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"A LITTLE LEARNING IS A
DANGEROUS THING"

The words used in the title of this
article were first written by a very fa-
mous man. He is now dead. Most
1 of my readers know quite well the
name of the author of the words; other
[readers should find out who wrote this
famous quotation.

I The above paragraph is an introduc-
tion to what I am now going to say.
It is the text of my sermon, so to
I speak. You know every preacher must
have a text.

[ Not long ago an Eastern supervisor
of writing sent a part of his course of
study to my city school superinten-
dent. I presume that the supervisor
sent it. At least it reached the super-
intendent, and it was finally placed on
■ my desk. The good supervisor used
several paragraphs of his precious
course of study in an attempt to ex-
plain why the writing of poetry in a
penmanship drill is not teaching writ-
ing.



H. W. FLICKINGER
I am glad of an opportunity to pay tribute to Mr. Flickinger, under whose
instruction I was in 18S6 at Prickett College of Commerce in Philadelphia. I found
hnu nut only highly talented in his profession hut an accomplished teacher and a
high type of a gentleman. 1 can never forget the many kindnesses shown me while
1 was under his instruction.

Atlanta, Georgia J. J. SULLIVAN.



facility % in reading sentences and com-
pleted selections? My dear Eastern
critic, allow your mind to rest on that
statement for a few moments; it may
do you good.

Let me tell you of a little experience
I had a few days ago. I was in a first
grade room, and a little girl wanted to
read for me. Of course, I was delight-
ed to hear her read. She picked up a
book and read a nice little story to me.
She read as rapidly as I would read.
She didn't read as you and I were
taught to read — the "I see a cat"
method. (I-pause, see-pause, a-pause,
cat-pause). She read just like an adult
reads. Here is the lesson taught by
the girl: She has been taught "words,"
but she has had practice in reading
word after word, and line after line.
That's the modern way to learn to
read. Of course, you must teach let-
ter forms in writing. I stress correct
letter forms just as much as does the



a "single letter" or a "one word"
method. True arm movement meets
the test when the child writes many,
many words, and many, many lines.

Stress single letter forms, teachers,
but don't spend all your time doing
this. Give some work that will estab-
lish arm movement habits. You can't
walk with ease or pleasure by taking
one step at a time and then stopping.
Neither can you teach arm movement
by anj r "one-step" method.

Dr. Freeman, of the University of
Chicago, says this in a recent copy of
the Elementary School Journal:

"The other type of correlation con-
sists in bringing into the writing period
work that the pupil does in his other
classes. This means that the writing
exercises should include all of the types
of work which present difficulties of
handwriting, such, for example, as cor-
respondence forms. The correlation
may be made more specific than this.




Madarasz, whose charmed pen wrote the above, never lost an opportunity to commend H. W. Flickinger and his work,
t Mr. Flickinger was a constant source of inspiration.



I do not remember his exact words,
but the substance was this: "You must
teach letter forms; for all words are
I made up of individual letters. The
most of the writing time of a child
should be spent on individual letter
forms. The writing of poetry at a
penmanship period isn't teaching writ-
ing at all."

Holy smoke! How deluded your
humble servant has been, and is now!
"Your humble servant" refers to the
writer of these lines and not to the
"poetry hater," by the way.

You will remember that I wrote an
article not long ago dealing with the
writing of poetry. You may remem-
ber that I strongly advocated such
penmanship practice. The Eastern
supervisor did not carefully read my
article, or he misinterpreted the
thought. Surely he has not manufac-
tured a "straw man" to scalp. Yes,
brother, "A little learning is a danger-
ous thing."

Now, let's go to the heart of the
matter. Pupils may practice single
letters and single words until dooms-
day, and they will fail to acquire the
muscular movement habit. Suppose a
teacher of reading would teach words,
words, words to her class and never
allow the children to read sentences,
paragraphs and stanzas of poetry, if
you please. - Just think for a moment
of the dull monotony, the lifelessness
of such a procedure! When would the
children of such a teacher acquire



Eastern supervisor, but I know the child
will never learn the arm movement
habit by drilling forever on single let-
ter forms and single words. If the
child is going to develop an arm move-
ment habit, he must have practice in
writing arm movement for one, two,
three and even five minutes without
stopping. That's where the poem is a
help. The child likes poetry. He likes
to write it. It gives him practice in
writing for a definite number of min-
utes.

I carefully watched an eighth g r ade
teacher use poetry as writing material
last semester. She would often pick up
a book and read as the children wrof;.
These boys and girls became alert;
they learned to be good listeners. They
found, too, that arm movement is a
very practical thing; that arm move-
ment can be used in any kind of writ-
ten work. True arm movement isn't



If the pupil has written a composition,
and this composition is to be copied,
the copying might well be done as a
writing exercise during the writing
period. In the act of composing, the
pupil's attention is on the thought, and
his penmanship is likely to suffer. In
copying, his attention may be on the
form. Correlation of this sort should
constitute frequent practice in the
handwriting course."

There is much good thought in the
above. Note this sentence: "Correla-
tion of this sort should constitute fre-
quent practice in the handwriting
course."

I propose to discuss one of Dr.
Freeman's articles in the May issue of
that magazine. I shall agree, and dis-
agree at times with this distinguished
man. You know, "Fools rush in where
angels fear to tread." I am not an
"angel."



H. W. FLICKINGER

Those who are so fortunate as to know Mr. Flickinger personally are at once
attracted by his grace and gentleness of character, artistic dexterity, tact in teaching,
splendid mental balance, and a moral quality that appeals to all. His marvelous con-
ception of form and his skill in execution have challenged the admiration of the pro-
fession for the past fifty years. But few penmen have ever approached him in the
field of business and ornamental writing, in flourishing and engrossing.

As a teacher, he creates an interest and enthusiasm by the use of beautiful
illustrations which are seldom observed in the work of any teacher. The ease and
grace of execution displayed in his teaching and writing are fascinating and his influ-
ence is far reaching among lovers of beautiful penmanship.

He was associated with Lyman P. Spencer in the preparation of that classic^ in
penmanship. "The New Spencerian Compendium of Penmanship," the most beautiful
collection of handwriting ever produced.

Among his associates he is known as a loyal friend, a Christian gentleman, and



a Prince an
Philadelphia



H. W. PATTEN.



£ .5M^>38f<J//u&> Cdtua&r* &



Beacon Lights of Penmanship

Some Notes on "A Century of Penmanship in America"

By HORACE G. HEALEY, A. M.

120 East 184th St., New Yok City



HENRY W. FLICKINGER

"There are hermit souls that live with-
dra wn

In the peace of their self -content ;
There are souls, life stars, that dwell
apart.

In a fellowless firmament:
There are pioneer souls that blaze their
paths

Where highways never ran:
But let me live bu the side of the road

And be a friend to man."
It is no disparagement to other
members of our profession, num-
bering as it does scores and hun-
dreds whose lives have been a
blessing to their fellowmen, to say-
that none has been so universally
admired and loved as has the sub-
ject of this sketch. Measured by
the highest standards of usefulness
and achievement in any walk of
life, he scores as near perfection as
is humanly possible. The veterans
of the great Civil War think of him
as a loyal and efficient patriot; the
religious element of his city esteem
him a leader in spiritual affairs and
the composer of many beautiful
hymns; the youth and young man-
hood regard him as the greatest of
their teachers; his neighbors call
him "Brother," and the penman-
ship connoisseur places him on an
equal plane in skill and artistic accom-
plishment with Lyman P. Spencer.
Sam Walter Foss must have been
thinking of Mr. Flickinger when he
wrote his poem, "The House by the
Side of the Road," from which we
quote above the first stanza. As was
said of another, "He is greater than
anything he ever did."

It was the writer's rare privilege
some twenty or more yeais ago to be
invited to come to Philadelphia for the
purpose of attending a dinner given
by that princely and courtly gentle-
man, J. E. Soule, at the Union I eague
Club in honor of Mr. Flick'nger. More
than two score members of the pro-
fession, all of whom had known Mr.
Flickinger either professionally or per-
sonally for many years, were present.
Going back to the very beginning of
his penmanship career the different
epochs were spoken of by those who
had taught with him. The tributes
paid Mr. Flickinger that evening were
such as are rendered to very few men.
It was characteristic of the man in
responding to disclaim the possession
of any special attainments and to insist
that his personal merits had always
been over-rated.

Fortunately we shall be privileged
to read in this issue some of the ex-
pressions of appreciation which could
be multiplied indefinitely.

Henry W. Flickinger was born
August 30, 1845, in Ickesburg, Perry
County, Pa. As a youth he enjoyed
the educational advantages offered in
the public and private schools of that




H. W. FLICKINGER
As He Appears Today

vicinity. On July 18, 1864, he enlisted
in the Union Army, at Harrisburg,
serving as fifer and captain's clerk un-
til discharged, November 18, 1864. On
March 24, 1865, he re-enlisted for one
year in Company F. 104th Regiment,
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was de-
tailed to do special service as clerk in
the registering office at Camp Cadwal-
lader, Philadelphia. He was discharged
by General Order, July 20. 1865.

Returning to civil life, Mr. Flickin-
ger felt that the opportunities for ad-
vancement in his native village were
too limited; he therefore decided to fit
himself for a business career. Accord-
ingly, he wrote to a number of busi-
ness colleges for their literature in or-
der to make comparisons of their re-
spective merits. He finally selected
Eastman College at Poughkeepsie,
New York, the determining factor of
his choice being the beautiful penman-
ship displayed on the envelope of the
letter to him. The writing was in the
Italian Fourished Style, and came from
the pen of that rising young genius,
then in his twenty-first year, Fielding
Schofield!

By reason of his great admiration
for beautiful penmanship, and his ex-
perience as a clerk at Headquarters in
the Army, Mr. Flickinger was a pretty
fair penman, when he entered East-
man. As he himself says, "I wrote
what one would call a good 'country
hand.' His skill attracted the early
attention of his instructors at East-
man, and he was asked if he would
(Continued on page 22)



BEACON LIGHTS ADDENDA

Through an over-sight n typewrit-
ing the name of W. A. Hoffman, Val-
paraiso, Ind., was omitted from the
list of the Fourth Era. Mr. Hoffman,
for thirty years, has been engaged in
training penmanship teachers. Those
who have seen his beautiful writing,
in both business and ornamental style,

will agree that very few were his equal.
Another correction is to be made for
the "Second Era." The "Burnett" re-
ferred to was "E. Burnett," of Balti-
more, Md. So far as I know he was
not related in any way to "E. L. Bur-
nett," of Providence, R. I.

May I say a word with reference to
the method by which the names ap-
pearing in the different Eras were se-
lected? In the first place, all lists were
reproduced largely from memory; sec-
ondly. I was influenced largely by the
fact that in order to enter this Hall of
Fame one must have been pretty gen-
erally known throughout the country
as a penman. This reputation could
have been earned either by being an
author of a System of Penmanship, or
of a Compendium or of a course of
lessons in one of the professional jour-
nals. In addition, some names appear
of those who advertised to send speci-
mens through the mails or to give in-
struction by correspondence.

With reference to those who were
engaged in the Engrossing or Com-
mercial Designing branches of the pro-
fession, I thought best to treat of them
as a separate group. This will bring
out such names as E. L. Brown, P.
W. Costello, E. C. Marlatt, C. L.
Ricketts, C. E. Johnson and others.

I have received several letters call-
ing my attention to the names of some
who were quite famous locally. With
reference to these, I would say that I
should like to have the names of as
many of these as possible, together
with brief biographical data. Every
city in the country should be able to
supply the names of one or more of
such penmen.

Here is where the fun begins! I
want it distinctly understood that the
writer does not belong to the "Fifth
Era" so do not blame me for anything
that happens in connection with that
Era. Read the following letter, get
busy, and send in names of your can-
didates with biolographical data:

Pasadena, Calif.,
Dear Mr. Healey:
New York, N. Y.

I have followed your articles in the
B. E. with much interest. Surely now
you are not going to leave us in the
air. Who are the penmen of today?
Where do they live? Are there more
fine penmen than before? If so, why
is it called the "lost writing"? Is adult
handwriting poorer or better than
twenty-five years ago? Couldn't you
find time for one more article on mod-
ern penmen? All of our historians
come up to and into our own day. I
hope you will.

Respectfully, A. C. EVANS.

Who are the 100 best in America?






^ &Ur^uJs/ud<i(5</£uxi/rr $>



17



A Little of Everything



By CHARLES
Holyoke,



T. CRAGIN
Masa.



TALES OF THE MELTING POT
An Amazing Dutchman
Some queer metal flows into the
great melting pot which we call Amer-
ica and, out of which we propose to
mould American citizens. One of the
most amazing of all these citizens is
he whose story I will tell you in the
next two numbers of the Business
Educator. He is still alive and, is just
now getting a large amount of news-
paper advertising.

There's an island in the North Sea
five miles from the Dutch coast. There

[is a dangerous ledge of rocks off this
island on whose jagged edges many a
vessel sailing the stormy sea was
wrecked. The people who lived on
the island had the pleasing custom of
stealing all there was left on the ves-
sels and murdering any of the passen-
gers or crew who happened to get on
shore in order to conceal the robbery.
The king of Holland finally decided to
wipe out these island pirates and King
William selected a young lawyer to
do the job, a man of twenty or there-
abouts and the king made him sole
boss of the island to do just as he
pleased and he cleaned the island up
and decided to settle there. There
wasn't a tree or a bit of green grass on
the island and the young fellow said:
"Any place is ugly because, it is not
beautiful" and he decided that island
should be beautiful and he got the peo-
ple together and said, "We must have

[trees," and, they said, "No, trees won't
grow here and we have no money."
"Well," said the young man, "I will
do it myself," and he planted a hun-

'dred trees and the natives said the
wind and the storms would kill them,
and he said, "I will plant some more,"
and he kept on planting trees and
making the island more beautiful. The
trees did not wither and die for the
salt air of the North Sea made them
more rich in beauty as they lived. For
the stormy sea is an arm of the Atlan-
tic and birds who flew across suddenly
died in hundreds for there was no rest-
ing place for them and on the trees of
this island the birds found a resting
place and in a few years that island
was noted for the beauty of the trees
and grass and flowers and the multi-
tude of every description of birds that
made their homes there.

In a few years so rich was the is-
land with song birds, especially the
Nightingale that it had the name of
the Island of the Nightingales. Now
the young boss of the island got mar-
ried and had thirteen children, or rath-
er his wife did and he was responsible
for them and they were a mighty good
lot. Their mother said to them as they
went out into the world: "I want each
of you to take with you the spirit of
your father's work and to make the



world a better and more beautiful place
because you have lived in it." That is
what these children did. One of them,
after a while, lost his property through
bad judgment and poor investments
and he came to America, attracted by
the glowing reports of this land of
glorious opportunities. He had two
children, one six and the other eight.
It is the story of this boy of six that
I am going to tell you readers of mine.
He is an astonishing lad and the lesson
of his life should be worth while to be-
ginners as you are, to make the world
a little more beautiful and better be-
cause you have lived in it.

How would you like to be put in a
public school, in a good sized city like



it. The teacher tried to make him do
it but he wouldn't. Stubborn as a
mule. You know the Dutch are a
stubborn race, if you don't believe it
read "The Rise of the Dutch Repub-
lic," and see how that little country
carried on a terrible war with Spain
for 30 years, let in the ocean on their
own country to drive out the Span-
iards but finally got there.

The principal called the boy in and
gave him a licking. That didn't im-
prove his penmanship. Finally the
father went around and saw the prin-
cipal and told him that the boy ob-
jected to the unnecessary flourishes
and that he thought the boy was right,
and the principal being a man of com-
mon sense thought so too, and they
adopted a simpler style, not so simple
as we get now from Zaner, but a great
improvement over the flourished style
of old Father Spencer.

But things were going hard with
the family brought up in luxury and
wealth. The mother knew very little
about housework and the father had to









H.


W


FLICKINGER






A man


of sterling


character ; a




an for young


and old


to look up


to as an ideal ;


a penman


whose


hand


vriting embc


rfu


s melod\


, rhythm and


harmony ;


and one whose


words and


acts


impress you as b




g a Chr


istian


gentlen


an,— this


s what H. \V.


Flickinger


neans


to m


e. All who


Ik


ve know


i hirr


personally, and w


no have studied


penmanshi]


unde


r him


, must have


1,


en impressed


with his


sincerity


and inspired by


his skill an


1 nliil


ty as


a penman a


nH


teacher.










Littleton, M


ass.












C. E


DONER.



Brooklyn, at the age of six, without
knowing a word of English. You
know there is nothing more cruel than
a young American school boy, unless
it is a young American school girl.
They surrounded these two little
Dutch boys and called them Dutchies
and rumpled their hair and trod on
their toes. The boys stood it for a
while and then the youngest pitched
in and gave an everlasting walloping
to the largest of their tormentors. It
was his first lesson in American cus-
toms and he kept it up till the girls
rather snuggled around him and the
boys found out that he was a good fel-
low to let alone and he soon picked up
enough English to know what the
teachers were talking about, but he
didn't like the style of writing. Zaner
and Palmer had not begun yet. They
gave him the old Spencerian style,
long out of date and the young Dutch-
man did not like it and would not do



work for very small pay. The two
boys, little fellows, pitched in and
helped their mother to do the house-
work. They could make beds, sweep
the floors, and I presume they could
cook, though anybody had to be pret-
ty hungry to eat it.

The younger of these two boys had
a good deal more drive to him than
the older. He must have inherited
much of the iron of his grandfather
and he looked out for a job. The first
one he could get was with a baker at
fifty cents a week. He went in every
afternoon after school, cleaned up the
windows and helped about the store.
The baker wanted him Saturdays but
he said: "No, he couldn't work Satur-
days. "Want to go to the ball game,
eh?" said the baker, and he let it go
at that, but what he really did was to
go over to the junction where the cars
from Coney Island, horse cars, stopped
(Continued on page 24)



H. W. FLICKINGER

His beautiful penmanship has been a constant source of inspiration to me ever
since boyhood. A specimen of his writing which came to me on an envelope enclos-
ing a school catalogue, was the first really good writing T had seen. This, together
with the engraved sepcimens in the booklet, so impressed me that I decided at once
to take up the study of penmanship.

Later, as a student at Peirce School under Professor Collins, I had an oppor-
tunity to study those wonderful examples of Mr. Flickinger's matchless skill which
graced the walls of office and classroom. Those magnificent pieces of writing, letter-
ing and flourishing are still here to inspire teacher and student.

Since I have entered upon the teaching of writing. I have studied a great deal
of Mr. Flickinger's best kor, both original and engraved; and the more I see of it,
the more my admiration grows. One author has said, "The magnificent penmanship
of Mr. Flickinger is so eloquent in itself as to render admiring comment unnecessary.
And what could one add to the estimate of Lyman P. Spencer, who in referring to
some of Mr. Flickinger's work wrote, "It bears the same stamp of_ perfectness, of being
done just right, that marks everything that comes fom his hand."



Flickinger for nearly twenty years. His
and his unassuming way, impress all who come in contact with hii
highest ideals of life, his sterling qualities of character make him ;
those who know him best.
Peirce School, Philadelphia, Pa. M. J. RYAN.



ured dignity
True to the
red most by



&uf&tuJ/n&i4 cV/uta/sr* &



Teaching the Primary Child to Write

BY FRANK N. FREEMAN

Professor of Educational Psychology, University of Chicago



The problem of teaching writing in
the primary grades has recently been
given a great deal of thought. The
customary methods of teaching have
been most at fault in the case of the in-
struction of primary children. This
lack of adaptation has brought about,
in some places, a very radical reorgan-
ization in the methods of instruction,
in order to bring them into harmony
with the general facts of child nature.
In some cases the new methods have
been worked out by trained writing su-
pervisors, and in some cases by per-
sons who had not previously had tech-
nical training in handwriting, but in
all cases a large part of the traditional
methods has been thrown overboard.
What are the chief facts concerning
the child's mental and physical nature
upon which a sound method of teach-
ing writing must be based, and which
have to a large extent been neglected?

1. A person acts most vigorously
and efficiently when he is aiming at a
clearly defined objective. "Cannon-
ball" Baker says that he attains his re-
markable speed in cross country driv-
ing by fixing his attention on some
definite point well ahead of him and
then setting himself to reach that
point. Too much handwriting practice
has been aimless.

2. The child particularly works
most enthusiastically when driving di-
rectly at his objective. He has diffi-
culty in seeing a connection between
something he may be doing now and
the result which will come a week, a
month, or a year from now. Hence
teachers of every subject are giving
more and more practice in real per-
formance and less and less on formal
exercises.

3. In acquiring acts of skill one



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