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By John C. Way, Penman, Success Business College, Wii

ipeg, Man., Canada


During the past three years about six hundred of our students have secured the Z?«er & Bloser Student's
Writing Certificate. It has been a rule of mine to "go strong" on these exercises, as it is my firm belief that great
good is derived from faithful and intelligent practice on such exercises, and I am sure that the results we are getting
fully justify me in this belief.

These exercises include all the moves in writing any letter, and I find the student who masters them invariably
experiences less difiiculty in forming the letters — both capital and small. They should be taken up in the order
indicated by the numbering. I use these exercises for general practice, supplementing /developing drills that have a
more direct bearing on the individual letter.

Exercse number five is made use of when taking practice on the capitals — D, L, S, T, and F — for a smooth,
graceful down stroke. I emphasize the vital importance of correct position, insist that the word "swing" should
describe the movement of the hand, and try to keep upper-most in the mind of each student the three essentials
of good penmanship: position, movement, and letter fcrm.


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Semi-Ornamental Writing by S. E. Leslie, Cleveland, Ohio

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Teacher's Professional Edition


Pages 17 to 28, Inclusive


When men first undertook to study
usiness in the schoolroom, thej- be-
an by formulating the theories of
conomics — the cloudland of coni-
lerce. For two hundred j-ears and
lore, economic theories have been
■ritten about and lectured upon in

Next came the study of business
;cords. Bookkeeping has been taught
1 business colleges and commercial
igh schools for more than half a

It is perhaps significant that neither
ookkeeping nor economics has to do
•ith the actual business transaction.
.conomics formulates theories as to
ow goods — "wealth" — are produced
id distributed. Bookkeeping tells how
) record the facts when goods are pro-
uced and distributed. That is, econ-
inics comes before the transaction;
ookkeeping, after it. Neither is con-
?rned directly with increasing pro-
Liction or facilitating distribution.

Between these two branches of
iiowledge lies the great field of
lunian relationships" in business,
hich has to do directly with produc-
ig and marketing goods. Son-.e of
le studies that deal with this most
nportant phase of business are Sales-
anship. Personality, Advertising,
cientific Management, and Organiza-
on and Management. Like all new
ibjects, they have had to combat
rejudice, and find their way through
•cperiments; but the}' have demon
rated their value in training boys
id girls to understand the compelling
lofives in business transactions.

Here lies the great field for the
iture expansion of commercial edu-
Jtion. It was but natural that the
iscussion of Economics should first
ngage the attention of scholars: and
le demand for training in bookkeep-
ig and shorthand was so insistent
lat it had to be met. But now the
uestion is whether we are not ready
) teach the vital principles of busi-
ess, which will enable our graduates
) deal not only with abstract eco-
omic principles, and with written
;cords. or even with dead materials.
ut with living men and women.

If we succeed in this, we shall en-
l>le more of our graduates to be
lore than mere theorists — more than
lere copyists and recorders — to be
usiness builders, who shall achieve
iccess for themselves and for others
ecause they can secure the co-opera-
on and assistance of others.


The feeling that a given subject has
een exhausted so that nothing more
;mains to be said UDon it is not new.
'n "Dilworth's Book-keepers' Assist-

ant," published in 1823, the author be-
gins his preface as follows:

"Among the several writers on
the subject of book-keping, one
would imagine that it was quite
exhausted, and no more room left
for anything else to be said; but
as I write not so much for the ad-
vancement of the art itself (that
being brought to a degree of per-
fection not easily to be amended)
as for the ease of the teacher, and
to save him both trouble and time,
as well as for the greater improve-
ment of the learner, I hope this
treatise will be the better ac-

This book, according to the pub-
lisher's preface, is a reprint of Mr.
Dilworth's book improved and
adapted to the currency of the L'nited
States by R. Wiggins, teacher of
mathematics in the city of Xew York.
It "sets forth the principles of book-
keeping by the Italian method." Mr.
Wiggins made no change in the work
of Mr. Dilworth other than to give the
amounts in United States currency
and to introduce accounts with Bills
Receivable, and Bills Payable.

The plan of this book is peculiar
from the standpoint of modern texts.
All the instructions are given in the
preface. The greater part of the book
is taken up with examples of the
Waste Book, Journal and Ledger.
This is followed by fourteen pages of
"A Synopsis or Compendium of Mer-
chants' .Accounts containing particular
rules for the true stating of debtor and
creditor in all the cases that can hap-
pen in the whole course of a mer-
chant's dealing."

Another interesting text is called
"A Course of Bookkeeping According
to the Method of Single Entry," pub-
lished by Robert Johnson, Philadel-
phia. 1801. This seems to be an adap-
tation of the work of Charles Hutton.
Professor of Mathematics in the
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich,
England. The amounts and the illus-
trations in this book are in English

In the preface of this book is the
following statement regarding single

"There are some who have not
time to learn, or perhaps a capac-
ity to understand, a complete
course of the Italian method.
There are also many intended for
such kinds of business, that the
Italian method would be thrown
away upon them; to all such then
this' method will be extremely

Both of these books contain the
autograph of H. Ramsay, and the date
18:2.5. Mr. Ramsay was the engineer
in charge of the construction of the
railroad from Albany to Schenectady,

which is now a part of the New York
Central. A number of check marks in
the copy of Dilworth's book indicate
that he gave special attention to cer-
tain transactions. Perhaps he was
studying bookkeeping in order to pre-
pare himself for his work as a railroad


What can the business college otTer
the farmer boy or girl? Need it be
taken for granted that the boy or girl
who leaves the farm to go to the busi-
ness college is never to return, or can
the business coll-ege offer a course
which will help them to be more suc-
cessful on the farm?

The Penn School of Commerce,
Oskaloosa, Iowa, W. W. Frye, man-
ager, offers a Farmers' Business
Course, the purpose of which is not
to take boys and girls away from the
farm, but to help them to be better
farmers. The course is thus described
in the college catalog.

The Farm Business Course
Planned for the hundreds of young
men who expect to make a business
of farming. This course includes
Bookkeeping. Penmanship, Farm
Bookkeeping and Business Methods,
Practical Arithmetic, Grammar and
Letter Writing, Crop and Live Stock
Records. Business Spelling, with elec-
tive work in business practice and
typewriting if desired.

Mr. Frye reports on this course in
a recent letter as follows:

"We have been giving this course
for the past fifteen years and with
success. It has always been one of
our most popular courses. We give
a regular nine months' course and
also a special three months' course
during the winter months, and they
each attract a great man}' farmer
boys each year. As you are no doubt
aware, we are located in a well-to-do
farming community and they sup-
port work of this kind.

"One advantage in giving a course
of this kind is that we do not have
to locate positions for these boys
as they go right back to the farm.
Now, you realize, I know, what this
means to a business school located
in a community such as ours."

(Professional Edition)
Carl Marshall. I. Newton Braith-

H. A. Roush. waite.

G. G. Hill. Charles F. Ritten-

Paul S. Lomax. house.

Gilbert J. Raynor. Frederick H. Gurt-
A. F. Gates. ler.

M. J. Ryan. R. C. Smith.

E. W. Bamhart. T. F. Sherwood.
J. L. Zerbe. Elmer G. Miller.

Olive Ely Hart. C. A. Bamett.
Nathan Isaacs. J. S. Oxford.
J. E. Fuller. O. G. Martz.

J. Morris Martin. Hazel E. Smeed.
H. H. Webb. F. H. Kendall.

J. Anton TeHaas. Clyde H. Marshall.
J. I. Kinman Harry S. Basford.

W. C. Wallace. Geo. E. Bennett.
Elbridge W. Stein.

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Alhambra, California

Autumn Along the Klamath

a puiiu si.Niy I


I am i>eniiing tliis meandering from
a point sixty mlics south of the Ore-
gon line, and twenty
miles east i.f the
shore-line of the old
Pacific, as the crow
flies — or as the crow
would fly, were there
any crows here to fly
— I have not seen any
as yet. It is a land
little known to the
glohe-toddling tourist.
— this Kla;v.ath country, — for the
reason that most of it can be seen
only from an aeroplane or the hurri-
cane deck of a mule, and neither of
these nervy means of getting about
appeal to your softly upholstered tour-
ist. It is true that there is a stretch
of some thirty miles of fairly good
auto road runnnig along the lower
wood-fringed morders of the Klamath
canon. I went over this road afoot
last su inner which is the best way to
go over it, but most of the way was
overhung by towering clififs. and be-
tween these and the all-obscuring firs.
the scenery came only by snatches.
To sense the real grandeur of these
far-flung ranges, one must scale the
mountain ridges, and to do this ro
quires hard-boiled feet and a fairly
dependable set of giblets You can't
loll j'our way up these mountains as
you can Mt. Washington, or the
Adirondacks or the gentle slopes of
the Blue Ridge.

So it comes about that the average
tourist prefers to take his California
down in the plexus of asphalt boule-
vards that spreads like a net over the
lazy land of palms and oranges. And
so it further comes about that few
know that there is another California
up in the deep green mountains of the
Northland, — a Calif:jrnia that differs
from the blaring artiticiality of the
Los Angeles region as a fine old ivy
grown cathedral differs from the Hotel

I have written something of the
Maylime aspects of this glorious
country, — the wealth of brilliant blos-
soms on every velvet hill-slope; the
breaking out of the feathery pea-green
buds of fir and pine; the splashing
laughter of the brimming brooks; the
steady roar of the fiill fed river; the
golden days musical with the love-
cries of the wild birds; the ruddy sun-
sets, trailed l)y the soft starry nights,
their stillness broken by the 1)ark of
the fo.\ or the wicrd tremelo of the
coyote. Let nie now put in a wnd
for the Northland autumn. Visitors
from over the mountains have not
failed to note the absence, in Cali-
fornia, of the gaudy autumns of the
Atlantic states, so famous a subject
with both artist and poet. It is ([uite

true that the Golden State does not
get its name from any such massing
of color as makes the October days so
glorious from Ohio to Maine. And it
is equally true that our Southland has
little to herald either the approach or
the arrival of the pumpkin pie and
cider days. But it is different up here.
To begin with, our rains come at least
six weeks earlier than they do in the
South — right on the heels of the warm
August days, when the soil is respon-
sive and before the night air is chilled
bv surrounding snows. These rains
find the open glades and prairies that
lie between the heavy woodlands, yel
lowed and parched by the rainless
summer. Within a week, they are
changed to the softest greenery. But
these rains are. as yet, occasional, and
the land can take its time in getting
into its new autumnal robe.

The summer dusts are washed from
the evergreens, and the leaves of
laurel, alder, oak and other deciduous
trees, slowly ripen into a maturity
that is far fron colorless, even if it
can not rival the Eastern brilliance.

There is one wonderful maple out
here deserving of special mention. It
has great starry leaves from eight to
ten inches across. About the middle
of October, and without waiting for
frost, it flashes out into a brilliant
blend of pink and gold. It is a solitary
tree, rarely more than two or three
being seen together. All around, it
gauds the green robes of the moun-
tains with splotches of gold. Then
there is the poison sumac that atones
f )r some of its camping-time villianies,
!)j' putting a trimming of rich maroon
on the buff flounces of the alder
groves. But these and other foliage
effects are l)ut the "still life" studies
in our autumn studio. Arrives a flock
of other and livelier joys. Racing up
the river, comes the run of salmon and
steelhead. In every foamy rapid are
hardy Waltonitcs. with reel and creel
and spinner, daring the l)ig fish to the
keenest contest of skill. And up they
come at niglitfall. laden with silver-
sided beauties that are only exceeded
in size by the "whoppers" they swap
around the campfire. And when the
fishing palls, there are big flocks of
quail (two kinds), with grouse, pheas-
ant, hare and squirrel, to be found in
every glade or chapparel.

Is this autumn in the Northland
worth the price of admission? I'll
say so.

The Things lohn Moody recent-

That Will Stay ly wrote for the Sat-
urday Post a series
of articles that should hearten every-
one who finds his mind inclining
towards pessi'rism. Mr. Moody has
Iieen journeying through tlie Europ-
ean countries, directing a trained ob-

servation to industrial activities, in-
stead of gathering his conclusions
from the mental reactions of military
chiefs, diplomatists, captains of indus-
try, politicians, etc., as has been the
method of most of the after-the-war
writers. For instance. Mr. Moody
found at Ypres. that the Belgians are
rapidly re-building that obliterated
city, and that it is likely soon to be as
beautiful and durable as it was before
the German guns had wrought their
havoc. He found that throughout the
devastated region of France, towns
and hamlets are being rebuilt, fields
and farms, roads and orchards are
being restored, and that already, in
many places the scars of horrid war
have almost disappeared. In this
work is the only preservative. This
interest the Germans and French were
co-operating in seeming an'iity. a
thing that would have been unthink-
able two short years ago Similar
hopeful industrial activities Mr.
Moody found in Italy. Austria, and
especially in Germany. He found also,
that transportation fa-ilities are run-
ning neck and neck with industry, and
that despite the collapse of credit and
the breakdown of monetary exchanges
the peoples are finding a way to effect
exchanges of the products of their

There should be nothine very sur-
nrising in all this. Self-preservation
is the ruling force in human life, and
work is the only preservative. This
is instinctive in the race and infinitely
more potent in the affairs of "^en than
any or all of the mere artificialities.
Every debt, public or private, might
be repudiated utterly and wiped off
the slate; every ounce of gold or silver
in the world might be sunk into the
depest part of the sea; every govern-
ment might collapse completely and
cease to exist, and still men would eo
on sowing the fields, turning the mill'
wheels and running the trains. They
would do this because they know thev
have to in order to live. The stomach
is the big Corliss engine that keeps
the world show going. People will go
on eating and wearing clothes, no
matter what happens to political or
financial systems. .\\\ ignorant popu-
lace here and there, deluded by dema-
gogues, may temporarily go daft, stop
work and try to lift themselves to the
sky by pulling on their boot strans.
as in Russia, but a swift nemesis will
lash them for their foolishness, and
they will hardly trj- the same experi-
ment again.

In the face of these primary truths.
how piffling is this talk about the
"collapse of civilization" because the
financial and monetrv svstems of the
nations have suffered wreckage! When
a storm sweeps away the cobwebs in
the crevices of a mountain cliff, the
spiders probably think that the whole
moutain is being disrupted. So long as
the sun continues to shine and the rain
to fall, and mankind retain their moral
instincts and their power to think and
work, there will be no colIa|)se of
civilization. As yet. there is no sign
that these fundamentals are disturbed.
(Continued on page 1!))

.^^^U^'/l^U£4/iU^g^ ^

Department of





By H. A. Roush, Wilmington, Del.,

High School

This series will continue tiiraugh the year,
and will cover the work in all grades. Mr.
Roush is a skillful penman and an experienced
teacher ol penmanship. His suggestions for
teaching penmanship will, we are sure, be of
interest to supervisors and teachers everywhere.


Zaner Manual No. 144. Complete
the book by the end of the j'ear.

Stress paragraphing, body writing,
business letter writing, signatures,
business forms, etc. Enclose the last,
preferably in red ink.

When a letter has two or more
styles that are good, present each and
allow the pupils of their individual
preference in the selection of their
style. Allow no freakish or unusual
forms and require the pupils to use
the style they have selected when
writing their names and in all written
work. This will enable them to mas-
ter it much sooner than if they change
styles too often.

A small, graceful, legible style of
writing is the ideal. Individuality will
naturally show in each pupil's writing.
Speed should be insisted upon. Time
the pupils while they write. Intro-
duce journal, ledger and billing sheets.
Have the pupils make figures small
and neat, plain and legible, in the
small spaces provided for them. Each
figure may rest on the line, but should
be in the middle of the space.

The pupils are now at the right age
to appreciate and master a good, prac-
tical, business hand-writing. This is
possible for every pupil in the writing
class who is not physically deformed
or mentally indifferent.


May the time soon come when the
Physiology, Pedagogy and Psychol-
ogy which underlie the teaching of
writing in the different grades, will
be taught in all our Normal Schools,
and practice will be given at both the
blackboard and on paper until each
teacher shall have a Knowledge of
Writing Methods and Skill in Writing

Then, and only then, will Writing
be taught most efficiently in the Public
Schools of our land.


The test of the writing period is the
way pupils write outside of this per-

The writing period is dedicated to
the improvement of all written work.

No teacher has really taught arm
movement whose pupils do not sit

healthfully, use this movement, and
write well during all the writing per
iods of the day.

When writing spelling, composi-
tions, examinations, etc., the pupils
should take a correct writing position,
hold pen as instructed for writing,
turn book or paper properly and use
arm movement.

The grade in writing for the report
card should be based as much on the
appearance of all written work as on
the writing done during the writing

The following are essentials of a
good handwriting to be consdered in
rating writing:

a. It must be neat.

b. It should be carefully arranged
Margins should be even and
straight. Spacing in letters, be-
tween letters in a word, between
words in a sentence, and be-
tween sentences should be uni-
form. Paragraphs should be
properly indented. (Spacing be-
tween letters should be wider
than in letters, and between
word, wider than between let-

c. Letter forms should be good.

d. Lines should be light and
smooth, and free from shade.
This is the result of a light

e. Position and movement should
be good. Arm movement will
produce strong, smooth, firm
lines, if executed at a fairly
rapid rate of speed; while finger
movement will result in ragged,
heavy, slowly drawn, nervous or
shaky lines, and can be easily
detected from the appearance of
the writing.


(Continued from page 18)
As the ceaseless play of the winds and
the waves keep vital and pure the blue
depths of the sea, so will thought and
work and ideals continue to preserve
the integrity of human life.

out his ideas in my own schoolroom.
But so it is. Very freely I concede
that the task miglit be in far abler
hands. Those of my friends who have
been unfortunate enough to know per-
sonally of my own inadequacies as a
penman, will chuckle at the statement.
Nevertheless, I am vain enough to
think that my writing class has been
considerable of a success. Of course,
I liave been greatly helped by the fact
that my Indians take to writing read-
ily — almost avidly. Their faces are
always wreathed in smiles when the
little call bell announces the writing
hour and the clean half-sheets of
foolscap are handed around. Some of
the older ones are putting over — and
doing it verj' creditably — the nice
work as far up as No. 7 and 8, but
most of them are still absorbed in the
simpler work below No. 5. The little
tots, some five or six of them, have
no inkwells to their desks, so work
with pencils. I have them use ordin-
ary unruled "scratch" paper, which
they are required to rule up in advance
as "busy work." They like this, and
work at it :r.ost carefully. In every
part of the work I am i.npressed with
the care and saving common sense
shown by the great author in his selec-
tion of work for these little ones.
How naturally in the inch-high copies
for tracing does he provide for the
right activity of the arm muscles in
leading up to the work of consistent
writing. Mr. Zaner knew the value
of reiteration, and, happily, how to
secure it by a pleasing and appealing
variety that converts the task into a
pleasure. I wish he could see how
these dusky little ones hammer away
delightedly at their work, often look-
ing up at me with their great soft
brown eyes and whispering; "Teacher,
please maj'n'it I stay in at recess and
do writing?"

Of course, they have none of them
done much yet that would do for ex-
hil)ition purposes — with a teacher who
is all too incapable of leading them on
by ornate examples of his own work,
this could hardly be expected — just
the satne, when they have completed
the entire course of this plain, chaste,
simple writing; thev are going to go
out into the world able to write legibly
and with sufficient facility for all or-
dinary purposes. I frequently tell
them stories about the man to whom
they owe this benefit, and they always
like to hear them.

My Class When I took command
In Writing of this little Indian
school last spring I had
forgotten that the Zanerian System of
writing had been adopted for Califor-
nia, and so it came as a pleasing sur-
prise to find complete sets of the
books in the school library, and to
learn that the writing of my young
Klamaths had already been apprecia-
bly formed upon them.

Little did I imagine, when years ago
I sat at Bro. Zaner's cheerful fireside
and drew him out to talk of his teach-
ing methods and philosophy, that it
would ever be given to me to carry

Robert P. Cunningham, for the last
few years with Fisher Business Col-
lege, Cambridge, Mass., is a new com-
mercial teacher in the Walpole. Mass.,
High School.

Bertha M. Stoddard is a new commer-
cial teacher in the Saratoga Springs,
N. Y., High School.

Miss Betty Bruhn is the new commer-
cial teacher in the High School at
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 27) → online text (page 33 of 74)