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water College, Mass., and spent one
year as a student. In 1893-94 he was
Head Master at Patterson's Boarding
School for Boys at Horton's Landing,
Nova Scotia. In 1895 he moved to Bos-
ton and became instructor in mathe-
matics at Burdett College, remaining
there through 1898. While in Boston
he taught evening classes in Medford
High School and at the Y. M. C. A.

December 24, 1897, he married Eliza-
beth Parmelee of Worcester, Mass.,
and moved to West Medford, Mass.
In 1898 he became associated with Wil-
liams & Rogers of Rochester, N. Y.,
at which time he moved to New York
and opened up their New York office.

In 1904 he moved to East Orange,
N. J. where he resided until his death.

F. B. Moore, President of Rider Col-
lege, Trenton, N. J., a close friend of
Mr. Coffin, writes as follows:

"I became acquainted with Mr. Cof-
fin about the time he became asso-
ciated with Williams & Rogers, prob-
ably the nation's first publishers of
commercial textbooks, later to be used
in high schools when they began to
introduce commercial courses.

When this company was taken over
by the American Book Company, Mr.
Coffin joined their forces and, I be-
lieve, had much to do with the securing

(Continued on page 251


Published monthly (except July and August)
612 N. Park St., Columbus, O.

E. A. LUPFER Editor


more; foreign, 20c more)


(To Canada, 10<

Single copy, 15c

Change of address should be requested
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the old
as well as the new address.

Advertising rates furnished upon request.

medium through which to reach business col*
lege proprietors and managers, commercial
teachers and students, and lovers of penman*
ship. Copy must reach our office by the 10th
of the month for the issue of the following

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Practical Handwriting

By the late C P. ZANER

See that the little finger slips freely toward the right while the pen is going from letter to letter. This lateral
action needs to be as firm as it is free, as sure as it is light. Strength is one of the chief qualities between business
writing and the proverbial "school-boy" hand.

Keep the spacing wide between letters. No other one thing will aid you so much to acquire strength and sureness
as well as to apply arm movement to all of your written work as wide spacing between letters. Keep all down
strokes as nearly parallel as possible. Write each word without raising the pen. Write the sentence three times
in one minute.

This tall, lower-turn exercise needs to be made with more vim and more in-and-out movement of the arm than the
small lower-turn exercise. Retrace center of letter as far downward as you can, and keep turns narrow on base line.

The double-turn W exercise needs to be practiced frequently with perfect freedom and ease. See to it that your
paper is at the right angle, and that your hand is not resting on the side. Remember the first finger should be curved
but little. Hold the holder lightly; that is, do not grip it. Make page after page of each of these exercises until you
can make them well and freely. Watch spacing, keep down strokes nearly straight, and secure uniform slant. Light-
ness of touch is desirable.

The W begins and ends the same as V. The central part should retrace downward about half the height. The two
down strokes should be kept as nearly parallel and straight as possible. The letter also resembles very much the en-
larged small wj about the only difference is that it begins with a curve at the top instead of an angle, and that it does
not finish as high as the small letter.

Use a graceful, in-and-out, elastic arm movement. Count ; loop, 1, 2, finish. Make the letter at the rate of
about 36 a minute. The tendency is to slant the first down stroke too much, and to slant the second down stroke too
little. Join D and W in the name.

That's just it ; you must "win a true motion" if you would write well. And the true motion is of the arm and
not of the fingers. Therefore practice freely and frequently the movement exercises before attempting the letters or
sentences. Master each exercise as you come to it, and the rest will be easy. Practice the difficult letters and words
first by themselves.

Be sure the body is upright and not bent at the waist. Keep the sleeve loose so that arm may act within it forward
and backward. Also see that your pens, ink, and paper are in good writing condition. Remember that "Trifles make
perfection and that perfection is no trifle." Swing freely from one word to another, and confidently.

^y y/y ^ ^y^

Try to produce a gray-like effect in compact or tracing exercises. Wide, open or black spaces should be avoided.
About 200 down strokes should be made in a minute. Pen should not be raised throughout the exercise. Keep turn
narrow at base of d-like form. Close a part of letter, and make both turns on the base line as near alike as you can.
Start the d exercise with a leftward swing, and curve the up stroke less than the first. Retrace the stem part five
times and then finish carefully with a right curve. Keep the a part half a space high, and watch slant of the stem
part. How about your position? Count; start, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, finish. Use a lively movement but finish with care.

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The d is composed of a and t combined. Each d should contain a perfect a, as well as a perfect uncrossed t. Al-
ways close the oval part, and never loop the stem, or it may be mistaken for cl. The top should retrace as far as the
a part, and the last turn should be as narrow as the first. Count; 1, 2, 3, 4; 1, 2, 3, 4; etc.

Be sure to use enough arm movement to make the execution easy and unrestricted. Sufficient finger action may be
employed to insure a perfect retrace. A slight cooperation of the fingers is not objectionable, providing you do not use
enough of it to make the work labored or broken. Write the word without raising the pen.

Use enough arm movement to make the work graceful and thoroughly easy, and a little finger action in the t and d
to insure good retracers and precision. Strive for smooth, graceful, clear-cut lines, free from breaks, nervous kinks,
or unsightly wabbles. Form and freedom should go together. Study the thought in the copy.

All under turns should be as near alike as possible. Uniformity in turn and angle and retrace is very essential.
A uniform movement is necessary for a uniform form. Be careful to make the hook of the c wide and rounding. Each
good d contains a good a, i, and t. Can you find all three? Close the s at the bottom.

Use a free, forceful, in-and-out movement in these exercises. The second exercise will demand more carefulness
of spacing than the first. Watch spacing, slant, and height, as well as quality of line. The latter tells many secrets as
to kind of movement you are using, and whether your touch is too heavy or too light. Indeed, quality of line reveals
quality of effort, and quality of effort determines rate of progress. Only the right kind of effort produces improve-
ment. The other kinds of effort are waste of energy and paper. Now see if you cannot do better than ever before.
Be graceful rather than painfully exact. Drive the pen, don't drag it. Finish each exercise with a graceful curve.

The U begins the same as W, and ends the same as A. Retrace and never loop the second part of the letter and
keep the second part about as high as the first. Count; 1, 2, 3; 1, 2, 3 ; etc. The capitals in the name are not a
full space high. Watch letter endings.

See to it that you sit sufficiently straight to insure freedom, and that you have the eye far enough from the paper
to see the general proportions of the letter plainly while making it. The tendency of nearly all persons is to get the
eye too close to the paper while practicing. Keep side of the hand off of the paper, and do not pinch the holder
tightly. Do not bear heavily upon the muscles in front of the elbow.

Good writing is plain and free. Rounding turns and sharp angles make writing plain, providing each is in its
right place. Therefore always see to it that there are turns where there should be turns, and angles where there should
be angles. Then your writing will at least be legible, which is worth consideration. Watch spacing between letters.

But legibility secured by the drawing method is not worth much because it is tiresome and slow. Therefore be
free and even graceful in all of your movements. Employ the arm rather than the fingers, and push the pen along lively
over the paper rather than drag it. Cultivate a light touch of the pen to the paper. Quality of line is important.


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Script by Parker Zaner Bloser

"The answers to the twelve questions I gave you in the February number are as follows :

1. Plainness, the quality that makes it easy to read.

2. From 12 to IS inches, the safe distance.

3. The easy swing of the hand and pen before touching the pen to the paper.

4. In the forearm, the flexor and extensor muscles.

5. In the upper arm and around the shoulder — the biceps, triceps, pectoralis, deltoid muscles.

6. Tipped a trifle to the right on top and slightly raised underneath.

7. Two, the muscle in front of the elbow and the last two fingers.

8. Both nibs gliding evenly which makes the pen level on the paper.

9. Either at or back of the knuckle.

10. They are proportioned on a basis of thirds.

11. The semi-extended letters are t, d, p.

12. The ability to write well is more a matter of care than skill.

Let me advise you to make a study of these and similar questions which will make the practice of handwriting
more interesting, understandable, and intelligible. One can never know too much about handwriting and the process of
producing it. Some one has said that it is the little knowledge which is a danger thing.

Think and write, write and think, then there will be no loss of ink.


Uneven or shaded line.

Too light ; poor quality of ink.

Too heavy ; needs a new penpoint.

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Scores 70 on the Ayers Scale. Size and proportion are the glaring faults


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School, New
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Some fine writing from the Middletown, Ohio, schools, Lydia Sheafor, Supervisor of Handwriting. The top specimen was written
by Iona Lyles. a fifth grade pupil, and the bottom specimen was written by Maltie Embry, a sixth grade pupil. R"tb are pupils

in the Young School.

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Mary Latess is a 9-A pupil in the Benjamin Franklin Junior High School,
New Castle, Pa. Bessie G. Maldoon is the teacher who insists upon good writing
in all classes.

'When My Ship Comes Home," made by Mary Huggins. a pupil
of H. F. Hudson, Beacom College, Wilmington, Del.

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Written by E. A. Lupfer, Principal Za

A spelling lesson Dy Dolores Leese, a pupil
in the Benjamin Franklin Junior High
School, New Castle, Pa., Bessie G. Mal-
doon, teacher. Mrs. Maldoon believes in
getting neat well-written spelling lessons.


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1 — By —

BEULAH P. BEALE, Supervisor of Handwriting
(Reprinted from the Baltimore Bulletin of Education)

The need for more emphasis in hand-
writing teaching in Baltimore first be-
came evident when high school gradu-
ates of our commercial courses went
out into the business world. Some of
our most promising students experi-
enced difficulty in obtaining employ-
ment because they did not write legibly.
A typical incident which occurred on
one of many visits made to Baltimore
business houses in order to gather
handwriting data will serve to illus-
trate the value placed upon legible
writing by employers- When the as-
sistant personnel manager of a com-
pany employing hundreds of office
workers was asked about the import-
ance of good handwriting, she pointed
to two piles of applications on her desk
with, "I sort all applications first on
the basis of legibility of the writing."
An examination of the discarded appli-
cations justified her criterion. The
commercial teachers have been doing
their best to meet this need, but lim-
ited time, lack of previous instruction
in handwriting, and fixed writing habits
among pupils of high school age have
combined to minimize the effect of
handwriting training at the secondary
school level.

need for more definite handwriting in-
struction in elementary grades.

The Freeman Correlated Handwrit-
ing has now been adopted for use in
our schools, the minimum equipment
for each classroom being, —

The pupil's Compendium for the

The teacher's Manual for the grade.

A set of Perception Strips visible
from all parts of the room.

A . Freeman Scale for each grade
above the first.

It is desirable, however, to have a
compendium for each child and as op-
portunity presents itself the principals
are supplying their class rooms with
more abundant materials.

A survey of handwriting in the
grades begun in September, 1929, re-
vealed the following typical status :

School No. 211— Grade II— Jayne':
September, 1930.


As a group commercial teachers are
good writers because the ability to
write well is an essential part of their
teaching equipment. There are, more-
over, some good penmen among the
elementary teachers in the city but only
a very small percentage of the teach-
ing body have made a study of methods
of teaching writing. Some years ago,
the teachers of Baltimore were offered
a course in handwriting at a local busi-
ness college and in 1927 a course in the
subject matter and method of teaching
handwriting was offered by the Depart-
ment of Education. Many teachers
availed themselves of the opportunity
to improve their own handwriting and
to learn how to present the subject in
their classrooms.

The results of a city-wide test given
in September, 1928, by the Bureau of
Research indicated the existence of a

School No. 211— Grade II— Same child's writing,
December, 1930.

1. Many examples of neat and legi-
ble writing with but few examples of
easily executed writing.

2. Many examples of poor writing
due to lack of fluency more than to any
one other cause.

3. Need for use of the larger muscles
in primary writing.

4. Need for healthful posture in writ-

5. Lack of consistency in the teach-
er's blackboard model.

The teachers recognize their need for
both the technical and the pedagogical
equipment* necessary for effective
teaching of handwriting and the ques-
tions which they are asking in their
eagerness to secure help have deter-
mined the plan which has been adopted
in an increasing number of schools. A

Dougherty. How to Teach

request from a principal brings the
Handwriting Supervisor to the school.
One or two class room demonstrations
are given by the supervisor after which
there is a conference with the principal
and the entire faculty. Questions are
asked and discussed and, in most in-
stances, a school-wide handwriting pro-
gram is forthwith inaugurated. Mimeo-
graphed sheets formulated in the hand-
writing office from needs expressed by
teachers at such meetings have resulted
in a pamphlet of ten pages which now
provides a simple teacher's guide. This
pamphlet is in no way a course of study
although it is probable that it may grow
into one. At present it offers an out-
line by grades, material for the month-
ly handwriting test, suggestions for
teaching, and so on. An excerpt will
illustrate the character and purpose of
the material being developed:

Materials — (In the order needed)

1. Blackboard.

2. Easels.

3. Short crayon and large unlined
sheets of paper.

4. Thick pencil and large sheets of

5. Wide-ruled paper and thick pencil.
The manner of the "let down" of the

arm and hand on the desk determines
in large measure the writing habit.
Therefore, consider the child's physical
make-up by giving much blackboard
work. As a rule, the child does not
grasp the chalk or crayon tightly. If
he grasps the large pencil tightly, let
him write a while longer with very
short crayon. Unsupervised writing at
seats at this point in the learning pro-
cess will delay the control over the
muscles. Unsupervised work at the
blackboard or at easels will not involve
the formation of incorrect habits.
Visual Aids —

1. Perception strips.

2. Teacher's blackboard writing.

1. Writing of all the small letters, all
the digits, and the needed capitals.
(See Compendium for Grade I.
Seven Capitals).

2. Recognition of the small letters
and capitals in scripts|

3. Knowledge that for each small let-
ter there is a corresponding tall

4. Use of the forward movement in
writing such characters as 8, x, o,
and d.

Encourage a relaxed attitude of mind.
Create an atmosphere in which the
child feels that his efforts is appreciat-
ed. The process is of more importance
than the product.

Material.- GRADE II

1. Blackboard.

2. Wide-ruled paper and thick pencil
for short time.

3. Wide-ruled paper and pencil of
normal thickness.

4. Second grade paper and pencil of
normal thickness.

5. Perception strips available for ref-

6. A Freeman Handwriting Scale for
the grade.

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Visual Aids —

1. Perception strips.

2. Teacher's blackboard writing.

3. Pupil's compendium.
Objectives —

1. Writing of all the small letters, all
the digits, and all the capitals.

2. Hygienic position and more move-
ment in writing.

3. Round turns, sharp angles, full
loops, distinct endings, and open

Encourage fluency by means of de-
scriptive counts to familiar words. As
need arises, show the use of the help-
ing hand in keeping the work before
the pupil's eyes.

Materials —

1. Blackboard.

2. Third grade paper and pencil of
normal thickness.

3. Introduction of pen and ink in 3A
in the writing period.

4. Perception strips available for ref-

5. A Freeman Handwriting Scale for
Grade III.

Visual Aids— (See Grade II)

Materials —

1. Pen and ink.

2. Grade paper.

3. Perception strips available for ref-

4. A Freeman Handwriting Scale for
the grade.

Visual Aids— (Refer to Grade II)
Objectives —

Attainment of the standard desig-
nated on the scale for the grade. Stress
carry-over of legible, easily executed
writing to all written work.

Material for Monthly One-Minute
Handwriting Test

The compendium is the textbook for
the grade. For the monthly tests use
the same sentence each month from the
grade compendium. Suggested sen-
tences : —

Grade Sentence for Grade


III We had a fine time. 3

IV Let your arm move when

you write 12

V One must write names and

numbers legibly 10

VI Eat plenty of vegetables,

cereals, and fruit 8

Many teachers find a one-minute test
per week a means for discovering in-
dividual difficulties in handwriting. If
the child is allowed to work on his most
conspicuous error first, the results are
most encouraging to him and the way
is opened for introducing the weekly
school goal.

One year's experience has shown us
that a handwriting plan which unifies
the work by means of a common week-
ly handwriting aim automatically raises
the standard in quality throughout the

Individual Class Room and Handwriting

Each child should have a container
in which to keep his daily handwriting
work. Comparison with his own previ-
ous effort is quite as essential to growth

as is comparison with models in the
compendium, on the blackboard, on per-
ception strips, or on the handwriting
measuring scale for the grade. At the
end of the year samples showing
growth will be needed. These will be
readily secured if there is a system-
atic keeping of samples.

Plan for a School-Wide Handwriting

At least one one-minute test should
be given each month throughout the
school year. After each one of these
tests send the class median in rate to
the teacher in charge of the schol flu-
ency graph. Fasten class papers to-
gether and label the resulting booklet
with the following data : grade, class,
name of teacher, date.

Be sure to have the pupil's name and
the date on all handwriting work. Un-
named, undated specimens are of no
value. Keep these monthly books avail-
able for comparison. One test per
month is the minimum requirement for
putting into operation a school-wide
program in handwriting. Consult the
Freeman Scale posted in each class
room for the grade median in rate and
quality. In addition to the regular class
lessons, the compendium for the grade
suggests a school aim for each week.
This school aim may be posted above
the school fluency graph. Each aim is
a characteristic of legible writing. A
set of 19 cards, each containing a

cause of his preschool experience, he
must be shown, however, that he can
express his word pictures just as large
and with as much ease as he expresses
his painted pictures. Writing is draw-
ing with some action behind it. Writ-
ing without some movement behind it
is drawing. Half pieces of chalk and
much use of the blackboard will aid
fluency. It is well to apportion the
board space by means of diagonal lines
instead of vertical lines to suggest
slant. A few well-chosen rhythms will
serve to bridge the gap which the be-
ginning child seems to experience be-
tween drawing and writing. Our class
room teachers agree with Dr. Freeman
that rhythmical movement produces
less fatigue than irregular movement.
Quality alone was the basis of meas-
urement in the Strayer Survey of 1921.
"It was felt," says the report, "that one
examiner might over-emphasize quality,
while another might over-emphasize
speed, and the resulting scores would
not mean the same thing for all pupils."
However, the Survey further states
that, "The important thing which the
members of the staff of the survey
here suggest is that a careful study be
made of the requirements as regards
handwriting quality and speed of the
various fields into which the public
school pupils may be expected to go
after they leave school. When these
requirements have been found, an ob-

Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 36) → online text (page 31 of 49)