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Study your plan of procedure. Are you doing your best ?

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Study and practice this lesson until it becomes easy. Be sure to make the long beginning and finishing strokes in
the second drill. These words are only suggestive as you may use others in a drill of this kind. Long strokes will
develop freedom in writing.

Lesson 47

As this is the most difficult small letter I suggest that you spend a fair amount of time on the first line. See that
the loop on each end of this letter is about the same size M-ith one space between these loops. Parts of the h and <j
make the f. Always study the relation of the letters to each other.


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The retraced drill for the B is very good in developing correct form. The two ovals in the B should be made
nearly round and the same size. Make a small loop between the ovals. Compare your work with the copy and
make such corrections as you see will improve your writing.



At this point you are introduced to another form of exercise. This kind of drill helps develop spacing, accuracy,
and neatness. Make four lines of the capital P leaving three-fourths of an inch between each letter. Next, slip the
lower edge of the paper to the left about 30 degrees and fill in the spaces with the capital A. Keep all letters uniform
in size and spacing.


You will observe that the f is made from the parts of 1 and q. Make the 1 and q first and then cross these letters
with the f. The lack of freedom in making this f is the usual trouble with beginners. Running this letter over other
letters will develop freedom of movement.


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Correlated With Commercial Subjects

By E. A. LUPFER, Zanerian College of Penmanship, Columbus, Ohio

See how well you can write the entire letter. Watch arrangement, slant and alignment.


Suggesting how to practice individual letters and words which you have trouble in making well.

^;^f ^^^^ ^f^f>^f^


Practice all the capital letters in this way until you can make them well.


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B> C. Spfiic.T, Sup^•l-^■i^u^ Mf IlanilwritiiiK. SyraciiM'. \ Y

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Use this when the muscles are sluggish.

Greetings from The Edito

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the fitth grade of the St. James Schools,



of Glendale, W.

rsburg, West Va.. Junior High School Advanced Certificate Wii
R. W. Carr, Supervisor of Handwriting.




N. A. P. T. S, 1928-29

750 questionnaires were sent to
superintendents and principals in the

United States.

510 responses have been received up
to date.

Question 1. Do you think that
students who are preparing to teach in
the grades should be instructed in
Teacher Training Schools in Methods
in Penmanship including the execution
of rapid, legible handwriting?

508 of the responses to this question
were in the affimative, including such
expressions as: "Of course," "Abso-
lutely," "By all means," "Yes, decidedly
so," and "Most decidedly." There
were only two negative replies.

Question 2. Do you think that work
done in a course similar to the one
above should be given college credit ?

379 of the 510 responses to this ques-
tion were in the affimative, including
such expressions as: "Why not?
"Should be required," "Absolutely," "If
quality sufficient to earn a Teachers'
Certificate in writing," and "This would
encourage better work." 115 re-
■-ponses were in the negative, and 16
were uncertain.

Question 3. Do you feel that college
students who are preparing to teach in
Hish School should be required to
take sufficient instruction in handwrit-
ing to enable them to write legibly on
blackboards for the incidental study of
students ?

470 of the 510 responses to this
question were in the affimative, includ-
ing the following expression : "A
teacher may have the subject of Latin,
Greek, Mathematics, Algebra,
Geography, but if that teacher writes
on the blackboard, he becomes a
teacher of Penmanship through the

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powerful influence of example." 36
responses were in the negative, and -1
were uncertain.

The generous response to the ques-
tionnaire is evidence of the demand
for better handwriting in the United
States of America.

The overwhelming replies in the
affirmative indicate that superinten-
dents and principals of the United
States favor :

1. That Teacher Traininpr Colleges
train all students who are preparing to
teach in the grades in methods as well
as in the execution of rapid, legible
handwriting so that they may be
qualified to teach handwriting.

2. That Teacher Training College-
allow credit for an efficient course in
methods and in the execution of rapid,
legible handwriting.

3. That Teacher Training Colleges
require all prospective High School
teachers to take sufficient training in
handwriting to enable them to write
legibly on blackboards for the inci-
dental study of students.


Whereas, The generous response to
the handwriting questionnaire issued
in 1928-29 by the Committee on Survey
of Teacher Training is evidence of a
demand for better handwriting instruc-
tion in the United States of America ;

Whereas, The report of the ques-
tionnaire indicates that superintendents
and principals in the United States
favor :

1. That Teacher Training Colleges
train students who are preparing to
teach in the grades in the methods of
teaching as well as in the execution of
rapid, legible handwriting that they
may be qualified to teach handwriting.

2. That Teacher Training Colleges
allow credit for an efficient course in
the methods of teaching and in the
execution of rapid legible handwriting.

3. That Teacher Training Colleges
train all prospective teachers in hand-
writing until they are equipped with a
style that will enable them to write
legibly on blackboards for the inci-
dental study of students ; therefore,

BE IT RESOLVED: That a com-
mittee of five be appointed to bring
the results of this questionnaire before
the Superintendents' Section of the
National Educational Association.
State Departments of Public Instruc-
tion, the presidents of the various
teachers' colleges, the Board of
Regents of Normal Schools, and boards
controlling the different County
Normal Schools in the United States
to the end :

1. That teacher training institutions
of the United States offer courses of at
least one semester in the methods of
teaching and on the execution of
efficient handwriting.

2. That such courses carry with
them credit toward graduation, and
that all students preparing to teach in
the elementary grades of the Public
Schools of the United States be re-
quired to earn such credit.

Written by Leonard J. Werth. LaCrosse, Kansas.

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These two pupils are under the supervision of R. W. Carr, Supervisor
of Handwriting in the Parkersburg, W. Va., Public Schools.

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The above writing is typical of the writing done in the Parkersburg, W. Va.,
Public Schools under the direction of R. W. Carr, Supervisor of Handwriting.


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The funith of a series of ten lieautiful pages tiy .T. J. Bailey, High School of Commerce. Toronto. Ontario, Canada.
Be sure to read what Mr. Bailey his tu say in these beautiful pages.

^ ,^J^giJi/ieii^<udiu^i^ ^




Supervisor of Writing, Omaha, Nebraska, Public Schools.

Teacher, Zanerian College of Penmanship, Summers 1929-30.

Frank Novak is a young man ot
Bohemian ancestry, as his name would

Several years ago Frank was gradu-
ated from the 8th grade of a large
public school, but did not get to attend
high school. Instead, he secured a job
as delivery boy for a grocery store.

One day when he was loading his
truck with groceries to be delivered in
the neighborhood, he was told by the
grocer to tell Mrs. Smith, the banker's
wife, that they were sorry that they
were unable to fill her order for rice
but that they would send some out the
following day if that would be satis-
factory to her.

When Frank reached the kitchen
door of the Smith home, he rapped but
got no response. No one was at home.
Frank left the groceries on the back
porch. He tore of? a corner of the
paper in which the meat was wrapped
and with a stub of a lead pencil which
he carried, he wrote on the paper, "We
are sorry Mrs. Smith, but we are out
of rice. I will bring it tomorrow," and
signed his name, "Frank."

The next day there was a telephone
call at the store and Frank was called
to the phone. A man's voice inquired
as to whether tliis was the delivery boy
and when informed that it was Frank
who was_ speaking, the voice said,
"This is Mr. Smith, the banker, speak-
ing. Could you come to my home this
evening as soon as the store closes?''
Frank asked what was the matter and
was told by Mr. Smith that there was
nothing serious wrong, but that he
v.anted to see him.

All the rest of the day Frank was
worried. He wondered whether he had
not delivered the groceries as they
should have been delivered. He won-
dered whether he had done something
wrong about the Smith home.

As the hour grew near for him to
see Mr. Smith, he became even more
agitated, but finally went timidly to the
front door and rang the door bell.
Through the window, he could see the
maid coming to the door and almost
hoped that she would announce that
Mr. Smith was not at home. But she
invited him into the living room where
he sat down on a beautiful overstuffed
davenport, the like of which he had
never before seen. Mr. Smith finally
came to the room and, wonder of
wonders, shook hands with him.
Frank could hardly believe that this
was true. He had never been in so
beautiful a home before. Everything
was strange to him, but strangest of
all was to think that this banker would
shake hands with him, a common ordi-
nary delivery boy.

Mr. Smith asked Frank many ques-

tions; how old was he, where did l-.e
live, how far he had gone in school, did
he like the work he was doing and
many others. When asked why he had
not gone to high school, Frank told
him that because of his father's death
and the fact that his mother was poor
and she and two little sisters that must
be taken care of, it was necessary for
him to work.

When Mr. Smith asked him whether
he ever made any collections on c. o. d.
orders, Frank's heart sank almost to
his shoe tops and he thought that this
must be the reason for his being called
to the banker's home, — that he had
made a mistake in handling money at
some time. He managed to stammer
out, however, that he had made collec-
tions many times, but that he had
always turned in the entire amount of
money collected and had never kept
anything that did not belong to him.
Mr. Smith seemed somewhat amused
and told Frank that nothing of the
kind was suspected about him, but
asked him instead how he would like
to work in the bank.

"Who, me?" said Frank, "No, I
couldn't work in the bank, I don't
know anything at all about that busi-


A. Savage the

Nationally known Si



3r and penman

of Omaha, Nebr., al



a good penma

nship story or a new



t for teaching

handwriting. Be su

e to


d all of Mr.

Savage's articles.



-age will teach in the 1930 Zan


Summer School.

He is not only a



e teacher but
should know.

a jolly good fellow \


ness." Mr. Smith smiled and told him
that of course he didn't, and that there
was a time when he, himself, had not
understood anything about the banking
business. He told Frank, however,
that they had been on the lookout for
some time for a good boy to come into
the bank and learn the business from
the ground up — that they wanted some-
one who could write a good hand and
whom they felt they could trust. He
said that the evening before when in
the kitchen, he had picked up a slip of
paper on the table on vytfaich the
grocery boy had written a short
message regarding rice and that he
was so much pleased with the uni-
formity and splendid style of writing
that he felt that if an interview were
satisfactory, this must be the boy for
whom they had been looking.

When asked what salary he was re-
ceiving as a delivery boy, Frank told
him he was getting $10 per week. Mr.
Smith thought a moment and finally
asked Frank whether he would be will-
ing to come to the bank and start in
at $8 per week. Now, what would the
average young man or young woman
have done under those circumstances;
already getting $10 per week at a job
in which he was making good and
offered a "raise" to $8.00 per week to
go into work with which he was not

Frank asked to be given a little time
to consider the offer and said he would
like to talk it over with his mother.
This he did, and she and Frank both
decided that they would try to skimp
along on $2 less per week in order to
give Frank a chance in a line of busi-
ness in which there was opportunity
for advancement.

Frank has been with the bank now
for several years. He went in as
messenger boy, mail cjerk, and handy
all-around helper in any place where
tlicy would want to use him. He has
had, however, several promotions and
is now at the receiving teller's window
receiving a salary several times as
large as that which he had received as
a grocery clerk. He, his mother and
his two sisters are living in a much
nicer house than they lived in before
and are getting along very nicely

Now, that is the reason for this
article. It is just this. Many a young
man or young woman who can write a
reasonably good hand becomes careless
and does not always do so. What was
it that got Frank his job? Was it the
fact that he could write" well? No, not
that. It was the fact that he did write
well. Even under circumstances that
were exceedingly unfavorable to good
writing, Frank kept up his good style.
Little did he think when he wrote the
message to Mrs. Smith regarding rice
that he was applying for a good posi-
tion, but such proved to be the case.
Many a job is out looking for good
men and women who don't suspect
that they are being looked for. Does
it paj' to learn to write a good style,
and does it pay to form the habit of
writing well at all times.
Ask Frank Novak.


^ .^^^u^n^U^£ei£u^^iai7- ^


Edith Cochran, Teacher, San Francisco Schools.

(Reprinted from the Sierra Educational News, which is the official publication
of California Teachers' Association.)

In the endeavor to obtain the general
objectives which have been set up for
handwriting the classroom teacher
should provide special situations to en-
courage the child to put forth his besit
efforts. It is a well-recognized prin-
ciple of learning that insofar as possible
the stimuli which incite pupils to make
efforts toward the mastery of new
skills should grow out of natural sit-
uations rather than out of formal drill

The objective of handwntmg to de-
velop the desire to write well in all
writing situations can best be brought
about by associating pupil's best writ-
ing with pleasant results.

The children of this sixth grade
recognized that there was a certain
standard in writing and desired to
reach it. A stenographic report of the
last lesson of the term shows their
progress toward attainment of their

Teacher: I know that we are ready
to think about writing. Let us go back
to the beginning of the terra. What
did we decide would be our objective
in writing?

Cecil: We were going to try to
maintain healthful posture and proper
penholding in all written work.

Teacher: Can anyone express our
goal in another way?

Josephine: We hoped to attain the
sixth grade standard in writing by the
end of the term.

Teacher: Yes, Josephine, specialists
who have tried to measure how well
and how quickly boys and girls should
write, have given us our standard. Who
can tell us just what that standard
meant to us ?

Verlin: In our sixth grade we
wanted to reach a standard of at least
60 in quality at a speed of 70 letters
per minute.

Teacher: We know that good writ-
ing is easier to read than poor writing.
What is one of the first essentials of
good writing?

Haruye: I think we first need posi-

Teacher: By the time we reach the
sixth grade we are supposed to have
formed the habit of correct position
but we had to check ourselves on that,
didn't we, boys and girls ? We found
that our writing was not easy to read
so we thought we would play that we
were specialists and find out just what
was wrong. What chart did we bring
into our room to help us?

Helen: Dr. Freeman's chart showed
us what was wrong.

Teacher: What did you find was
your difficulty?

Joseph: I had to work for good
position first and soon I had both uni-

formity of slant and uniformity of
alignment in writing.

Teacher: Then Joseph went into
group three. Why were we happy to
have conquered formation and also
space? Kujono.

Kujono: Because then we were given
a 5 on our paper and were excused
from the practice lessons.

Teacher: Was that all? Did you
have any work during the writing

Chieko: We went around and helped
the other boys and girls succeed.

Teacher: I think that was the nicest
reward, don't you? Our writing tests
show that some of us have not yet
reached the goal. Our graphs show
improvement. In October seven were
found to be above the red line showing
the standard for speed and to the right
of the blue line showing the standard
in quality. You notice our best writers
also write quickly.

Teacher: What does our record in
November's graph tell us?

Pearl: (Pointing to circles over
names on graph.) All of these boys
and girls should be very proud of their

Teacher: Yes. And we are proud of
them, too. Some of us still need help.
Before we take our last test this term
let us develop rhythm with quality and
speed. What do you think would help
you most?

Zelda: Maybe we could write some
of the little words we use so often in
our compositions.

Teacher: All right. What is one of

Mary: Will.

Teacher: No, I don't think that is
used so frequently. Harold.

Harold: Of is one of the words.
Teacher: Watch. I will write it on
the board for you. Can you tell the
rhythm or count? (Teacher writes the
word several times.)

Bernard: Of, (around, tie, up, slide,
up, finish).

Teacher: Good — notice the down
strokes are straight. Nice spacing.

Teacher: Think of position. Fine.
Dip pens. Begin.

Teacher: Look at your writing.
Have you finished each word with
care? That does improve the quality
of our writing.

Harold: I'd like to write to the

music of the Victrola. (Record played.)

Teacher: (Writes on board.) Can

you do it? You may try. Position.

Write. Pens down. Hold up your

papers. They look lovely. I am sure

we are going to be pleased with the

results in our writing test today. Why

have we selected purposeful sentences?

Eiji: They mean something to us.

Teacher: Yes, but not only that.

What else ?

Bessie: They have helped us im-

Teacher: Give me one sentence that
has done that, Cecil.

Cecil: Improve a little at a time.

Teacher: Would you like to write it
on the board? Cecil writes sentence.

Teacher: Who has another purpose-
ful sentence?

Haruye: Watch position to main-
tain health.

Teacher: Write that for us. What
two words in that sentence mean most
to you? George.

George: Position and health.

Teacher: There was a quotation
from Dickens that I liked. Do you re-
member that one, Kujono? Write it.
(Kujono writes) "The will to do is the
next thing to having the power."

Teacher: Just one more. What is
your sentence, Asaka?

Asaka: Finish each word with care.

Teacher: I think we need to re-
member that one. Don't we, Harold?

Teacher: Class attention. Ready.
Write your name and the date on your
paper. You have selected your
sentences. Read them through care-
fully. Think what they mean. Decide
which one you are going to write.
How many have selected sentence, 1,
2, 3, 4? (Hands raised.) You have
selected your sentence. This is a test
to see how quickly and how well we
can now write. Remember quality and
speed go hand in hand. We do not
want to sacrifice good writing for
speed. Position. Are you ready?
Write (2 minutes). Pens down. Score
your papers. The number of letters
you have written divided by 2 gives
your speed per minute. Exchange
papers and check. Return them. Take
out your own graph. Mark your speed
record in the December column. How
many are over the goal line? Good.
How about the quality? Kujono and
Cecil v.'ill help me grade that, but how
many think their writing is as good as
it should be for the sixth grade- When
we have reached the standard what
must we remember?

Mary: To always do our best.
Teacher: I think you mean that,


Good handwriting fits very effective-
ly into a multitude of school activities
and outside situations which serve to
motivate instruction. Making class
and individual graphs, keeping speci-
mens from month to month to note
improvement, acting as office clerks,
writing invitations for various school
activities, making special booklets, ex-
cusing from practice those who reach
the grade standard so long as that
standard is maintained, encouraging
pupil to rival his own best efforts and
take pride in results, have proven suc-
cessful motivation.

The difficulties of good writing may
be mastered during the penmanship
period but skill in the 'practical utiliza-
tion of penmanship is a matter of gen-
eral school practice in all subjects
under the supervision of the classroom

^ ^^J^ud/n^ii^^<(<^iUii^^fr'



By FRANK H. ARNOLD, Supervisor of Writing
Spokane. Washington


(Continued from last


A child is not a good reader, if he
can read fluently only the selections
that he has carefully studied. A good
reader must be able to read any selec-
tion that is put into his hands. All
other things being equal, the child who
reads widely is a much better reader
than the child who reads only what he
is required to read. The child who
reads with hesitation and difficulty is,
as a rule, the child who reads very
few books.

I believe that there is a lesson in the
foregoing paragraph for the teacher of
muscular movement writing. Of course
we must build up muscular movement
writing habits by having children prac-
tice over and over again the same
sentences and the same paragraph, but
children who have only this type of
practice will not always become easj',
rapid, muscular movement writers. A
good muscular movement writer must
be able to write without hesitation any
sentence or paragraph that is dictated
to him, no matter whether the matter
dictated be new or old. If the pupil
cannot do this, he is not an efficient
muscular movement writer.

May I give a little of my own ex-
perience along this line? Quite often
I go into a sixth, seventh or eighth
grade class and ask pupils to write the
matter that I dictate to them. I tell
them frankly that if they cannot write
rapidly any sentence or paragraph that
I dictate that I do not consider them
good writers. Here are some of the
sentences that I sometimes use :

1. A stitch in time saves nine.

2. It is better to wear out than to rust

3. A fool and his money are soon

Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 35) → online text (page 22 of 51)