is located. These
are indicated by the heavy vertical
lines, with the lowest rates of each
middle 50% group extended to the
right margin. The median of these is
12 words. It seems logical, does it
not, to say that in order to pass this
work, any pupil should come up to the
median established by the lowest
point of the big central division of the
class? Or shall we extend this to a
larger central group of say 707c or
80% ? In other words, shall we make
our passing requirements very loose,
and allow manj' weak ones to get
over?

Shall this be a final standard? No.
unless future testing shows the same
result. All educators agree that one
such test is not a safe criterion and-
that a standard is a standard only un-
til a higher, better one can be at-
tained. So, if we assume 12 words as
a minimum for passing this year, and
insist that all who graduate must
reach at least this rate, it is most
probable that in a year or two the
general median will be raised and like-
wise the median of the lowest points
of the middle 50%, thus establishing a
standard of more than 12 words mini-
mum.

All third semester work was graded
on the same basis as fourth; class
medians were determined and tabu-
lated as follows:

FINAL RESULTS OF SURVEY OF
THIRD SEMESTER CLASSES

School Tim;- Rale Accuracy

No. 1 16 12.7 84

No. 2 15 H 85.5

No. 3 10.5 19 79.5

No. 4 .?5 5.6 84

No. 5 16 12.5 68

No. 6 11.6 17 84

No. 7 25 9 57

The General Medians of all third
semester classes were found to be:
Speed, 13 words per minute: Accur-
acy, 84%.

While I do not consider conclusive
the results of the seven schools sub-
mitting third semester work, they are
are interesting as a comparison with
fourth semester results, also with the
few classes submitting work done in
fifth, sixth or seventh semesters, as
shown by the following table:

Semester Rate Accuracy

Third 13 84%

Fourth 14 86%

Fifth or higher 14 89%

Summarizing these: During fourth
semester the twenty schools meas-
ured developed only one word per
minute and 3% in accuracy beyond
the attainment of third semester stu-
dents. Work in advance of fourth
semester does not add to the speed,
and it adds only 3% to the accuracy.
One might say that perhaps these
third semester class figures came from
better schools. That is not true in al!
cases, for two of them are from




MISS INA THOMAS
West High School, Des Moine



schools whose fourth semester stu-
dents rank the very lowest.

While thinking along this line it
will be interesting to know that one
school submitted papers from a sec-
ond semester group that rank higher
than their own third semester group.
I am waiting an.xiously for an answer
from the teacher as to what condi-
tions may have brought this about.

You may be criticising me by the
thought that I am giving little at-
tention in this review to accuracy.
Perhaps so, because I do not believe
that we shall bring up the speed with-
out bringing up the accuracy. If a
student does not have to run to the
dictionary for spelling or syllabica-
tion, if he does not have to erase of-
ten, his accuracy grade will increase
automatically with his speed. The
section labeled "Speed — Inaccuracy"
is the smallest of the fourth on the
Speed — Accuracy 15%.

I am no-w preparing two sets ef
graded tests to be used this year. The
first one will be ready about January
10. It will be similar to those of last
years. This first test is to be given
at the close of the present semester
to third semester classes. I shall en-
deavor to report on this by the first
of March, which will give adequate
time for teachers of weak classes to
expend extra effort to bring those
classes up to a better condition by the
end of the year. The second set will
be ready for use about the middle of
May or the first of June, and should
be given early enough at the close of
the year to avoid, the spirit of unrest
that usually prevails at that time, es-
pecially among seniors.

The object of the plan I shall pro-
mote this year is twofold. First, to
follow up last year's work and see if
the medians already found will be
raised or lowered. Second, to note
what progress is made during fourth
semester. For some time I have had
the feeling that the student does not
improve durin.g the fourth semester
nearly sp much as he is capable of
doing. I believe these tests will be
an incentive to greater g'ro-wth during



this last half of the second year, and
that in the course of two or three
years we shall have found out some
of the greater possibilities of develop-
ment during a two-year course in
stenography.

I am hoping to secure co-operation
f r o m seventy-five or a hundred
schools, that my conclusions may be
entirely dependable. In all summar-
ies schools will be known by number
only, as in the present survey. What
I shall give out as results will be
scientific facts for the good of all, not
individual criticism. Neither do I
wish anyone to think of this as a
contest. It is such in no sense.

I shall be glad to communicate with
anyone wishing to co-operate.



SPENCERIAN COMMERCIAL
SCHOOL

Cleveland, O., January 17. I'lls.
Mr. C. P. Zaner,

Columbus, Ohio.
My dear Mr. Zaner:

It is with great sadness that I write
you regarding the death of Mr.
I.oomis, which occurred Tuesday
morning of this -week, at 11:30. He
was at his office last Friday and ap-
peared to be as well as usual. Satur-
day he complained of not feeling well,
and on Sunday was stricken with
pneumonia. The funeral will be held
at the family residence Friday after-
noon at 2:30.

Harold is a lieutenant in the Ord-
nance Department at Washington.
His little daug-hter, \'irgiuia, four
years of age, died four weeks ago.
and Mr. Loomis was greatly affected
by her death. He had lost twelve
pounds during the past four weeks
and had aged, apparently, five years
during that time.

I have come in almost daily contact
with him for fifteen years and shall
miss him very much indeed.

With kind personal regards, and
with the hope that you are well. I am
Very sincerely yours,

E. E. MER^'ILLE,

Thus, another pioneer commercial
educator has gone to his reward.

In the eighties and nineties Mr.
Loomis was associated with P. R.
Spencer, Jr., and E. R. Felton, under
the firm name of Spencer, Felton &
Loomis, in conducting the Spencerian
Commercial School. Eventually he
became the sole owner. In addition,
Mr. Loomis built up a large and pro-
fitable commercial text book business,
known as the Practical Text Book
Coimpany.

Mr. Loomis Was a man of refined
and educated tastes and of a very re-
served and retiring disposition. Few
men had a more discriminating and
critical judgment pertaining to life's
activities in education, art, literature,
and business.

He began his career as a skillful
penman of special excellence, and
gradually evolved into a man of affairs
(Concluded on page 31 )



^ f^J^Uii/n^d^^^i&U:!^^/^?^ ^



Qualifications of an Export Manager



D. E. KNOWLES
Hughes High School, Cincinnati, Ohio



In my discussion of exporting here-
tofore, I have confined my sugges-
tions to what I believe to be the most
practical and economical method of
marketing products in foreign coun-
tries.. When entering the export busi-
ness a man has at his disposal two
essentially diflferent channels through
which he can reach the ultimate con-
sumer. The first has been explained
in my previous article. The second I
will not dwell upon more than to say
that it has not proven as satisfactory
as the first. The second method may
be divided again, and the manufac-
turer may dispose of his products
through Commission Houses, or the
Manufacturers' Agent. I have found
a great many manufacturers who dis-
like the second method because, as in
all lines of business, there are com-
mission houses that are excellent,
many are good, and some are decid-
edly bad. Some commission houses do
a large business in one part of the
world, but there are very few, if any,
who are world-wide in their scope.
It is best in the long run to do your
own clerical work, as stated before,
and thereby save additional charges
or fees on insurance, liiaking out Con-
sular invoices, and export bills of lad-
ing. It is well also to know that your
customers in foreign countries are
receiving courteous consideration and
that their names and addresses are
not likely to get into the hands of
your competitors.

Marine Insurance. — This is a subject
with which very few men in the
United States is familiar, especially in
oiir interior cities. It is necessary, if
you expect to do business direct, to
take out what is known as a "Floating
Policy." This can best be secured by
dealing direct with the ofiices of Mar-
ine Insurance Companies in New
york, Chicago or the port through
which shipment should go. They will
probably send you a blank to fill out.
asking for the port of destination and
for a description of the goods. This
is not what you want. Ask the Insur-
ance Company to give you a rate on
your product to every port in the
world. It may, be necessary for you
to go direct to their home office to
get what you want.

Send Translation to Your Customer.

—This is a matter of good faith and
should be adhered to, because he is
the man who is going to pay for the
insurance and it is to his interest, as
well as to your own, that he should
know how much it is. As stated be-
fore, a draft should be sent to the
bank along with the necessary papers,
such as Consular Invoices, Ocean



Bills of Lading, etc.. and on this draft
should be included the amount of the
insurance, all charges, such 35 freight,
drayage, etc., in the trans-shipment of
goods, and the cost of same. Com-
mission houses usually charge a rate
in excess of the best rate which you
can secure if you go direct to the In-
surance Companies. It is well to stim-
ulate competition among the various
companies so as to get as low a rate
as possible.

Contents of Policy. — The Insurance
Company will probably ofifer you a
general policy which they have writ-'
ten up, but which is not the best pro-
position you can get, if you know
what you want. You should have in-
cluded in the policy a stipulation that
if three or more percent of the goods
are damaged, they will pay all. if less,
they do not. Three percent does not
cover breakage. It is customary
among them that, except in case of
stranding or breakage or collision,
they do not pay for leakage. Some-
times they may state that there has
been a stranding or collision or break-
age, and which we may doubt. We
can ascertain the correctness of thi^
by going to the captain of the ship
and asking him to show us his Log
Book. In South America most break-
ages occur when trans-shipping from
one ship to another, which is neces-
sary in a great many cases. We can
always insure goods when they go
dir,ect from one port to another, but
where trans-shipment is necessary, it
is very hard to get insurance.

We have to tell the Insurance Com-
pany in advance what our maximum
shipment will be at any time. Tell the
broker 3^ou want a "Floating Policy,"
Marine Insurance, to cover risks of
goods shipped to foreign ports. When
we have taken out such a policy we
receive a number of certificates from
the Insurance Company. These certi-
ficates are numbered. We make them
out in triplicate. One is sent to the
Insurance Company, one to the bank-
er or customer, and we keep the other.

When sending a translation of the
policy to your customer, it will be
necessary to send it only to the larger
ones.

Get out of your broker an agree-
ment that the insurance should be



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