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ple of school age who might be inter-
ested in a commercial course. The in-
quiries come in the form of letters or
personal visits to the school, and it is
extremely important to keep an accur-
ate record of all such returns. By en-
tering each inquiry on a card with the
date and such information as may be
useful in following up the prsopect, it
is then very easy to estimate the cost
of the advertising per inquiry. Carry-
ing the matter a little further, the cost
of the davertising per enrollment can
be easily figured and future advertising
appropriations based upon the informa-
tion thus gathered.

News Items

There is a form of newspaper adver-
tising that enters quite largely into the
publicity of many schools, particularly
those in the smaller cities and towns.
This is the readers or items of semi-
news value, regarding the school, its
students and graduates. These reader
items often read somewhat as follows:

"Ella Young, who has just
completed a commercial course at
the Modern Business College of
this city, has accepted a position as
stenographer with the First Na-
tional Bank and will enter upon her
new duties ne.xt Monday."

Such an item would not be of much
interest in a large city, but in the smal-
ler towns people like to read about the
personal aflairs of their fellow-towns-
people, and publishers of papers in
these towns v/ill often print such items
without charge. Even if the item is
charged for at the regular advertising
rates, it has a value to the school, and
thsi is quite a popular form of publicity.
It owes its success fo the fact that it
is personal. Ella Young is probably



22



.^J,^u^/i^;i^<^uu^if/h- ^



known by several hundred people in
her own town, and all of them will be
glad to read of her success in securing
a position so soon after leaving school.
The inference is that the training must
be good or Ella would not be so quick-
ly successful, and people who read such
news items begin to recommend the
school or to send their own children
for commercial training.

Some schools publish a small paper,
or house organ as it is sometimes
called, and sometimes there is a stu-
dents' publication owned and controlled
by the student body, but properly cen-
sored by the school management. Both
of these mediums are excellent for ad-
vertising, and the school paper can be
made the vehicle to convey a great deal
of information about the school in an
economical way, compared with buying
an equal amount of space in a daily
paper. If the students publish a paper,
the school should be a liberal buyer of
space in it. The students' paper is
usually sent to the alumni and to
friends and acquaintances of your pres-
ent students. The school can usually
arrange, however, to have extra copies
printed and distributed to prospects on
the regular school mailing list. A
school paper represents the policy and
school life of the student body and can
be made a very potent force in popu-
larizing the school.

I am a firm believer in newspaper
publicity for business colegcs but I
recognize the fact that much money
may be squandered in newspaper space.
It is therefore a subject demanding not
only careful attention but experience,
if it is to be made to pay. It costs
money, often in large quantities, to ex-
periment with advertising, and the
school man who must frankly admit
to himself that he is lacking in exper-
ience, will do well to secure the help
of some one who has had. and who is
competent to advise him wisely.



An Office Position



With a good salary, is ready for you when you
complete a commercial course at this efficient
school. Graduates make good and advance
rapidly.

Thorough courses ^ in Stenography, Book-
keeping and Accounting, Secretarial work and
Teachers* Training. We also help you to get
the desired position when qualified, so as to
realize cash dividends on your education. Enter
any time; day and evening classes. If you can't
come to the school, our Home Stu<ly Depart-
ment brings the school to you.

Write today for full information about pre-
paring for an office position. Address the
president.

Name and Address of school.



This is the sort of ad that is used
successfully in out-of-town newspapers,
to bring inquiries from non-resident
prospects. Although using only a
small space, the reverse heading with
white lettering attracts the maximum
amount of attention. In preparing a
small space ad, the value of every word
should be weighed and all unnecessary
words eliminated.



BIRCH

(Continued from page 20)

"If you make an eror (.and that in-
variably means when you make an
error), you will be penalized ten
words," you have made a direct sug-
gestion of error.

Suggestion, too, is one of the most
powerful things in the world. Suggest
to a contestant "You may make a
number of errors, but if you have
enough gross words you may still be
declared the winner" and I say to you
that you will surely get the errors.
Give the student leave to make errors
— press the button of suggestion — and
he "will do the rest." The psycholo-
gist of old said: "Whatsoever a man
soeth, that shall be also reap." Errors
are like weeds, w^e get a bumper crop
without scattering any extra seed.

It is not claimed that we can elim-
inate entirely all suggestion of error
or all reference to it, but we can do
much to set up a better suggestion —
that of complete accuracy. One of the
first things we can and should do —
I say it with all the conviction and
earnestness that I possess — is to sub-
stitute a better type of contest and
quit encouraging undeveloped writers
to compete with speed the paramount
goal.

In order that this discussion shall
not be entirely made up of destructive
criticism, an attempt has been made
to present some workable plans for
conducting contests in schools.

In conclusion, I wish to express the
hope that we shall be able to interest
a few of our leading psychologists in
this subject with a view to improving
our pedagogy. Judd, in his Psychol-
ogy of High-School Subjects, says:
"If one reads the literature of type-
writing, for example, he finds that
there is very little discussion of the
reason why a certain position of the
hand or a certain course of training
is economical."

It is true we have had but little
help from the psychological laborator-
ies of our great colleges and universi-
ties. I. for one, believe that they may
throw much light or. oiir prolileius If
we can have a nuniher of comoetent
investigators and educators working
on this problem for a few years, I
venture to predict that we shall soon
revolutionise our -.'ethods of teaching
this extremelv valuable and pr.Tctical
art.

Proposed Types of Contest

1. Ability to write accurately for a
sustained period of time.

By means of class rceords or uther-
wise, determine the rate of speed
which each member can write con-
sistently. Divide the writers into the
following classes:

Class A — Those who can write 'M
words per minute or more.

Class R — Those who can write 40
to ."iO words per minute.

Class C — Those who can write 30
to -10 wxjrds per minute.

Class D — Those who can write 20
lo 30 words per minut«.



Class E — Those who can write If
to 20 words per minute. ]

Classes D and E should be furnished
very simple matter. At a given signaB
let each participant begin writing and
continue until an error is made. The
writer who is able to hold out longest
without an error shall be declared the
winner, regardless of the class. Winj
ners in each class may then be deter}
mined. If any write above or below
their class, transfer to the propel
class. I

2. To determine highest accurate
spee^i for a given period. 1

Divide into classes as before. Us«
similar material. Participants are td
write for an agreed time — .5, 10. or IS
minutes. If an error is made by an*
writer, he must begin again. Whel
the time is up, only work which is ifl
progress at the signal and which i|
free from error can be considered;'
The one producing the greatest num-
ber of words in any given class is the
winner in that class. Those averaging
less than 10 words per minute should
be declared disqualified (i. e., not to
be considered in this particular



record).



DUFF'S COLLEGE BUYS NEA«'
HOME

According to a clippiiig from tb :
Pittsburgh Gazette-Times of Februar ■
21. Duff's College, the oldest busines' ;
college in the United States, of which
P. S. Spangler has been the energetic
principal for a number of years, has
consolidated with the Iron City Coir
lege and Martin's Business School, two
other long-established business col-
leges. The new institution will occupy
its own building, having just bought an
addition at a cost of $125,000, which
will be remodeled as part of the greate;
school.

This will provide space for an audi,
torium, students' lunch room, and othet
facilities which will add to the attract
tiveness of the school. Two old resi*
dencc buildings on the ground that haS
been purchased will be used for library,
commercial museum, teachers' office*
executive offices, rest rooms, etc.

The present corps of teachers at
Duff's College will be continued in th^
new school. Mr. S. E. Bowman, Prini
cipal and Manager of Iron City Coi.
lege, will be treasurer and assistaiu
manager in the new organization, anq
Miss Helen Faris, who has been witj
the Martin School for many years, wiU
be Superintendent of the Shorthan4
Department.

The possession of the new property
will be gained on May 1, an<l the coa
tractors promise that the college w:
be in its new quarters by August 1.

In the enlarged school provisions w
be made for extensive courses of col
lege credit.

This consolidation makes the ne
institution one of the largest businei
colleges in the United States, and from
what we know of the men at the head
of it, it will continue to be one of the
best. I



\



^ ,^^3Bu^n^>i^£ii^iu^i^i^ ^



23



The Use of Machines in
Bookkeeping

By S. R. HOOVER, Asst. Prin., West Commerce High School, Cleveland. O.



As to whether machines shall be
used in bookkeeping we have no more
choice than has the statesman as to
whether airplanes shall be used in war.
But we have something to say as to
whether those who use the machines
shall become mechanical in the sense
that they can do only some specific
task like the girls and boys in some
factories whose work is almost as
automatic as is that of the machines
they serve.

If these pupils who take up the
study of machines are to become mere
humaii automata who shall spend their
lives tapping the keys of a compto-
meter or an adding machine and los-
ing touch with books, with men, and
with life, we would deserve to be
classed with those of whom it was said
it were better that they had a mill-
stone hung to their necks and had
been drowned in the midst of the sea,
for we would be guilty of offending
these little ones just as truly as they.

Therefore it seems almost super-
fluous to recommend that the prepara-
tion given in the schools for the use
of machines should be such as to make
those who take it capable of using
them as conveniences along the path
of their progress, and not bound to
some single one of them as a slave
or a prisoner for life.

We have no right to make machines
of the boys and girls who come to us
backed by their own trust and the
confidence of their parents. For this
reason no one should be placed in
training at these mechanical devices
for short cuts in bookkeeping until he
has had a fairly thorough course in
a general knowledge of that subject.
He should know the principles of ac-
counts, the course of transactions of
all sorts through the books, and the
reason why entries are where they are
before he is assigned to the limited
view he gets in the field covered by
machines.

No general, unmodified statement as
to whether machines should be taught
in school can be made any more than
can an unlimited answer be given to
the question, should farmers use trac-
tors. In each case the answer must
be determined by the circumstances of
the problem. A school in one locality
may unhesitatingly admit a generous
equipment because all of it will func-
tion in the preparation of its graduates
for the opportunities of their com-
munity. In another place perhaps
only a few of these machines will
justify the expenditure of public
money because operators are not in
demand for others. In still other cir-
cumstances it may prove inadvisable
to invest in any at all because so few
will capitalize the results that not only
the actual cost of the machines but
also the time of the instructor can be



used to better advantage along other
lines.

Having thus in a sense cleared some
of the brush out of the path, let us
make a mental note of the fact that
these mechanical aids are aids and not
necessities and that no one of them is
destined to become the universally in-
dispensable tool its enthusiastic sales-
men would have us believe it to be.
Thousands of offices will still continue
to do their work in the books as it has
been done heretofore, and no device
invented to date will dispense with the
need of a well directed pen behind
which is a clear head.

Nevertheless, there are business
communities in which numerous of-
fices call for the services of graduates
of schools who shall not be ignorant
of the uses and operation of many of
these mechanical helps. Where this is
true, there must be something more
than a mere machine for show. It is
not enough that a calculating machine
be shown to the class and the method
of its operation be explained. The
newly graduated employe when sent
to the adding machine will make a bad
impression for himself and for the
school from which he came if he acts
as though he expected it to bite him.
Equally unfortunate will be the result
if he paddles away on the space-bar
of a biller as if he had never heard of
a tabulator key or stop. He must be
acquainted with these tools of his
trade and by the same token he must
be acquainted with several of them.

It has been suggested that often the
pupil is prepared for some line of
work and then goes out into another
line. Until our guidance experts have
reached the stage at which they can
look down into each particular cell of
the pupil's brain and know what is gO'
ing on there and what is going to go
on there for years to come, this will
continue to be true. Therefore it is
our duty to give each pupil as many
keys to ofifice doors as we can provide
and each of these machines adds one
more key.

Not that these eighteen-year-old
boys and girls are to go out e.xpert
operators any more than they are to
go out certified public accountants, but
that they shall be so well prepared
that the office manager can set them
at this, that, or the other machine and
not come back an hour later and find
his new employe looking from one end
of it to the other, wondering from
which direction the bird will come out.

This means that the student shall be
given the opportunity of learning to
operate as many machines as possible,
still bearing in mind that all of them
must function in the field toward
which he is working, which is usually
the community in which he lives. To
confine the use of a machine to an



individual pupil is not only taking a
long chance as to the likelihood of
that pupil wasting his time on some-
thing he may not use at all but is
also limiting the income on the money
invested in that machine to an ex-
tremely low percentage.

Of course the suggestions here
made will mean that the work of the
teacher in arranging the schedules of
those who are taking courses on the
machines will be heavier and that his
work in the class will keep him very
busy indeed, for it is necessary to give
many times as much time to some
machines as to others and to have
several times as many machines of
some kinds as of others. Each day's
work for each pupil must be laid out
in advance for the entire semester,
and this schedule must be followed as
rigidly as the time table of a railroad.
If this sounds too strenuous, it should
not be undertaken at all.

Of course if any machines are in-
stalled, the agents of all makes of all
kinds will be on hand to insist that if
such and such have been purchased,
their's should be added as well. There
are certain rules by which one may
determine whether an individual ma-
chine should be requisitioned. The
first of these has already been sug-
gested, that is, is there such a demand
for operators as will warrant the in-
troduction of it? The answer to this
must come not from the agency of the
machine but from the school's own
survey of the field.

The second factor to be considered
is whether the operation of the ma-
chine in question requires enough
special instruction to make the invest-
ment of time and money worth while.
Some can be learned so easily and so
quickly that a few minutes' time in the
office is all that is necessary. These
can be ruled out at the start.

The third determining factor is its
degree of similarity to some other ma.-
chine on which instruction is already
provided. For example, if a large key-
board adding machine is already in
the course or provided for, the only
good reason for the installaton of an-
other adding machine would be be-
cause it differs so radically from the
first that instruction on the latter
would not apply to the operation of
the former.

.A.nd finally, in this as in all other
courses, whether it turns out a success
or a failure will depend, in the last
analysis, upon the teacher into whose
hands it falls. If he is not especially
interested and if it is turned over to
him because he will do it with the
least amount of objection, because his
program is not filled with other sub-
jects, because he is most likely to pick
it up and keep ahead of the class, or
because he thinks it will prove a soft
snap, all the criticisms of its enemies
will be justified and its life will likely
be short and stormy. If, however, it
is given to one who believes in it, is
enthusiastic about it, is willing to
work hard at it, and who knows
enough about it to do it right, it will
be one of the most successful and pop-
ular courses in the school.



24



^^J^u^'u^U^:^/![u^i/^ ^



Eastern Commercial Teachers'
Association

TRENTON, N. J., APRIL 12-13-14-15. 1922



Wednesday Afternoon, Wednesday
Evening. Thursday Morning
Joint meeting with Federal Board
tor \ocational Education under the
leadership of E. W. Barnhart.

Thursday Afternoon, April 13
E. C. T. A. Meeting

2:00 Address of Welcome — John En-
right, Commissioner of Educa-
tion, Trenton. N. J.

2:20 Response— K. H. Norman, Balti-
more. Md.

2:40 President's Address— D. A. Mc-
Millin, East Orange, N. J.

J:00 Historical Trenton — Peter K.
Emmons, President Rotary
Club. Trenton. N. J.

-» .00-6:00 Private Business School
Owner's Association.
Pennsylvania Private School
Owner's Association, J. H.
Seeley, President.
Accredited Schools Associa-
tion.

Thursday Evening

6:00 Commercial Education, Dinner
Conference in conjunction with
United States Bureau of Edu-
cation. Glen Levin Swiggett,
presiding.

9:00 Informal reception and dance.

Friday Morning, April 14
Problems in Education
0:00 From the standpoint of the State
Organization — Thos. W. Fin-
negan, (onunissioner of Edu-
cation. IIarrisl)urg, Pa.

:0:20 From the standpoint of the City
Superintendent — Wm .J. Bick-
ett, Supt. of Schools, Trenton.
N. J.
0:40 Met in Vocational Trammg —
Col. R. I. Rees, Chief Re-
habilitation Div., Washington,
D. C.

11:00 Met in Continuation Schools —
Owen D. Evans, Director Con-
tinuation Schools, Harrisburg,
Pa.

11:20 Met in Private Schools— P. S.
Spangler, Duff's College, Pitts-
burgh. Pa.

11:40 Met by the Class Room Teacher
— Dr. Laura H. Cadwallader,
South Philadclphi:i High
School for Girls.

12:00 Reception by Gov. Edward I.
Edwards, at the State Capitol.

12:30 Luncheon. Rider College. (Com-
plimentary to members of the
Association bv Messrs. Moore
and Gill.)

Friday Afternoon
Round Tables— Rider College
Penmen's Paradise — Chairman C. C.
Lister, Maxwell Training
School for Teachers, Brook-
lyn, N. Y.



(a) Style of Penmanship the Busi-

ness World Demands — Wm.
D. Sears, Principal, Drake
College. Jersey City, N. J.

(b) The Use of the Direct Oval-

Arthur G. Skeeles, Editor Bus-
iness Echuator. Columbus. O.

Some Problems of the Penmanship
Teacher — Miss Alice E. Ben-
bow. Supervisor of Penman-
ship. Trenton. N. J.

Control in Penmanship — Rene Guillard,
Banks' Business College. Phil-
adelphia, Pa.

Handwriting Stunts — H. A. Roush,
High .School. Wilmington.
Del. Assisted by Mrs. Roush
at the piano.

Commercial Round Table
Chairman, E. E. Kent, Auburn Busi-
ness School, Aubhrn. N. Y.
(a; What Subjects should be added
to the curriculum of the Com-
mercial Course in order to
meet the present demands of
the Community —
S. C. Williams, Rochester Busi-
ness Institute, Rochester, N. Y.
D. C. Sapp, Beacora College,

Wilmington. Del.
A. M. Lloyd, Banks Business

College. Philadelphia, Pa.
P. S. Spangler, Duflfs College.
Pittsburgh. Pa.

(b) Value and Method Employed in

Checking the Bookkeeping
Work. I. D. Shoop, Temple
University, Phliadclpliia. I':i.

(c) Correlation of Penmanship and

Figure-making with Business
Arithmetic, English, Corres-
pondence and Spelling. H. E.
Barton, Pcircc School. Phila-
delphia, Pa.

(d) How Much of the Regular Time

should be devoted to Teaching
and How Much for Checking?
L. C. McCann, Reading. Pa.






Rider College, where the Round Tables will
meet Friday afternoon, and where Messrs.
Moore and Gill will serve the complimentary
luncheon Friday.



SHORTHAND— Chairman Miss S. M.
Loomis, Dickinson High School,
Jersey City.

(a) Some Experiences as Confiden-

tial Secretary and Reporter to
the President of the United
States — Chas. L. Swem, Gregg
Writer, Chicago, 111.

(b) Psychology Applied to Type-

writing — E. W. Barnhart,
Federal Board for \'ocational
Education. Washington, D. C.

(c) The Thinking Stenographer —

Marie M. Duggan, Prof, of
Secretarial Science. Boston
University.

(d) Typewriting as a Project — Flor-

ence Sparks, Yonkers High
School. Yonkers, X. Y.
EXTENSION — Chairman, E. W.
Barnhart. Federal Board for Voca-
tional Education, \\ ashington. D. C.
Topic — Extension Courses for Com-
mercial Workers.

1. Offered by the Department of Uni-
versity Extension of Mass. — C. A.
Rittenhouse, C. P. A.. Boston. Mass.

2. Offered by the International Cor-
respondence Schools — N. H. Prouby,
Commercial Education Dept., I. C.
S.. Scranton. Pa.

3. Offered bv the United Young
Men's Christian Asso. — T. H. Nel-
son, .^.pst. Executive Secv., United
Y. M. C. A. Schools. New York City.

4. Offered by an Evening High
School — Fay R. Lucas, Prin. Bus.
Night High School. Washington,

Friday Evening
Banquet at The Stacy-Trent Hotel —

Toastmastcr. Harry Spillman.
Saturday Morning, April 15
Kind of Commercial Training Needed

in Big Business. (Speaker to be an-
nounced.)
Training of Commercial Teachers — F.

G. Nichols, Director Commercial

Education. Harrisburg. Pa.
Economic Preparedness — Dr. Robert

Grimshaw, National Sccuritv League,

New York City.
Business Meeting.

NEW ENGLAND PENMANSHIP
ASSOCIATION

The Eighteenth Annual Meeting of
the New England' Penmanship Asso-
ciation was held on Saturday, January
2H. at Sinunons College, Boston, Mass.

.\ large and enthusiastic gathering of
pctunen from all over New England
was present throughout, and heartily
enjoyed and appreciated the wealth of
good things prepared by the Executive
Committee.

I-^ach number indicated on the pro-
gram was presented in masterly fash-
ion, and with great profit to all con-
cerned.

The Penmanship Exhibit proved a
most attractive feature, much of the
fine material being furnished by the
K. N. Palmer Co. and The Zaner &
lUoscr Co., grateful thanks for which
are hereby given.

The newly elected officers for the
ensuing year arc: Mr. E. H. Fisher,
Somcrville, Mass.. President; Mr. R.
O. Horton, Revere. Mass.. Vice-Presi-
dent; Miss Aiuiie C. Woodward, Som-
crville, Mass., Secretary-Treasurer.



^^f^U(i^hed^^^fu:ii^i^ ^



Bookkeeping Philosophy



I All Rights Reserved ^



THE BASIS OF DOUBLE ENTRY
BOOKKEEPING

In tlie exercise given below tlie editor has
tried to explain the basis of double entry book-



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 27) → online text (page 56 of 74)