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this part of your accounting course. List prices, Text, 120
pages, 40 cents. Supplies, including Blank Books and Papers,
95 cents.

EXAMINATION COPIES will be submitted upon request.



METROPOLITAN TEXT BOOK COMPANY



Texts for Commercial Subjects
37 SOUTH WABASH AVENUE



CHICAGO



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Gregg

Normal

Training

Makes Teaching Resultful



T combines expert knowl-
edge with "That Some-
thing" which pulls you out
of your mental ruts, lifts
you out of the mire of the
commonplace, and inspires

you to attain to leadership in your

profession.

The Gregg Normal Course is the
greatest "service station" for teach-
ers on the road from Yesterday to
Tomorrow.

A 1923 Normal graduate writes
that through the application of the
methods learned, her shorthand
class had attained the state require-
ments in speed and accuracy in
twenty weeks less than the allotted
time, thus leaving that margin of
time for still greater improvement
in speed and accuracy.

What has inspired and helped
thousands of others should set you
to thinking. Gregg training will
help you in your struggle against
the eroding sameness of your work-
a-day routine.

Plan today to spend six happy
and profitable weeks in the Gregg
Summer School. The Session he-
gins July 7 and closes August 15.
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GREGG SCHOOL

SIX NORTH MICHIGAN AVE.

CHICAGO, ILL.




BLISS-ALGER

Bookkeeping and Accounting

A strictly new course just off the press, combining Book-
keeping, Business Practice and Banking. Makes individual
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Three Systems

ACTUAL BUSINESS (with offices)
FOLDER (like above, without offices)
CORRESPONDENCE

For High Schools, Business Schools
teaching Bookkeeping. Text and outfit s
examination. Mention school connection.

BLISS PUBLISHING CO.

SAGINAW, MICH.



BYRNE TEXT

25 Years Success

They Are School Builders

There is as much difference between the prac-
tical result-getting quality of text books as there
are between teachers. Your students are entitled
to the best. Therefore investigate Byrne Simpli-
fied Shorthand, Byrne Practical Dictation and
Legal Forms, Byrne Bookkeeping and Business
Law, Byrne English and Correspondence, Byrne
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The De Bear Seliools Ltd.



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15th March, 1924

The Gregg Publishing Company

Kern House, 36-38 Kingsway

London, W. C 2, England

Gentlemen,

After more than thirty years of experience with another system,
I adopted, advocated, and established in all our schools the Gregg
system of shorthand- This was in August of 1922, and I have now had
abundant opportunity of realising the wisdom of this change. If I
say that the results have greatly exceeded my expectations, I shall
not be using any words of exaggeration-
There is no doubt whatever that the Gregg system can be learned
by the average student in far less time than any other system with
which I have been acquainted. There is no doubt in my mind that it
is infinitely safer when written at speed. There is equal certainty
that the vast majority of students are more quickly and keenly inter-
ested in shorthand than they ever were before with any other system.
Doubt, perplexity, uncertainty, have all given way to appreciation,
relish, enthusiasm-

Public blackboard performances by very young people after but a
few weeks' experience with the subject have* astounded me beyond ex-
pression- I have seen Gregg Shorthand written by students of fifteen
or sixteen years of age at speeds ranging from 60 to 140 in a manner
that not only had I never seen before, but never could have supposed
v.as possible. From every testing point—ease of learning, speed pos-
sibilities, interest of study, reliability of nctes under the stress
of speed — the Gregg system emerges triumphantly.

Another enormous advantage is to be fo.ind in the fact that since
the adoption of Gregg in our schools, more time has been possible with
other important studies- Speed in typewriting has been increased ma-
terially owing to more opportunity for practice- Greater attention
has been possible to spelling, punctuation, vocabulary and all those
elements of English vitally necessary to the shorthand writer or the
secretary. I have every reason to be profoundly thankful that I made
the change already mentioned. It has been for the great good of the
thousands of students who have placed themselves in the care of our
teachers.

since




DeBear is Managing Director of DeBear Schools, Ltd., (30 schools in


England


and, Ireland. Wales); formerly for 20 years. Principal of Pitman'


Schools


on; and was the first winner of Pitman's Speed Certificate for 200 words


a minute


hich achievement he was presented with a gold watch by Sir Isaac Pitn


lan.



THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY



NEW YORK



SAN FRANCISCO



6 ** <S^&u&n£M&faafir &

BUSINESS LETTER PRACTICE

By John B. Opdvcke












March 28, 1924.



Mr. Clarence A. Pitman,
2- West 45th Street,
Hew York City.

Dear Mr. Pitman:

Your letter under date of March 18th has been referred
to me as I am in charge of the class which is using
Mr. Opdycke's BUSINESS LETTER PRACTICE. 1 have been
using this text only ten weeks and I started using it
only after a very careful examination Of its contents.
I find it to be unusually well suited to our needs. We
wanted a text-book that would combine a certain amount
of theory with a great deal of practice. The excellent
examples and illustrations which this book contains and
the interesting way in which the subject is presented
enables me to hold the attention of the students in a
class in which students many times are not interested.

I think one of the greatest compliments that can be
paid the book is that out of sixty students in the last
clesB I had, only one wanted to sell his book. These
people are going out to positions as bookkeepers and
stenographers and other office positions and they have
seen how much good they may get out of this book if
they keep it on their desks. It gives me great pleasure
to say these few words concerning it.



Respectfully yours,



\J A-o-^y.



#n



TEACHER OP ADVANCED BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE.



TMD:NCV



Cloth; gilt lettering back and side ; 5 S2 pages. Price $2.50



ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, 2 West 45th Street, NEW YORK



VOLUME XXIX



COLUMBUS, OHIO, JUNE, 1924



NUMBER lO



CONTRIBUTION FROM MR.
FLICKINGER

"Some are born great, some achieve
greatness and some have greatness
thrust upon them." — Shakespeare. The
last part of this quotation and the old
copy — "There is no excellence without
great labor," inspired the following
lines:

Not all high honors crown the great;

Not every prize lays at his feet;
Some humble souls the world may rate

As worthy, too, of praise, discreet.

Ambition masters every test,

Though mountains rise, they cause
no dread.
Who upward climbs with purpose
stressed,
Will surely reach the goal ahead.

The shining heights that lure us on,
No timid heart dares hope to scale;

For worthwhile feats are ever won
By fearless souls who scorn to fail.

Glenolden, Pa., April 22, '24.



AN INTERESTING LETTER
FROM A. D. WILT, SR.

Enclosed find my check for The
Business Educator.

After a service of fifty-five years
as head of The Miami Commercial
College of Dayton, Ohio, I retired
some years ago and now at eighty-
two am enjoying a ripe old age
with my family intact about me.

I am within an hour and a little
more of New York City and great-
ly enjoy its many opportunities in
the way of libraries and art. music
and the drama, as I am in excel-
lent health.

I enjoyed many years of very
pleasant intimacy with Mr. Zaner,
who did much to promote business
education and deserves the lasting
gratitude and respect of our pro-
fession. He was a man of many
attractive personal traits.

I always hailed the taking on of
Business Courses by the great uni-
versities as a most flattering recog-
nition of the great importance of



the work the business educators
have been doing so many years. I
appreciated at the same time that
we occupied a field they could not
invade and that they could insti-
tute a broader training for the
minority who. had the time and
money to take it, leaving to us the
training of the thousands of fine
young men and young women
upon whom the business world so
largely depends. Harvard Uni-
versity has carried this extended
training on a broad and most effi-
cient basis and is now seeking an
endowment of ten million dollars,
as you may know, to greatly ex-
tend its usefulness. Bishop Law-
rence of Massachusetts is at the
head of the movement and I am,
as a veteran business educator,
proud to have my son, a Harvard
Graduate, taking a prominent part
with him. As a graduate of mine
and with a large and successful
business experience, his helpful-
ness has been much appreciated by
Harvard authorities.

I am happy to know that the en-
terprise Mr. Zaner so successfully
created is so successfully contin-
ued. Very truly yours,

A. D. Wilt. Sr.,

New Cannan, Conn.
May 19, 1924.

Since Mr. Wilt wrote the above let-
ter, George F. Baker, the New York
banker, has given $5,000,000 to Har-
vard University for buildings and en-
dowment of a graduate school of busi-
ness administration.

Mr. Baker is not a graduate of Har-
vard but has been a business man all
his life, and is now in his eighty-fifth
year.

In making the gift Mr. Baker wrote
in part: "I am especially impressed
with the determination to make the
graduate school of business administra-
tion of the very first importance in the
country.

As whatever distinction I have at-
tained in life has been principally from
business experience, it would be a sat-
isfaction and pleasure to help bv con-
tributing the $5,000,000.00 necessary to
accomplish this."



H. M. Temple, Temple, Webb &
Co., Certified Public Accountants, St.
Paul, Minn., expresses his views on
penmanship as follows:

''Penmanship is an indication of the
character of the writer. A poor, care-
less writer is invariably careless and
indifferent in work performed. A good
penman is an indication generally
speaking of tidiness, clear thinking and
carefulness in details and in the per-
formance of any kind of work. Care-
ful penmanship indicates a methodical
orderly mind, and business needs or-
derly and methodical minds in its con-
duct, and most of all, clear and definite
penmanship means that the work of
those who have to read it will progress
more rapidly in the actual conduct of
business affairs. For example, a poorly
written order or entry in a set of books,
figures carelessly made, etc., permit er-
rors of reading and have cost the busi-
ness world a great deal of money, and
the business man is looking at all times
for penmanship that is clear, distinct
and accurate to avoid waste and loss
of energy in his business."



AN ENTHUSIASTIC B. E.
SUPPORTER

I want to congratulate you on the
crowning success of the April number
of your splendid publication.

The wonderfully beautiful and skill-
fully executed examples of the penman-
ship of H. W. Flickinger in that num-
ber, are veritable poems of the art
chirographic, and should come as in-
spiring models to those who wish to
rise in the art above the mediocre or
commonplace.

Such a master as Mr. Flickinger
should inspire the younger aspirants to
aim higher in their plans and purposes
in the field of penmanship.

Keep the ball rolling and thus swell
the circulation of The Business Educa-
tor, which should have a subscription
list of two hundred thousand or more.
Very cordially and truly yours,

Arthur P. Myers. York, Pa.



THE BUSINESS EDUCATOR

Published monthly (except July and August)

By THE ZANER-BLOSER CO.,

612 N Park St.. Columbus, O.

E. W. Bloseb - - - - Editor

Horace G. Healey - - Contributing Editor
E. A. Lupfeb Managing Editor



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.25 A YEAR
(To Canada. 10c more:



Single copy,
foreign, 23c n

Change of
promptly



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the



Iress should be requested
ce. if possible, giving the old
address.



Advertising rates furnished upon request.



The Business Educator is the best medium
through which to reach business college pro-
prietors and managers, commercial teachers
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Copy
must reach our office by the 10th of the month
for the issue of the following month.



&/i£&u4//t^(£diu*i&r- &



Business Penmanship

By OLIVE A. MELLON
Supervisor of Handwriting, McKeesport, Pa.

Sand Miss Mellon two pages of your practice work w!lh lOc and she will criticise and return yon



I should like my B. E. students to make a survey of their writing position. By this I mean the position of the
body, the paper and the pen.

Are you sitting erect? Do you rest both arms on the desk? Is your paper turned so that the ruled lines point
from the'lower left to the upper right hand corner? Do you have your penholder tipped high enough? Is the side
of the hand raised off the paper? Remember the hand resting on the side is a sure indication of finger movement.

See that the writing machinery is adjusted correctly before beginning practice on the exercise drills this month.




EXERCISES
PLATE 15

Drill 1. This is the direct oval exercise made two spaces high, with the one space direct oval made in the lowei
space. Begin this exercise at the top and move leftward Curve the left and right sides equally. Make the ovals
touch at sides and keep all ovals on main slant. Count 10 each for both large and small ovals.

Drill 2. Begin this shell exercise at the top and move leftward. Use direct motion and write to the count of 100.
Use a livelv motion and gradually bring each new over motion line towards the bottom. The under motion line
remains at the bottom. A light touch is the secret in making this exercise. Otherwise it will produce a blotted ap-
pearance.

Drill 3. This two space indirect compact oval begins at the bottom and moves upward and to the left. ["his
motion is usually more difficult than the direct motion, hence much practice is necessary.

Extend these ovals across the page, making 400 to the line. Make a line and then stop and criticise your work.
You may have the ovals too broad and spaces not entirely filled. Use some upward or push and pull motion. A little
..i this motion will help fill the spaces and narrow the ovals. Shift your paper two or three times to tile line.

Drill 4. Use a quick, snappy motion when making this two space push and pull exercise. An exercise this height
often requires a little sliding motion in order to fill the two spaces. Do not let your hand rest cm the side. The
exercise may look well enough when done hut your position is very poor, and in most cases tin exercise will slant
more than is necessary.

Drill 5. Make this running or compact oval one space high. More controlled motion is needed to make this
exercise this height. Aim to make 400 revolutions to the line. Use direct motion.

Drill 6. To the count of eight, make this direct oval exercise one space high. Keep ovals on same slant and let
sides touch.

Drill 7. After completing a line of one space direct ovals, place the push and pull stroke
keeping the stroke on main slant. Notice the beginning stroke represents the under curve, while
like the finish stroke of lower loops.

Drill 8. Complete a line of direct ovals, then with a free running hand place a small u in center
The connecting lines between the u's must he the same length.



through the criil
tin- ending stroke



each oval.



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PLATE 17

Drill 1. This capital W exercise needs to be made with a quick in and out movement of the arm. Retrace
center of letter as far downward as you can and keep the turns narrow at the base line. Write to the count of
loop- 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8. Finish at top with an open loop.

Drill 2. Write the capital W to the count of 1-2-3-4. Keep the shoulder broad at the beginning and the down
stroke parallel and as nearly straight as possible. There is a tendency to raise the second turn at the bottom from
the base line. Avoid it.

Drill 3. These are splendid words for practice work. Finish capital and small letters with care.

Drill 4. Practice the capital letter combination first, then join the small letters. Much movement is needed in
connecting these letters.

Drill 5. Write the small u exercise to the count of 8. Use a deep retrace when finishing. Keep the top sharp
and the bottoms rounding. Strive for uniform size, slant, and spacing.

Drill 6. Write the small w to the count of 1-2-3-4. Aim for equal spacing between points. Finish with a deep
retraced point and outward curve.

Drill 7. Words like these aid in applying form and movement to actual writing. Watch the spacing between the
letters and the word endings.




PLATE 18

Drill 1. The capital V exercise begins with the reverse oval principle. A free motion is necessary when making
this exercise, since it does not contain any angles. Observe the shallow compound curves in the down strokes and the
small open loops at the top. Write to the count of 1-2-1-2-1-2-1.



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Drill 2. The letter V is composed of two turns and two loops, the beginning loop being the larger. Do not make
the finish loop as high as the beginning one. Avoid making the letter too wide through the bottom. After forming
the round turn at bottom use a steep up stroke. Too much slant in this up stroke will cause too wide spacing thru
the top. Count 1-2.

Drill 3. Practice these words carefully. Aim for a smooth light line. Write 15 words per minute.

Drill 4. Notice the size of the capital letters, also the small letters. Connect the three V's with a free swing.
Not only learn to write this name and address well but master your own name with a high degree of efficiency.

Drill 5. When practicing the small v be careful to have both the upper and lower turns equal in width. Use
plenty of slant in the down strokes. Finish with a deep retraced line and swing outward. Count 1-2-3.

Drill 6. Write six copies of the word vim to a line and write four lines. Be neat about the arrangement and
spacing. Turn paper and connect four v's, writing toward tne top of paper. Place a v in center of each space and a
row of v's between each word. Accurate spacing is necessary when preparing a block of writing of this kind.

Drill 8. In order to have proper spacing and also correct size, write 5 vivid's to the line. Notice the final d finish.
Avoid making the second v narrower than the first. This is a common error when writing this word.




Sensible Business Writing

By C. C. LISTER, 26 Waldorf Court, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Supervisor of Writing, Maxwell Training School for Teachers, Brooklyn, N. Y.



REAL BUSINESS WRITING

The real climax in the study and practice of handwriting is paragraph writing or page writing. We prepare for
this, in a well planned course, by centering our attention on the study and practice of individual letters and short words
in which these letters occur. We exercise conscious care. But real business writing is produced spontaneously. Con-
scious care and thought on each letter and word as goals in themselves are much like a piano player picking out each
separate note. We do not call it music until the notes are played in handfuls and bundles. Neither do we call it real
business writing until the attention can be withdrawn from the details that produce a high degree eof accuracy and
combine a fair degree of accuracy with what might best be designated as dash. We like fluency in handwriting as we
do in speech. No one would want to listen long to a speaker who gave conscious attention to the correct enunciation
of each word. True, the words must be clearly enunciated, but that must be the result of sufficient conscious effort
originally to enable the speaker to withdraw attention f ro n the details of speech and center the attention upon com
plete statements or sentences. The same may well be sai.l of a good handwriting. We should give conscious attention
to the study and practice of individual letters and selected words, and the best approved method of writing. When thi si
have received due attention we should turn to the application of the skill, that should result from these consi bus efforts
to the mastery of details, to the writing of continuous discourse. When one gives attention to complete words rather
than individual letters and correct spacings, there will be so tie sacrifice of mechanical accuracy, of course; bu1 this will
.be more than balanced by the pleasing effect that will result from the fluency, grace, and dash that will gradually become
habitual with the writer.

The preceding numbers have provided instruction and practice on all phases of a course in handwriting: habits,
movements, general exercises, specific exercises, individual letters, figures, and sentences. Any weak places that may
still exist may be strengthened by reviewing.

Assuming that students following this course have completed the work outlined in the preview lessons, we are now
presenting for practice a complete alphabet and some paragraph work as a sort of climax.

The Alphabets
There is. perhaps, no finer tesl "t" one's skill,, than the writing of a complete alphabet, especiallj tin capital letter
alphabet. Throughout the coursi we make, in succession, as many letters as we can from one kind of movement. This
bod teaching principle. We make a succession of direct oval letters, a succession of reverse oval letters, a suc-
Oi ssion of straight line letters, a succession of compound curve letters, etc., etc.



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But in making a set ot" capitals the pen, mind, and muscle must perform all kinds of gymnastics as they dash,
swing, and tumble from one kind of letter to another with little or no hesitation between letters. The uniformity of size
and slant must be kept in mind, too. The direction, curvature, and length of all initial and final strokes must not be
overlooked. Try it. Do not be hastv. Swing with some deliberation. Make a complete alphabet and file it away for
comparison later. Then make a second one and mark ten of the poorest letters. Practice these separ ately and then
try the complet e set again. Continue in this manner during a few successive practice periods and then compare the
result with the set of capitals filed away originally.



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The Paragraphs

Write the complete paragraph with care two or three times in order to fix the size and general arrangement.

Time yourself and see how long it takes to write it. Two or three trials may be made.

Check the result with the copy. Determine what words need special attention.

Practice the words needing special attention individually, both carefully and then a little more fluently.

Write the complete paragraph again.

Check the irregular spacings. Some words will be too wide apart, some too close together.

Rewrite the paragraph with a view to correcting the faulty spacings.

Continue writing the paragraph in about the same time you wrote it originally, but try to improve the appear-



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By W. L. Newark, Columbus, Ohio






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By F. B. Courtney, Detroit. Mich.



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F. H. Hatchett, teacher of penmanship in Benton, 111., writes a very fine professional hand, as shown above.
No doubt Mr. Hatchett will favor us with more of his fine work from time to time.

Mr. Hatchett was a student of W. A. Hoffman, the skillful penman who for years was connected with the
Valparaiso, Ind., University.







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Signatures by E. W. Bloser



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ORNAMENTAL WRITING

By RENE GUILLARD, 1212 Elmwood Avenue, Evanston, 111.



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 29) → online text (page 57 of 62)