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placement bureaus in the East told me
that it is very difficult to place an ap-
plicant without at least a fair degree
of skill in penmanship. No one who



desires to prepare for a successful
career in its broadest sense can neg-
lect to spend the short time required
to improve one's handwriting.

YOUR DECISION

Now that you have subscribed to the
Business Educator we hope you have
definitely decided to make this pen-




manship journal a real help to you.
The thing that will help you most now
is a sincere desire to improve yourself
in every possible way.

Start today by working out an edu-
cational schedule for the next year.
Set aside thirty to sixty minutes of
each day for penmanship and then fol-
low the instructions and copies for the
next year and you will be well repaid
and highly pleased with results.

HOW TO START FOR BEST
RESULTS

'^'ou say you want Results for the
time and effort you put on penman-
ship. Here is a plan that will get re-
sults if you will follow it precisely : Be
sure your attitude is right. Do not
expect a wonderful change within the
first few days or weeks. Remember
that it is impossible to make satisfac-
tory progress unless you concentrate
your mind on the work at hand. If
you think about something else or talk
uith someone while practicing, it is
simply a waste of time to try to learn
penmanship under such conditions.
You must concentrate. Follow instruc-
tions and do not jump ahead thinking
the work will be easier to execute. Re-
member if an exercise is difficult to
make, that is all the more reason for
studying it. It takes a rough sea to
make a skillful seaman.

MATERIALS

Use a good grade of smooth surface
paper ruled fs inch. Select the best
grade of pens. The Zanerian Business
Pen is very satisfactory. A new pen
must have the oil removed before it




Notice tile graceful position in which Mr, Greene hu
and. Study the curve of the fingers. Keep a copy
1 plain view as shown in photo.




^ .M^rSBiAUn^i^^f/iu^i/^ ^



will do good writing. This should be
done with a paper, chamois or a wet
sponge. Higgins Eternal Black Ink is
a very fine ink for business and orna-
mental writing.

The Zanerian College has a big
selection of the finest grades of paper,
pens and ink that can be found. I
have used the Zanerian materials for
years and highly recommend them to
all who wish to get the best results
from their practice.

POSITION

Select a desk of proper height so
that your feet will rest flat on the
floor under the desk. Sit back far
enough from the desk so that you can
lean forward without resting the body
on the desk. Place the hands on the
paper at right angles. (See illustra-
tions.) When the hand is in the cen-
ter of the paper see that the right edge
of the paper is parallel with the hand
and arm. Keep the eyes about 15 to
17 inches from the line of writing.
Drop the weight of the shoulders
somewhat on the left arm leaving the
right arm with only its own weight
resting on the desk.



Turn the righ1:_hand to the left until
the palm of the hand is directly over
the paper. Place the penholder be-
tween the thumb and the first and
second fingers. The penholder should
cross the second finger near the root
of the nail. The first finger should be
slightly curved and rest on top of the
penholder while the thumb is held
lightly against the penholder just op-
posite the last joint in the first finger.
Do not grip the holder. Drop the third
and fourth fingers so that the nails
will rest on the paper. This gives an
easy, gliding pivot. Keep the second
finger off the paper. Make sure that
the top of the penholder points over
the point of the right shoulder. Ob-
serve the illustrations carefully. The
correct position is the healthful posi-
tion.

Now you are ready to write but you
must see that the arm is resting on
the muscle in front of the elbow and
that the wrist is not touching the
paper. The arm must move in and out
of the sleeve. Keep the sleeve loose
so that the arm can move easily in the
sleeve. Don't hold the right arm above



the desk but let the entire weight of
the arm rest on the muscle just ''n
front of the elbow. I often pull off my
coat, roll up my sleeve, and rest my
arm on a large blotter. The blotter
absorbs moisture and keeps the arm
from sticking. Keep the copy book
or Business Educator just above your
paper. I use an oblique holder for all
my writing, but it is better for be-
ginners to use a straight holder.

HOW TO PREPARE THE
LESSONS

If you fully understand all instruc-
tions down to this point you are now
ready to begin your practice.
Systematize your work so that you get
the most out of your practice. You
should endeavor to make the drills and
copies just like the lessons. I would
not write absolutely perfect copies for
you i£ I could. If you feel that you
can equal or surpass some of the let-
ters in the following lessons it should
encourage you. The lessons in this
course are logically arranged so that
you will have the proper drills first.
Believe that you can do this work and
vou certainlv will succeed.



LESSON 1

This lesson is designed to break up finger movement and develop freedom in gliding the hand across the paper.
This exercise cannot be made with finger movement only, therefore, it is a good one for beginning students. Make
the oblong ovals half way across the page then swing the straight line movement across the oval dividing the oval into
two equal parts. This exercise will be easily executed if the hand is held in the correct position. Keep the hand glid-
ing on the nails of the third and fourth fingers and the pen-holder pointing over the right shoulder. Remember the
position of your hand at this time is more important than the exercise. Do not leave this lesson until you acquire ease
in position and movement. The little arrows in these lessons will show the direction in which the pen should move
for best results.




LESSON 2

See that you have the correct position before beginning this lesson. Make the direct oval two spaces high, keep-
ing the lines close togetlier. The push-and-puU movement will develop ease in making up-and-down strokes. Keep
lines light. The second oval is made in the reversed direction. The compound movement drills will increase ease in
gliding across the paper. You will develop faster if you make the drills in this lesson much larger. Try to cover four
spaces and keep the ovals fairly even. Now decrease the s.ze of these drills then come back to the size of your copy
and see how much confidence you have gained. Keep the wrist off the paper. Make about 200 down strokes per min-
ute. Watch your position. !Make sure you are holding the pen correctly.



10



^ ^^^^u<i/ned^^t/fu¥j^f^ ^



LESSON 3

This lesson will develop control. Draw a line with a pencil diagonally across the writing space then fill in with the
movement like the copy. Be sure the ovals are smooth on the edge. In each drill continue to decrease the move-
ment until it comes to a point. Be sure you do this as you will need the small drills. In the second part of this
lesson make the ovals two spaces high, retracing about ten times. In a class drill it is helpful to count 1-2-3-4-5-6-
7-8-9-10 as it keeps all the students together and at the proper speed. After the ovals are made, swing across them
with the push-and-pull and compound movements. Keep all parts equally balanced. Strive for light lines. Is your
hand and arm in the right position? Make this lesson complete several times before proceeding to the next.




LESSON 4

Make this retraced oval about seven times before lifting the pen. You will observe that the first line of ovals are
more nearly round than the 0. This will be a big help as most beginning students make the too narrow. See
that the down and up strokes in the curve equally. Make a small loop at the top, finishing with a good curve. The
last line in this lesson will develop confidence and freedom in making direct oval letters. Keep down strokes close
together. Make about 60 O's per minute. Do not sacrifice a free movement for form.




LESSON 5

Begin this lesson with a direct oval movement, gradually developing the e. In this lesson you will have a tend-
ency to make loops for e's. Notice the down stroke in e is nearly straight with a short round curve at base line.
The i is made with the same movement as e except you do not loop the letter. Make the i sharp at the top then
return to base line on main slant. Keep all down strokes uniform in slant. Joining letters will give you a stronger
handwriting. Be sure your position is right and then move at a good rate of speed. You cannot fail if you do your
best.




LESSON 6

Swing into this first drill with a small loop then retrace the form about 8 times, finishing like the C. The second
drill is more difiicult than the first, but helps wonderfully in making the C. Keep trying until you can make this
drill. The loop in the C should be made small, then swing high over the arrow then finish with an equal curve around
the first small loop. Make C broad and round at top. Make the letters in the last drill with the same speed as C.
Watch your position and keep up speed.



f^^f^u4/n^d^^^(/iu:a^ ^




(^ Qy^ (^ C^ Q) dy (2) dy (D (ly

aye^(^e^(^y (Ly a<y (Z^ &.y cl^ a.^

LESSON 7

Be sure to make the oval drill first as it 'will help you make u sharp at the top and round at the base line. Keep
down strokes uniform in u and w. The w is made like u except the last stroke which comes up closer to the last down
stroke, forms a short retrace and then finishes with a slight curve. Make the parts of the w close together. Remem-
ber that free movement combined with close observation will help you to make more progress.




LESSON 8

Make the ovals and the push-and-puU movements as near like the copy as possible. The retraced A is a very fine
drill and should play a large part in the development of this lesson. The down stroke in A is curved like O. Turn
short at base line and ascend with a straight line nearly to the beginning line. Some penmen close the A at the top.
Retrace the straight line for a short distance before finishing the letter. Sit in a healthful position. Determine to
succeed.




(^^Ci (Z (X. (Zc{C( CC^ (2y Co (Z C^ (7y<:2^'

Czuy Cyuuz uCuy Cl^ C/^u^^ C/A4^CyCi^o'~eyC/-^£^iy~iy ^^i^^t^-^

LESSON 9

Make the small oval exercises as indicated by the arrows. The o should be made small with sides curved equally.
The connecting lines between o's should be about straight. Begin a with a left curve then back to base line with a
short left curve, turn short, up nearly straight, descend with a straight line on main slant to base line, turn short,
finish with a right curve. Be sure o and a are closed at the top. Observe arrows. Make a clear distinction between
these two letters. Make about seventy a's per minute.




(Continued on Page 17)



12



^ *^J^u^in^U/^i£eua^r ^



MODERN HANDWRITING

Correlated With Commercial Subjects

By E. A. LUPFER, Zanerian College of Penmanship, Columbus, Ohio



PENMANSHIP AND LETTER WRITING

Ability to write a letter in clear, convincing English and in penmanship which is graceful, speedy and easily read
is worth cultivating.

This month we present a page letter. Study and practice upon it until you can write it well. The two plates
show how to practice upon the difficult parts. Write the entire letter then practice the parts separately which gives
you the most trouble. When you have improved the weak parts, try the entire letter again. Watch slant, spacing
and size. Are your loops all full and graceful?



^y






//,/'Z-




^5=?^*C<e-^/yz>£:<^^ii - -7 - z,.,e<:i<^>^C - -t?t^^^




£7-tXL - ^



C/U^T^';^'i^ii:i - t^^^^i-^c?-z^c^<£^^^



^^^^u^/ned^^<^iuv^h^ ^



13



Compose a letter giving several reasons why you should study penmanship. Reread and rewrite until the letter
is as nearly correct in English as you can get it. Next try to write it in your best handwriting getting equal margins,
pleasing spacing and every word legible.

After writing the entire letter pick out your weakest letters and improve them. Be sure that you know the
correct forms, then make line after line until improvement is made. Compare your work with the copy.

Practice the weakest words by themselves, taking each word apart, working on the letters and combinations
which give you the most trouble.




Give capital letters special attention. Make line after line of the ditficult letters. Swing them off freely.




C^C-'l^C^'-^ C^L^C,,^^-^ i::::iCc'<y' — c::t^c^o'-^ ^^iC^^c^-^ c^^-C.-^y-'l^ ii^Cc'ty - i^^c^^L^

This shows how to practice the difficult words and combinations.




By Flossie Cain, Supervisor of Handwriting, Rocky River. 01'



14







=^S^ -









Casmer Carter is a student in the Lord Selkirk School, Winnipeg, Man.,
Canada. Mr. G. R. Brunet, the skillful penman of that school, is an enthusi-
astic advocate of business writing and a follower of the Business Educator.




This sixth Krade writing was done by a student of Mrs. E. McLeod, Superv
and teacher.




pupil of D. S. Weinheimer, North Tonawanda, N. Y.



^u - Ax - d^










J. _JJci - y~>.-tf—:^'/-^—^(2^,^




-^bjL.-^f-<l.V - y^'T'-^f-^^2j{j! - -y-^




/i?'^^^<S:-^« - OtZ - ^T^



Louise Johnson, pupil of Mr. John S.
Griffith, Englewood Business College, Chi-
cago, III.







(^::7S-<^<^^2-^->t^<:^ "^oU



Miss Florence Buramic is a pupil of Lena Kuntz, Northampton School Dist., Northampton, Pa.



f^^f^u4//i^d4/^(i&U¥i^r' ^



15




c'-?a.^/y^






IT-'/-:^



-A-d-4^ .



^€-<i^Z..^.-^^^C-z^^i«^_ - ^'^?C^i-^.









- (S&;;^-;;^''i^«>:?-2-^^i-^l-<l.^









^.<:^-^C-t-^:^-t:?^'v4:^^?^#^^z^«/-zz^'^l_^



The first of a series of ten beautiful pages by J. J. Bailey, High School of Commerce, Toronto, Ont., Canada



16
+—



I



f^^^u^/neU^^f^eua^?^ ^



ORNAMENTAL PENMANSHIP



By E. W. BLOSER



Mr. Bloser was



ed by penn
\. Lupfer a



by G. G. Hc.ole



We are fortunate, indeed, in secur-
ing from Mr. Hoole, a series of lessons
in ornamental penmanship which he
secured when a student in the Zanerian
College. These copies, though not
prepared for engraving, are beautiful
in execution and are systematically ar-
ranged and graded and it will be our
purpose in writing the instructions to
tell as nearly as we can how Mr
Bloser wrote the various copies and
to make it as easy as possible for
students to acquire this interesting
branch of the penman's art.

It is a branch which should be
studied by every teacher of plain
business writing, who wishes to ac-
quire more skill in execution. It gives
one a background which is well worth
the effort required in learning it. As a
teacher, you can always use all the
skill you have in penmanship. We.
therefore, hope that every teacher of



penmanship who has access to this
magazine will secure an outfit and prac-
tice on these beautiful copies from
month to month. Plan to spend a few-
minutes each day on the course.

MATERIALS

A properly adjusted oblique pen-
holder.

Zanerian Fine Writer pens.

Zanerian 6 lb. Paper

Arnold's Japan Ink (in the June
number we published Mr. Bloser's
formula for mixing this ink).

A good desk or table.

POSITION

The position for ornamental writing
is the same as illustrated in the fore-
part of this issue in Mr. Greene's
lessons for Business Writing. You
must let the hand glide on the little
finger, and the knuckles should point



up to the ceiling. Mr. Bloser always
wrote with a flat wrist but his holder
was not quite as obliquely adjusted as
that of the average penman. Mr.
/!aner held his wrist slightly sloping.
Find out whether you can do better
by holding your wrist flat or sloping.
Some can do better one way and
others can do better the other way.

MOVEMENT

Movement in ornamental penman-
ship is very important and it will be
discussed from month to month as ap-
plied to the individual letters. The im-
portant thing is to swing the letters
off with a free movement. Unless you
have enough movement to carry you
through the letter without making
wabbly lines, your movement is too
slow and good results impossible.
Have nothing tight on the arm to re-
^trict vour movement.




The "A" is a very good letter to start with. Notice the simplicity of the letter forms in this plate. The simpler
letters are usually the best. The third "A" is a good letter to use as a standard. Write the word "Aiming" as near
as you can like the copy. If you cannot make a fine "A" in the word then practice the "A"s as given in the copy.

In the first style after the word "Aiming" place the pen on the paper forming a dot. From the dot swing around
to the shade of "A" letting the light line split the shade at about halfway.

Keep the thickest part of the shade at half the height of the letter. You will notice that the shade does not drag



,^Jf3Bu4^ieU^^i^iU^i^^ ^



17



around into the turn but is kept high and snappy. Start with an upward hair hue before getting into the shade. Re-
trace the angle slightly but not too far. Be sure that you get a nice graceful finishing oval.

In the second line endeavor to get systematic arrangement. The second "A" should come in the last oval of the
first letter. Divide the spaces up into equal parts. Let there be no crowding at any one place. Watch your touch.
Develop a free movement and a light touch. If you are not successful in making the "A" I would suggest that you
try a simple style like the last half of the second line. Try it, first without any shade, and gradually increasing the
shade until you have a full width shade. Place the shade up near the top.

Write the word "Burlington." Notice the beautiful "B", and the parallel lines in the second part. The second
"B" goes well with the "A". It is a standard style, and is the style which you should give the most attention to.
In making the first stem keep it solid. Place the first oval down rather close to the shade or base line. The first
line is nearly horizontal. Get the second part to appear even in the top and bottom ovals. Study the center loop and
notice the direction in which it points. Notice also that you should not check the motion in that little loop. Swmg
it oflf freely and do not check the motion when you are making the shade, but swing into shades freely. That will
put snap into your work. . . „

On the last line you will find a variety of "B's". While they are not as popular as the first style yet it is well to
know all styles for you can use them to advantage. In the first exercise in the last line make four simple capital
stems, then start at the last stem and put on the final part of the last "B", swing to the next to the last, etc
Mastering an exercise like this will enable you to make letters which are simple and easy.

Send your work to the Business Educator for criticism.



THE SOUTHWESTERN PRIVATE

COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS

ASSOCIATION

The Southwestern Private Commer-
cial Schools Association met at Dallas,
Texas, April 20. The association is
composed of live business college men
who are getting together and accom-
plishing worth while things. The offi-
cers for the coming year are : Presi-
dent, Mr. George A. Meadows,
Draughon's Business College, Shreve-
port, Louisiana; Vice-President, Mr.
G. W. Parish, Draughon's Business
College, San Antonio, Texas ; Secre-
tary-Treasurer, Mr. A. N. Beasley,
Tyler Commercial College, Tyler,
Texas.

Directors, Mr. H. E. Byrne, Byrne
Commercial College, Dallas, Texas ;
Mr. E. A. Guise, Tulsa Business Col-
lege, Tulsa, Oklahoma ; Mr. C. W.
Stone, Hill's Business College, Akla-
homa City. Oklahoma ; Mr. Hoyt
Miracle, Draughon's Business College.
Dallas, Texas.

The meeting will be held some time
between October IS and November 15
at Dallas, Texas.

Everyone left the meeting feeling
happy and enthusiastic over the re-
sults accomplished.



B. Tracey of Fort Wayne, In(
ntly been chosen to teach con
ts in the Township High Scho






Ma



young



to the
penmanship.



rs ago
Zanerian to improve himseli
He was a very likable felloi
high degree of skill. Howe'
interested in another line of
which he has accomplished re

Today Captain F. O. Anders„.., „^

S. D., has charge of the Salvation Army work
in the Western half of South Dakota. Capt.
Anderson still maintains his interest and skill
in penmanship.



and attained

:r, he was als<

vork — a work ii

larkable success

Sylvan Lake



JOHN M. SWEENEY

Mr. Sweeney, the banker penman of
Corning, Ohio, passed away in August,
1929, at Mt. Carmel Hospital, Colum-
bus, Ohio.

Mr. Sweeney has worked in the bank
for the past twenty-five years, during
which time he displayed an unusual in-
terest in handwriting. It was custo-
mary for him to return to the bank
after banking hours where he could
practice penmanship undisturbed.
Possibly no other banker in the U. S.
could excell his fine pen work.

When in Columbus he never failed
to visit the Zanerian and study the
many fine pieces of pen work on the
walls.

We shall miss his visits.



BORDER ON COVER PAGE

Mr. J. A. La Roche, policy engrosser,
New England Life Insurance Co.,
Boston, Mass., made the border on the
cover. Mr. La Roche is a young man
who is forging to the front in en-
grossing.



Commercial Education is the title of
a little school paper published by Em-
poria, Kans., Business College. In it
we notice a very fine Old English
Alphabet made by Dwight L. Gadberry,
a former student of that institution
and also a correspondence student of
the Zanerian College.



LESSON 10 (Continued from Page 11)
Practice the ovals as indicated making the small oval first. The retraced E drill is excellent for developing a good
form Make a small loop just like C to begin the E. Be sure a small loop is made in the center of E, then finish with
a larger oval. The last line of this lesson gives a good drill for joining E with other letters. Don t give up because
it seems difficult. Keep trying.



18



.^J^a^i/n^d^^i&uaitiT^ ^



PUBLIC SCHOOL HANDWRITING



By FRANK H. ARNOLD, Supervisor of Writinc
Spokane. Washington



If you read my May article relative
to desk scales, you will remember that
I promised to tell you how we used
this type of scale in Spokane. If you
did not read my May article, I believe
that you will understand this article a
little bit better, if you will hunt up the
Business Educator for May and spend
a few minutes in reading it. I am
asking the editor of this magazine to
reproduce below both sides of the
Seventh and Eigth grade Standard or
Scale :

No doubt you have now examined
this desk scale rather closely, and will
be able to follow me without difficulty
in the rest of this article. At the out-
set I might say that I carry forty of
these cards with me when I visit class-
rooms. As I am writing about the
seventh and eighth grade scale, it will
be well for me to tell you just what
I do when I enter a seventh or eighth
grade room. I say to the teacher, "I



I

desire to give a little test in your room
today. May I distribute these cards"?
Of course, she willingly grants that re-
quest, and I give her a card while I am
making the distribution of the cards
among the pupils.

After the cards are distributed, I ask
the boys and girls to look carefully at
the side of the card upon which is
printed the capital letters and the two
paragraphs under the title of MODEL
SPECIMEN. I call attention to the
very fine, accurate writing. I tell
them that only a few men in the United
States can write as well as the man
who wrote the Model Specimen. After
that I ask the pupils to read the
printed matter at the bottom of the
card.

My next step is to have the pupils
practice from the card, using the
Model Specimen, of course, on account
of the accurate copy. They copy the
capital letters and the first paragraph.



As my time is limited, I can permit
them to practice the matter only one
time. The teacher that has these
pupils day by day can have them prac-
tice the matter quite often, and can
by this means help the pupils to write
the matter without hesitation.

We are now ready for the test. I
say to the pupils, "boys and girls, you
have four minutes in which to write
this test, but not many of you will
need that much time. Write with your
arm, of course, try to stick to the line
so that you will have good alignment,
finish your words carefully, and write
as rapidly as you can write well. At



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