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charge, who thought I should not
"peddle gloom" in this way. as one
of them put it, and that we were really
"entering upon the most prosperous 1
industrial and business era that the
country had ever seen."

I wonder if we could teach ordinary .
commonsense economy to the young
people of our lower schools, with bet-
ter effect than this teaching of high-
brow "economics" in our colleges? It
seems to me that the pupils of any |
school could be profitably taught to I
understand the reaction upon them-
selves personally, of the many eco-
nomic agencies at work all about
them.

The economic- that is really import-
ant to the people, is not that of na-
tions and of the great industrial and
financial machinery of society, but
that which touches their own individ-
ual lives and pocket-books. There is
not much profit that I can see in ab-
sorbing the prolix theories of some
mustj professor as to the operation of
the laws of supply and demand, but
there might be much profit in a first
hand investigation by a committee of
bright school boys as to how this law
- or fails to operate in their
own town in the matter of the price
of butter, Hour and potatoes. Why,
when the price of sugar has come
down seventy-five per cent, are candy
and canned fruit still sold at the old
prices? Couldn't the youngsters gather
some interesting material for class
discussion, by asking the dealers about
this? Hundreds of live facts could be
gathered in every community bearing
on the question of how it conies that
combination has taken the place of
competition in determining the prices
that all of us are paying for pretty
much everything that we have to
have. Hut you will find nothing about

this in the I ks on economics. Van

will have to go to thi newspapers and
magazines ami offic'al reports, and
among the sin ips and st< ires.

Hieil OU pa



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DEPARTMENT OF

PUBLIC SCHOOL
WRITING



(The editor makes no claim to a monopoly
of penmanship wisdom. Every Supervisor
who reads these articles is invited and urged
to send us questions, criticisms, suggestions
and plans in order that the Department may
be as practical and valuable as possible. Let
us make this Department a Penmanship Super-
visors* clearing house of ideas, and an in-
spiration for all Supervisors and penmanship
teachers. Will you help?)

WRITING IN RURAL SCHOOLS

A series of text books published in
eight numbers for the eight grades of
a city school is not well adapted to a
one-room school. This is especially

true in such a subject as writing
where it seems necessary to teach all
grades at one period.

On the other hand, merely to fur-
nish all pupils in the room with the
same book does not provide a graded
course of study. It is as unreasonable
to expect pupils in all grades to write
the same as it is to expect them to
read from the same book. It used to
be done — seventy-five years ago the
Bible was often the only textbook in
reading used in the schools, but grad-
ed instruction is necessary to secure
the best results.

In analyzing the problem of learn-
ing to write we find there are three
steps. The first is learning the forms
of the letters. The second is master-
ing the technique of arm movement
writing. The third is perfecting the
writing and learning to apply it as a
means of communication.

In a graded school, learning the
forms of the letters is usually done
in the first and second grades; in the
third and fourth grades the elements
of arm movement writing are learned;
and in the upper grades this writing
is applied to school work, and mas-
tered sufficiently well to be used for
all business and social purposes.

This outline suggests how- the prob-
lem of rural school writing shall be
met. During the first two years the
child is in school he should learn the
forms of llu' capitals and small letters,
lie will learn at the same time how
to write a considerabe number of
short words. In grades three and four
he should learn the arm movement
and of course, increase his vocabulary
of written words. In the upper grades
he should still further develop arm
movement and learn to apply it to his
school work and to business.

This outline is followed in the Zaner
Method. In grades one and two the
children write on the blackboard and
later in the Practice books and learn
the forms of small letters and capitals.
Freedom in writing must be encour-
aged and good habits of penholding
and movement established. The text
used should be Zaner Method Prac-
tice Book No. 1. supplemented in the
second year by the forms of the capi-
tals taught from a chart, from the
board or from Zaner Method Practice
Book No. 2.

In grades three and lour Zaner



Method Practice Book No. 3 is used.
In this book the writing is somewhat
larger than that used by adults, but i-.
small enough to require the use of the
arm movement by the child. The arm
rest should be taught in the third
grade. In the fourth grade the writ-
ing should be still further reduced in
size and longer words and sentences
written.

In the upper grades the Zaner
Method Manual 144 gives practice on
exercises, letters, words, sentences
and paragraphs, developing the writ-
ing from the simplest exercises up to
and including business forms.

The work of the teacher is also sim-
by providing a Primary Teach-
ers' Manual which gives on opposite
pagi - the work of Practice Books
No. l and No. 3. Thus the teacher
in find only one place in this

I k to have the lesson for the pupils

in the first four grades. Pupils in the
upper grades may all be practicing on
one copy in Manual 144. so that two
place before the teacher the les-
sons practiced by all the pupils in the
school, and at the same time every
pupil will be doing the work which is
suitable for his age and grade.

The copies in Manual 144 are ac-
companied with complete instructions.
Pupils in the upper grades should read
and follow these instructions and
should, therefore, be able to practice
with much less oversight than is re-
quired for pupils in the lower grades.

Scales, Charts, Perception Letters
and other devices which have been
found useful in city school systems
are being used in many rurall school-,
with excellent results. Some of the
best results in writing that we see
come from one-room rural schools,
and there is no reason why writing in
such a school should not be as well
taught and should not produce as
good results as any city school sys-
tem. Did not the Spencers and nearly-
all the great penmen of this country
come from country schools?



SCRAP BOOKS IN SCHENEC-
TADY
Alice E. Benbow, Supervisor of
Penmanship

In the city of Schenectady, New
York, we are preparing city scrap
books, made up of specimens written
by the best writers in each room. A
boy and a girl are chosen from each
room from grades 5 to 8. The pupils
in a given grade all write the same
copy, and the best specimens are then
collected and bound and sent around
from school to school. Covers of these
books bear the words "5-B Boys. 5-B
Girls, 5-A Boys, 5-A Girls," etc. The
pupils are very enthusiastic and the
teachers are pleased.

This plan worked so well during the
first semester of 19:20 and 1921 that
during the second semester it is being
extended to the :;d and 4th grades, also.
It is expected that the bulletins will
Ik completed so that pupils can see
them before the end of the term.



SCHEMES AND DEVICES USED

IN TEACHING PRIMARY

WRITING

By Primary Teachers, Roosevelt

School, Binghamton, N. Y.
Compiled by Beulah R. Watrous

Of course the greatest problem of
the primary writing teacher is secur-
ing proper pencil holding and correct
movement. However, as good pos-
ture is the first thing taught to begin-
ners, we offer the following sugges-
tions, which we have found helpful:

Playing soldier will straighten some
rounded backs; making believe the
floor is a big magnet will keep some
restless feet i dacing a nar-

row paper crown on a drooping
will sometimes help the child to hold
up his head, especially after the crown
has fallen ofl everal 1 imes and lie has
had to stop to replace it. One teacher
suggests that the children play they
are about to start on a journey. The
right arm is the engine. Good posture
is the ticket. No one may go without
presenting his ticket.

Vs an aid lo correct pencil-holding
nearly every teacher has -him origi
nal stor.j aboul the hand and pencil.
which attracts the child's attention.
One calls the curved hand a hill under
which a bunny lives. The pencil is
the door to his home. It must stand
up by the knuckle or the bunny will
be unable to get out for food.

Another calls the hand an ambu-
lance with the last two fingers as
guards wdiich help the ambulance to
run smoothly and swiftly. Several
teachers suggest a circle of cardboard
placed on the wrist to keep the hand
from turning over on its side.

To secure better movement when
making the push-pull exercises one
class plays they are sawing wood and
musl always keep the saw going in
the same direction. Instead of count
ing for ovals and the running upper
and lower turns, singing some song
or saying a rhyme has been eli
"Jack and Jill," "Marching Through
Georgia." and "Yankee Doodle" are
suggested as having proper rhythm.

In teaching form to little children
some teachers make a copy and have
it traced several times. The children
try it alone then go back to the pat-
tern for comparison. Watching a
pattern on the board then tracing it
in the air also helps.

Making up little stories about the
letters brightens an otherwise unin-
teresting lesson. For instance, calling
the letter 1 a tall boy with a very
straight hack: h might be a chair with
a nice curved cushion; b, o. v. and w
are friendly letters which have arms
reaching out to help their neighbors.

The third grade teachers tell us they
gain much by having the poor writers
watch a row of those writhe
Rivalry between rows or clu -
also helpful. An arm-movement club
with names of those who have quali-
fied is an incentive.

However, all the teachers agree that
the most helpful devices of all are
the simple rewards given for neat
work done with arm movement. Seals,



20



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stamps or even a "G" or an "E"

w ritten in i oli r i m a good papei

the child something to take home to

mother and gives him a visibli

of the teacher's satisfaction with his

effort.

The final suggestions are for the
teacher herself. Cultivate a pleasant
quiet manner. When little muscles
become tense, lower the voice. If the
child has made the least effort try to
find some sood point on his paper.
onlj one good letter point it
out to him as the rock on which he
is i.' build for the future. Boost good
writing!

DEVICES AND SCHEMES USED
IN THE GRAMMAR GRADES
TO SECURE GOOD PEN-
MANSHIP
By Teachers in Roosevelt School,
Binghamton, N. Y.
Compiled by Ida Moses
There is no work in which a child
takes more pride or finds nion joj
than in tine penmanship. There is a
fascination about this different from
am other work. Once the interest is
thoroughly aroused a child never goes
hack to his old state of mind even
though he may get discouraged, .dis-
heartened and almost baffled in his
efforts. Have before your people the
thought. "1 can; 1 ought; 1 will!" and
the battle is half won.

Our teachers rind the blackboard an
invaluable aid in teaching penmanship.
Blackboard work will many times ac-
complish in freedom and form what
otherwise seems not attainable, hor-
rors can be noted by the entiri
and mistakes overcome more easily.
A row of children may be sent to the
board to make a group of the capital
letters being studied. Let the children
vote on the most perfectly made
group or allow a child to point out
the best capitals on the board, discus-
sing the points which make it better
than the others. The most glaring
fault- iit the- other groups are pointed
out. Good arrangement of the work
lor so much and can be noted
.iihI discussed so well from the results
on the hoard. If spelling Iessi
occasionally written on the black-
board the penmanship is strengthened.
A short drill each day on a combina-
tion of letters is helpful— or, pi, ve,
nir. vo, ot, wr, etc.

Exhibiting the papers from the en-
tire class, arranging on the eye level
those having the best color, best slant,
best size, or whatever the particular
problem may be, is a great inspiration.
On other days exhibit only the best
in the class to emphasize one particu-
lar point.

Allowing pupils to grade tin
papers occasionally according to the
I Scales is a good idea.
In order to have the children get
the idea of uniform slant li
write a few words or perhaps a sen-
and mark the down strokes,
testing to see if they are like the
ill exercise.
Fancy figures using various combi-
nations of drills, ovals, push-pull as



ih. fan, lamp, rooster, and circles de-
velop skill and ingenuity and improve
the drills wonderfully.

The Victrola or Metronome aid in
securing rhythm.

Having the best writer in each row
write a short sentence, then passing
the paper down the row, each child
writes the same sentence, signing his
initials or name. This helps to get
uniform size.

A short note of praise written on a
pupil's well-written paper and signed
by the teacher is appreciated and
worth striving for.

Tracing with dry or inverted pens
over the work in the compendium,
helps to secure correct slant and letter
form.

Oftentiir.es with the smaller chil-
dren a game helps to get freedom of
movement. The children pretend
their fingers are going s'edding. The
pen represents the sled, the first fin-
ger a child lying on the sled, the
thumb a little boy running alongside
of the sled pushing. The third and
fourth fingers are children skating
alongside of the sled. This game not
only improves the position but gives
i hi idea of gliding.

To get away from finger movement.
stop talking about the finger or
thumb. Think the word, and form it
with the muscle of the forearm and
the ends of the two little fingers glid-
ing along the paper.

An Honor List of those using arm
movement and maintainnig good pos-
ture at all times is an incentive.

Allowing different pupils to count
for drills gives them a good idea of
rhythm and the correct speed for that
particular drill.

Occasionally a teacher writes the
word or sentence on the board, allow-
ing children to criticize both favor-
ably and otherwise.

The glaring errors in spacing and
form on their papers are noted and
the child is expected to work on these
errors on a separate sheet under su-
pervision.

Many of these schemes and devices
are found invaluable, but if a teacher
does not insist on correct position and
arm movement at all times her work
fails utterly.

Help them get correct habits and
inspire them to persevere, for —
"Success begins with a fellow's will;
It's all in the state of mind."



penmanship. The greater part of the
teaching must be done by the regular
teacher who is with her children all
the time. The regular teacher is the
only one who can give the necessary
daily lessons and teach her pupils to
use arm movement not only in the
writing lesson, but in all other writ-
ten work as well.

Please be prepared to take charge
of your class when I visit it after
this. I do not expect to teach as much
the second semester as I have done I
the first semester. If you have a les-
son that you have prepared, feel free
to go ahead and give it even if 1 do
visit your class, unexpectedly.

Keep in mind the three s's in writ-
ing, size, slant and spacing. These
are the three things that make writ-
ing pleasing to the eye, easy to exe-
cute and easy to read.



INSTRUCTIONS AND SUGGES-
TIONS

February Bulletin, from R. W. Carr,
Supervisor of Writing, Parkers-
burg, W. Va.

The First and Second Grade teach-
ers should pay particular attention to
the position of the paper on the desk.
The position of the paper controls to
a great extent the slant of the writing.

Please bear in mind the fact that
the individual teacher is personally
responsible for the success or failure
of her boys and girls to learn to
write a good style of penmanship.
The duty of the supervisor is to help
his teachers master the pedagogy of



The following poem came to us typewritten
with scarcely a mistake. Both thait fact and
the sentiment of the poem will be better ap-
preciated when it is known that Mr. Carrier.
the author, is blind. Many a man wdio has

g 1 eyesight may well envy Mr. Carrier

both his command of the typewriter and his
ability as a poet.

Mr. Carrier attended the Zaneriau in 18H7.
For several years past he lias been conducting
the Champaign. Illinois. Commercial College
with splendid success.

REFLECTIONS

My type-machine is my good friend.
Together happy hours we spend.
It helps to while away the time.
And set my thoughts in prose or

rhyme.
It matters not, if dark or light,
When I sit down my thoughts to

write,
I soon can mar the whitest sheet
With words of chaff, or grains of

wheat.
I often, too, make little slips,
As words roll off my finger tips.
Of these, unconscious, I proceed,
They're only found by those who

read.
How true to life, is what I've shown,
Other's faults we see, but not our own.
How easy 'tis for me to preach,
Where none can check my flow of

speech,
But if I chance a word let fall
That helps some brother heed life's

call,
I'll give to him, the Master said,
A "cup of water" with his bread.
And thus I'll jog along the way,
And thank my God for each new day,
And for a loyal, loving wife,
Whose tender care still gives to life
A sweetness, that by far outshines
The glint of gold, from richest mines.
For love is God's great gift to man,
No gloom's too deep for it to span.
And so, dear friends, don't pity me.
But pity those who only see
The fleeting pleasures earth can give.
But miss the joys that truly live.
So let my heart forever sing,
And soothe affliction's bitter sting.
Glad to escape from greater woes,
I feel the thorn, but smell the rose.

—WILLIAM HENRY CARRIER.



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THE EDUCATION OF A MAN OF

BUSINESS

By Sir Arthur Helps

(Here is a serious, helpful article, especially
ilii.iHe lo commercial teachers. It is re-
printed from the voume of essays entitled
"The "Transaction of Business," edited by
David E. Goe, and published by Eddy Pub-
lishing Co., .Madison, Wisconsin.— Editor.)

The essential qualities for a man of
business are of a moral nature; these
are to be cultivated first. He must
learn betimes to love truth. That same
love of truth will be found a potent
charm to bear him safely through the
world's entanglements — I mean safely
in the most worldly sense. Besides,
the love of truth not only makes a
man act with more simplicity, and
therefore with less chance of error;
but it conduces to the highest intellec-
tual development.

The next thing in the training of one
who is to become a man of business
will be for him to form principles; for
without these, when thrown on the sea
of action, he will be without rudder
and compass. They are the best re-
sults of study. Whether it is history,
or political economy, or ethics, that
he is studying, these principles are
to be the reward of his labour. A
principle resembles a law in the physi-
cal world; though it can seldom have
the same certainty, as the facts which
it has to explain and embrace do not
admit of being weighed or numbered
with the same exactness as material
things. The principles which our stu-
dent adepts at first may be unsound,
may be insufficient, but he must not
neglect to form some; and must only
nourish a love of truth that will not
allow him to hold to any, the moment
that he finds them to be erroneous.

Much depends upon the tempera-
ment of a man of business. It should
be hopeful, that it may bear hint up
against the faintheartedness, the folly,
tiie falsehood, and the numberless
discouragements which even a pros-
perous man will have to endure. It
should also be calm; for else he may
be driven wild by any great pressure
of business, and lose his time, and his
head, in rushing from one unfinished
thing, to begin something else. Now
lliis uished-for conjunction of the
calm and the hopeful is very rare.

It is, however, in every man's power
to study well his own temperament,
and to provide against the defects
in it.

A habit of thinking for himself is
one which may be acquired by the
solitary student. But the habit of de-
ciding for himself, so indispensable to
a man of business, is not to be gained
by study. Decision is a thing that
cannot be fully exercised until it is
actually wanted. You cannot play at
deciding. You must have realities to
deal with.

It is true that the formation of
principles, which has been spoken of
before, requires decision; but it is of
that kind which depends upon delib-
erate judgment; whereas, the decision
which is wanted in the world's busi-
ness must ever be within call, and
does not judge so much as it foresees



and chooses. This kind of decision
is to be found in those who have been
brought up in great freedom.

It would be difficult to lay down any
course of study, not technical, that
would be peculiarly fitted to form a
man of business.

In any course of study to be laid
down for him, something like univer-
sality should be aimed at, which not
only makes the mind agile, but gives
variety of information. Such a system
will make him acquainted with many
modes of thought, with various class-
es of facts, and will enable him to
understand men better.

There will be a time in his youth
which may, perhaps, be well spent in
those studies which are of a metaphy-
sical nature. In the investigation of
some of the great questions of philos-
ophy, a breadth and a tone may be
given to a man's mode of thinking,
which will afterwards be of signal
use to him in the business of every-
day life.

We cannot enter here into a descrip-
tion of the technical studies for a man
of business, but I may point out that
there are works which soften the tran-
sition from the schools to the world.
and which are particularly needed in a
system of education, like our own,
consisting of studies for the most part
remote from real life. These works
are such as tend to give the student
that interest in the common things
about him which he has scarcely ever
been called upon to feel. They show
how imagination and philosophy can
be woven into practical wisdom.
Such are the writings of Bacon. His
lucid order, his grasp of the subject,
the comprehensiveness of his views.
his knowledge of mankind— the great-
est perhaps that has ever been dis-
tinctly given out by any uninspired
man — the practical nature of his pur-
Pjdsi 5, and his respect for anything of
human interest, render Bacon's words
unrivaled in their fitness to form the
best men for the conduct of the high-
est affairs.

It is not, however, so much the
thing studied, as the manner of study-
ing it. Our student is not intended to
become a learned man, but a man of
business; not "a full man" but "a
ready man." He must be taught to
arrange and express what he knows.
For this purpose let him enjoy himself
in making digests, arranging and
classifying materials, writing narra-
tives, and in deciding upon conflicting
evidence. All these exercises require
method. He must expect that his
early attempts will be clumsy; he be-
gins, perhaps, by dividing his subject
in any way that occurs to him. with
no other view than that of treating
separate portions of it separately; he
does not perceive, at first, what things
are of one kind, and what of another,
and what should be the logical order
of their following. But from such
rude beginnings, method is developed;
and there is hardly any degree of toil
for which he would not be compen-
sated by such a result. He will have
a sure reward in the clearness of his
own views, and in the facility of ex-



plaining them to others. People bring
their attention to the man who gives
them most profit for it; and this will
be one who is a master of method.

Our student should begin to culti-
vate a fluency in writing — I do not
mean a flow of words, but a habit of
expressing his thoughts with accur-
acy, with brevity, and with readiness;
which can only be acquired by prac-
tice early in life. You find persons
who, from neglect in this part of their



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 26) → online text (page 52 of 72)